The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 13, 1862
    Mcclellan Dismissed-Fremont Reinstated! (Editorial)

    The President is proceeding on his course of firm determination. It is evident from the dispatches which have been appearing in our telegram column that by January 27 he had taken supreme command over all fighting forces on land and sea. By publishing his order of January 27, and placing it at the head of the orders which he issued March 8 and March 11, he makes a grave accusation against McClellan. As our readers may see from the order of January 27, the President ordered the Commander of the Potomac Army and the Armies of the West to be ready to advance February 22, and made General McClellan responsible for the execution of this order. The order of March 8 is an odd commentary on the first order, for in the second order the President commands McClellan to immediately prepare the Potomac Army for field operations, and concludes: "This order is to be executed promptly, so that 2the beginning of the operations of the Potomac Army is not delayed any longer." Having received this curt command, General McClellan was finally persuaded to leave his comfortable headquarters at Washington, and to establish an office in the midst of the Potomac Army. To show that he was indeed in earnest and would tolerate no further disobedience, President Lincoln issued a statement on March 11 to the effect that General McClellan had been relieved of the command over the other departments, and that henceforth his authority would be restricted to the Army of the Potomac.

    So McClellan is General of the Army of the Potomac for the time being, or, to use the polite language of the President, "until further notice". That means that the General must now advance and defeat the enemy, or his curtailed command will be taken from him. We hope that McClellan who is not devoid of ability and military knowledge, will, as General of the Army of the Potomac, make amends for the grievous sins of omission which he committed 3as General of the United States Army.

    By a single stroke of the pen the President's order of March 11 puts an end to the department which the notorious Hunter, by his infamous machinations, stole from Fremont, and also to the department of General Buell; it unites these departments with the Mississippi Department, with General Halleck in command "until further notice".

    The order of March 11 very expressly provides also that all the territory west of the Potomac and east of the Mississippi shall constitute a special department, and that Fremont shall be in command of it. So Fremont's Department comprises a part of Virginia and Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, etc.--in short, that part of the theatre of war on which the decisive battle will be fought.

    Thus the Pathfinder triumphs over all his enemies, and the dirty Blair 4clique, headed by the tippler Frank, and by Montgomery who "wrote so many letters," and, last but not least, by Hunter, who is a master at retreating, may now shiver in their shoes. This Presidential order involves a veritable revolution in the operation of the war. Henceforth he and his able Secretary of State will be in supreme command of all fighting forces on land and at sea, and now there are but three departments: the Potomac Department, the Mississippi Department, and the Fremont Department, and the instructions of the Commander of the latter Department are: "Let us have action!"

    The better parts of the Republican and the Democratic party share in Fremont's triumph; we refer to those Republicans and Democrats, who, like the Germans of Chicago, loyally stood by Fremont when the Government and the scum of the parties had conspired to annihilate him.

    Fremont's political and military genius and his honesty are pledges that he will use the great power invested in him by the President, who is fully equal 5to the situation, to restore the unity and freedom of the Republic. Again we hear:

    Hurrah! Hurrah! from hill and valley,

    Hurrah! from prairie wide and free!

    Around our glorious Chieftain rally,

    For Union and for Liberty!

    Let him who first her wilds exploring,

    Her virgin beauty gave to fame,

    Now save her from the curse and shame

    Which slavery o'er her soil is pouring.

    Our standard-bearer then the brave

    Pathfinder be!

    Free Speech, Free Press, Free Soil, Free Men,

    Fremont and Victory!

    The President is proceeding on his course of firm determination. It is evident from the dispatches which have been appearing in our telegram column that by January 27 he had ...

    I J, III D, I G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 15, 1862
    Concerning the Rifles of the Home Guard

    To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung: After an article appeared in your newspaper stating that the rifles which the Home Guard received from Springfield are poorly constructed and dangerous, and since I take an active interest in the safety of the public as well as in the safety of the Home Guard, I requested the Mayor of this City to investigate the weapons.

    From his report on this matter I conclude that the guns are of good quality and are in good condition. They are similar to the rifles which are used in the regular infantry of the German Army, and if all the soldiers of the United States Army are equipped with arms as good as the ones which were recently received from Springfield, they are well armed indeed.

    Fellow Citizens! We appeal to you and ask that you organize military companies not just to play soldier, but to be prepared in case of necessity. Our volunteer army is on the battlefield, and although news of victory comes from 2every part of the country, we are no better prepared to meet an emergency in Chicago now than we were in March, 1861. Let everyone who would contribute his might to the great cause of liberty sign a list of volunteers.

    Lists may be found at the following places: Mr. Huhn, corner Wells and Illinois Streets; Mr. Moeckel, German House; Krieger and Brinckmeyer, German House; Schartz's Saloon, North Clark Street; Brandt's Saloon, North Clark Street; F. Schlund, 146 Indiana Street; Pfeiffer's Saloon, Madison Street;

    As soon as the necessary number of men have volunteered, a meeting will be held to make further arrangements for organization.

    By order of the Committee,

    F. Schlund,

    Secretary pro tempore

    To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung: After an article appeared in your newspaper stating that the rifles which the Home Guard received from Springfield are poorly constructed and dangerous, ...

    I J, III D, I G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- April 04, 1862
    Hold Meeting in Behalf of Sigel Effort to Secure Estate for Him

    The Chicago Arbeiterverein held a meeting last evening for the purpose of starting a national movement to acknowledge [General Franz] Sigel's deeds in behalf of the Union. The meeting was very well attended. Mr. Heinrich Greenbaum was elected chairman and Mr. Schulz secretary.

    Dr. Ernst Schmidt then made a long speech in which he explained that if German-Americans wish to offer an adequate expression for Sigel's unselfish devotion and endeavors, then a sword of honor will be insufficient, and that they will have to provide an independent and carefree existence for Sigel by way of national subscription.

    Mr. Wilhelm Rapp, Mr. Eduard Schlaeger, and Mr. Theodor Hieschler also spoke and voiced their approval of the recommendations made by Dr. Schmidt.


    The following resolutions, formulated by Dr. Schmidt, were adopted by enthusiastic acclaim....[Translator's note: The resolutions have been clipped from the issue, so we shall be satisfied with the above.]

    The Chicago Arbeiterverein held a meeting last evening for the purpose of starting a national movement to acknowledge [General Franz] Sigel's deeds in behalf of the Union. The meeting was ...

    I J, III B 2, III D, III F, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- April 16, 1862
    Annual Report of the President of the German Society of Chicago

    The German Society of Chicago observes its eighth anniversary today. Although many opportunities to support community charities were presented during the past year, and the Germans in this city responded nobly to them all, the Teutons have displayed a laudable willingness to contribute towards the maintenance and blessed activity of the Society.

    It is true that the work of the organization is carried on through an agent, still I am sure that nobody will object if I, an officer, make a report on, and voice my opinion about the merits of the Society, especially its accomplishments of the past year. Among the many thousands of German residents of Chicago, there are undoubtedly hundreds who are unable to solve even the simplest problems of everyday life, and are therefore dependent upon the advice and guidance of an honest and intelligent person; then again, there are hundreds of others who need material assistance because they are unemployed, or because sickness or old age 2prevents them from working and earning a living. And all of them are directed to Mr. Schlund, the agent of the German Society of Chicago, and he will be gratefully remembered by many thousands of unfortunates for displaying a genuine German character--a kind, sympathetic disposition, and a willingness to aid in any way he can.

    Just a year ago we received reports that treasonable and atrocious deeds were being committed in South Carolina. On April 15, 1861, the President of this, our beloved adopted country, issued a call for seventy-five thousand volunteers to defend and vindicate the majesty of the law and the people. The patriotic zeal of the German men of this country was exceeded by that of no other nationality, and they immediately took up arms. They did not hesitate to leave their homes, their wives, children, or parents, to fight for liberty on the bloody battlefields, and, if necessary, to die in its cause. The many German citizens who stayed at home and continued to follow their daily occupation, and for whose safety the soldiers rushed to arms, soon recognized it to be their duty to care 3for the dependents of the soldiers. A meeting was held at Bryan's Hall where a citizen's committee on safety was appointed; quite a large sum of money was raised by subscription and entrusted to this committee for the purpose of administering to the needs of the families of soldiers by the contribution of certain sums for their weekly support.

    The nativists' spirit of knownothingism, which is becoming more evident as the War goes on, was dominant in the meeting to the extent that they failed to elect a single German to the citizens' committee, despite the fact that many married Germans who joined Captain Mihalotzy's company or enlisted for services with other contingents were the first soldiers to leave the city for the battlefields.

    As president of the German Society of Chicago, I considered it my duty to see that the dependents of German soldiers were not neglected when weekly allotments were distributed. Upon the instigation of the German Society of Chicago a mass 4meeting was held, and several men adduced proof that the citizens' committee was prejudiced against German women and had neglected them most shamefully.

    The meeting unanimously adopted resolutions expressing indignation at such treatment, had the resolutions published in German and English newspapers, and firmly demanded that a German be added to the committee. John W. Eschenburg was suggested as a suitable person, and though it was very humiliating to the gentlemen of the citizens' committee, Mr. Eschenburg was appointed a member of the committee and given the status of full membership.

    Later the Union Defense Committee was organized and the Germans were represented in that body by Mr. Georg Schneider, and then, when Mr. Schneider left for Europe, by Mr. Caspar Butz. All the while the agent of the German Society of Chicago was obliged to provide for the wives and children of German soldiers and has rendered invaluable services to these brave citizens. The agent's detailed 5report is proof of this, and is submitted for your careful perusal.

    Against his will Mr. A. Borcherdt was elected treasurer in the last annual meeting of the Society, and he did not perform the duties of office. By his personal efforts in behalf of needy and unfortunate German families during the past few years, Mr. Borcherdt has become known as a sympathetic, able, and experienced social worker, and his reluctance to accept the position as treasurer of the German Society of Chicago should not have been considered, since the organization had no treasurer, and, partly because of the monetary chaos created by the Stumptails, no dues were collected during the first half of the year.

    In January we had an annual meeting which I am reporting in detail. It shows that no other society in America has accomplished so much good at so little expense. Receipts and disbursements were as follows:



    Dues .............................................. $86.66

    Proceeds from annual ball .................... $319.85

    Total ............................................. $406.41


    Salary (Mr. Schlund)............................. $300.00

    Mrs. Fischer's fare to Germany................... 27.00

    Coal and cartage ................................... 27.00

    Miscellaneous (food, small loans, etc.) .......... 17.01

    Total ............................................... $371.01


    In addition, quite a sum was collected by the Chicago Arbeiterverein for the families of soldiers. Following is a detailed account of sources:

    Chicago Arbeiterverein ........................... $205.00

    Mr. C. Butz, lecture ............................... 28.50

    Riverside Rifle Company........................... 42.62

    Soldier's ball ......................................... 111.45

    Total .................................................. $387.57

    Statement of Assets:

    Invested in Chicago Municipal Bonds............... $500.00


    Balance of previous investment ..........................$ 11.29

    Balance at Greenbaum Bank ................................. 50.00

    Balance in treasury............................................. 79.29

    Total..............................................................$635.56 (sic)

    Heretofore the management of the German House provided office room for our organization gratis, thus saving us an expenditure which was above our financial ability. For a long time a rumor prevailed that the management of the German House intended to deprive us of this facility. In our semi-annual meeting I broached the matter, and the chairman and several members of the board of management of the German House assured us that there was no truth to the rumor. To my great surprise our agent recently informed me that he had been ordered to vacate the premises because they had been rented. I also received a notice from 9the management of the German House and asked for time to put the matter before the Society in today's general meeting.

    Gentlemen, I do not intend to attempt to influence your opinion on this affair, however I doubt very much that your idea is different from mine. I invested two hundred dollars in the establishment of the German House, and for that reason I have paid no attention to the way it has been operated, because I never thought that there was the remotest possibility that the institution would ever be used for speculative purposes, or that the German Society of Chicago would be ejected from it for the sake of a little rent.

    Thus we shall be obliged to give the management of the German House a little more attention.

    I also wish to remark that the German Society of Chicago is faithfully aided in its work by loyal doctors and druggists who have made many sacrifices in the 10interest of charity. I do not wish to mention any names. The gentlemen referred to no doubt consider themselves amply rewarded by the satisfaction of having lightened the burden of many an unfortunate, and by the knowledge that they have the respect and gratitude of the Society. I also wish to express the gratitude of our organization to those who have donated clothing, shoes, meat, flour, fuel, and other foods.

    Before relinquishing my office I wish to express my hope that the members of the German Society of Chicago will continue to demonstrate their zeal in the cause of humanity and charity and leave no doubt that they intend to do everything they possibly can to insure the permanency of the organization.


    Heinrich Greenbaum, President of German Society of Chicago.


    Thereupon the agent of the German Society of Chicago submitted the following report:

    Report of the Agent of the German Society of Chicago

    Since the German Society appointed me as its agent a year ago, I deem it my duty to make the following annual report:

    Immigration decreased during the War, but not as much as was generally expected. Among the immigrants who arrived in Chicago via the various railroads, about twenty per cent remained here, the others going to other points in Illinois, or to Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Iowa, or Nebraska. Before they left the old country many of these immigrants had planned to settle in Missouri, where there are a great many Germans, but because of the unrest created by the War in the state which was their original destination, they remained in Illinois. Let us hope that through the events now transpiring in Missouri immigrants will receive 12the protection which the Constitution of the United States guarantees everyone who comes to her shores seeking freedom, and that the United States Government will not fail to take the measures necessary to make such atrocities as were committed in North Missouri against the lives and property of German immigrants impossible in the future, otherwise not only Missouri, but also Kansas and Nebraska will be subject to great suffering and will be bereft of the wholesome effects of immigration.

    Following is a detailed account of the agent's activity:

    Secured employment for......................................1546

    Secured passes for..............................................25

    Passes secured through county agent for ....................6

    Reduced rates secured for....................................10


    Secured passage by depositing baggage as security for.... 58

    Secured lodging for.............................................11

    Recommended to county agent............................... 6

    Secured admission to County Hospital for................... 3

    Secured admission to poor house for......................... 6

    Referred to county agent for funeral expenses.............. 7

    Attended to correspondence for ............................. 559

    Corresponded officially with ................................. 520

    Attended to financial matters for............................ 153


    Collected debts for......................................... 3

    Provided food for........................................... 488

    Provided wood for .......................................... 60

    Provided coal for ............................................ 56

    Provided medical aid and medicines for.................. 42

    Provided clothing and shoes................................ 17

    Located relatives and friends for.......................... 184

    Located and reclaimed lost baggage for.................. 88

    Loans against security to.................................... 9


    Gift of money to indigent ......................................... 2

    Kept from straying .................................................. 37

    Total ................................................................... 3396 (sic)

    Aid to families of Illinois Volunteers:

    Cash distributed to .................................................. 167

    Coal (ten tons) delivered to ........................................ 36

    Delivered wood (21/2 cords) to .................................... 6

    Secured shoes for .................................................... 4

    Secured meat (176 pounds) for ..................................... 15


    Secured bread (270 loaves) for .........................72

    Secured beans (21/2 bushels) for ....................... 24

    Secured brooms (5) for ................................... 4

    Secured tea (4 pounds) for............................... 2

    Secured coffee (31/2 pounds) for ........................ 4

    Secured butter (41/2 pounds) for ........................ 5

    Secured meat (61/2 pounds) for .......................... 6

    Secured ham (31/2 pounds) for ........................... 4

    Secured sugar (2 pounds) for............................... 6


    Secured medicine for ................. 14

    Though the Society had but little material at its disposal, the undersigned has the satisfaction of having helped a great number of unfortunates and indigents in their hour of great need.

    It must be surprising to every German that in order to rent the room to a private teacher the management of the German House has deprived the German Society of Chicago of office space to carry on its great humanitarian work.

    Since it is one of the chief parts of the agent's work to store baggage for immigrants and provisions for the poor and needy, he would gladly continue this benevolent work, if he had a suitable place; however he feels that he can not accept responsibility for these articles, if, as is the case at present, they are kept in a rat infested basement.


    F. Schlund, agent.


    The report of the treasurer showed a receipt of $86.66 in dues. The receipts and disbursements are included in the president's report. All reports were unanimously adopted.

    The agent then submitted a notice to vacate which was delivered to him by Constable Kaufmann on behalf of the management of the German House.

    Following is a transcript of the notice:

    To Mr. Fidel Schlund: You are hereby notified that the management of the German House demands that you immediately relinquish and yield possession of the space granted you by above named organization, said space being located in the city of Chicago, county of Cook, in the building called the German House, and known as the building next to the southeast corner of North Wells and Indiana Streets.

    Mr. H. A. Kaufmann is hereby authorized to take possession of the space referred 19to in the name of the German House.

    Given under the signature of the president and the secretary of the German House on this twelfth day of April, 1862.

    E. Schlaeger, President,

    H. Eschenburg, Secretary.

    On recommendation of Caspar Butz it was resolved:

    1. That the members of the German Society of Chicago are willing to pay the management of the German House an adequate rent for the space heretofore occupied, if the management of the German House can reconcile it with humanitarian principles to demand money from a benevolent organization merely to enrich the stockholders of the German House;

    2. That we appeal from the act of the management of the German House to the 20stockholders of the German House and to their better nature, and that we instruct the agent of the German Society of Chicago not to comply with the demand that he vacate the property;

    3. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the management of the German House, and that they be published in the German press together with the annual report.

    An amendment that his place be taken by Mr. Conrad Diehl, a justice of the peace, was offered by Mr. Brentano, heretofore the secretary of the Society, to the proposal that all members of the board of directors serve another year. This amendment was accepted, and a vote of thanks was accorded all members of the board for past services.

    On recommendation of the treasurer Mr. Haarbleicher and Caspar Butz were appointed to revise the books of the treasurer. Since many quarterly dues are in arrears 21and it may be difficult to collect the full sums at one time it was left to the board of directors to decide whether the dues are to be collected or payment is to be dispensed with.

    Adjournment followed.

    Chicago, April 13, 1862.

    Verified by

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President,

    L. Brentano, Secretary.

    The German Society of Chicago observes its eighth anniversary today. Although many opportunities to support community charities were presented during the past year, and the Germans in this city responded ...

    I J, II D 10, III B 2, III D, III G, I G, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1862
    Brigadier General J. Peter Osterhaus and the Journalists of the Chicago Tribune (Editorial)

    The following article appeared in the Chicago Tribune of May 3:

    "Another Brigadier General

    "The appointment of the 999th brigadier--we confess that lately we have been unable to keep a count of the many promotions--has been proposed to the Senate. His name is--well, it is mentioned in the dispatches, and we did not know it before. He may be deserving enough, but the trouble is that whenever a new appointment is made, somebody complains that some other man, who is just as worthy, has been overlooked. For instance, half of the colonels from Indiana have been decorated with 'stars,' and now the Indianapolis Journal is dissatisfied because one of them was not promoted.


    Since our national finances are in such poor condition, why don't we adopt the English practice of selling officers' commissions? Then there would at least be no favoritism or partisanship."

    Among the news items published in the Chicago Tribune, the learned journalists which claim that they do not know the name of the 999th brigadier general, we find a dispatch containing the following information:

    "Cairo, May 2. We have learned that Colonel Osterhaus has been appointed brigadier general by the President for meritorious services rendered in Missouri."

    Well, my German friends, there goes the statement that the journalists of the "Great Newspaper," the Chicago Tribune, which claims to be the leading organ of the Republican party in the great Northwest, did not know of Colonel Osterhaus, who has been commanding a division for some time; who earned his decoration of stars on the battlefields of Booneville, Dug Springs, Springfield, 3and Pea Ridge; who, with Sigel, was among the first to organize companies in Missouri; who already commanded a battalion when Camp Jackson was taken; and whose promotion by the President caused the scribes of the Tribune to advise the selling of officers' commissions!

    Three days ago, Mr. Isaac Arnold, the Congressional Representative from this district, sent me a copy of a petition addressed to the President and signed by all the Congressmen from Illinois and Missouri. This petition, which I published in the Illinois Staats-Zeitung last Friday, reads as follows: "We respectfully petition you to promote Colonel J. P. Osterhaus to the rank of brigadier general. He displayed great bravery and eminent ability at Camp Jackson, Boonville, Dug Springs, Springfield, and Pea Ridge, and has rendered effective service at all of these places." On Friday, Mr. Arnold sent us a special dispatch informing us that he and his colleagues had been successful in their endeavors, and that President Lincoln had sent Colonel Osterhaus' appointment to the Senate for approval.


    However, not only the Congressmen from Illinois and Missouri, not only prominent citizens of St. Louis and Chicago, among whom were the judges of state courts, signed petitions asking that Peter Osterhaus be promoted because of services rendered on the battlefield, but also all of the officers of the brigade which Mr. Osterhaus commanded. From their camp near Keesville, Missouri, they sent the President a letter in which they described the military activity of Osterhaus as follows:

    "Since that memorable April 22, Colonel Osterhaus has continually participated actively in the War. At Camp Jackson, he commanded Schaefer's Battalion of the Second Regiment of Missouri Volunteers as major. At Boonville, he fired the first shot, and on every subsequent occasion he distinguished himself by his calmness and bravery. At Wilson's Creek, his battalion also opened the fight under General Loon, and was constantly under fire, even serving as rear guard during the retreat to Springfield. His ability and meritorious conduct in that battle received special official recognition from Major Dubois of the First Missouri Artillery. Upon his return to St. Louis, he immediately began 5the organization of the Twelfth Regiment, Missouri Volunteers, which left for Sedalia on September 23, 1861, and he has been on the battlefield ever since. At Jefferson City, General Fremont appointed him brigadier commander, and he held this position until the second advance on Springfield in February, 1862, when General Curtis made him commander of the First (Sigel) Division of the Southwest Army. In both commands, he enjoyed the confidence and the respect of his subordinate officers. In the Battle of Pea Ridge, especially in the engagement which was fought near Leetown, his coolness and bravery, and particularly his clever tactics, won the admiration of all who were privileged to be witnesses, and we believe that he is a great leader, worthy of universal confidence and respect. Surely, no one is more deserving of promotion, and his advancement would certainly be popular among the officers and men of this division."

    General Curtis forwarded this petition to the President and himself warmly recommended that Osterhaus be appointed a brigadier general, after General Halleck had repeatedly urged Lincoln to make the promotion. Yet, in the face 6of all this, the Chicago Tribune had the effrontery to say: "The appointment of the 999th brigadier general has been proposed to the Senate. His name is--well, it is mentioned in the dispatches, and we did not know it before..... Since our national finances are in such poor condition, why don't we adopt the English practice of selling officers' commissions? Then there would at least be no favoritism or partisanship."

    Who can blame these wise men of the Chicago Tribune, whose complete incompetence we have proved on several occasions, for not being familiar with the career of General Osterhaus? They did not even mention the reports of Osterhaus when he was Acting Division Commander or those reports which Major General Sigel issued on the Battle of Pea Ridge and which were published in all of the English-language newspapers of St. Louis!

    No Germans have been appointed general by the Senate, with the exception of Sigel and Weber, and it was not necessary for these two men to purchase their officers' commission, as the English aristocrats do, nor do they owe their 7promotion to favoritism or partisanship.

    We, too, have often thought that commissions should be sold to the highest bidder. And not long ago the Tribune had excellent occasion to turn the ridicule which it expressed regarding the promotion of Osterhaus in another direction; this was when the telegraph brought the news that Colonel Julius White, ex-collector of customs, and one of the chief favorites of the Tribune clique, had been appointed brigadier-general, for in his case it was not merit, but favoritism and the political influence of the Tribune clique that was at the bottom of this very foolish promotion.

    Very likely, the Chicago Tribune will offer the excuse that it did not have General Osterhaus in mind when it wrote this infamous article, which deeply insults all Germans, but that it was thinking of Captain Gibbons of the Fourth Artilery Regiment. However, this excuse is not valid, for the Tribune expressly writes: "The 999th brigadier general has been proposed to the Senate," while the dispatches concerning Gibbons state that his appointment 8had been approved by the Senate.

    The Germans have not forgotten that their fellow countrymen who served on the staff of Fremont were called "the foreign gang" by the Chicago Tribune, and, therefore, they need not be in doubt concerning the attitude of the Hero of Bull Run, who is often lauded in the columns of that publication.

    And now the Chicago Tribune claims that it wields a mighty influence over the German voters!!

    The following article appeared in the Chicago Tribune of May 3: "Another Brigadier General "The appointment of the 999th brigadier--we confess that lately we have been unable to keep a ...

    III D, I G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 25, 1862
    An Explanation by Schambeck's Dragoons

    "Camp Gauley Bridge, West Virginia,

    "May 14, 1862.

    "To the Editors of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung,

    "Chicago, Illinois.

    "Hoffmann's Dragoons (Captain Schambeck) kindly request that you publish the enclosed lines in your highly esteemed newspaper:

    "We regret to have received reliable information that some of our German citizens of Chicago are dissatisfied because we have been inactive at Gauley for such a long time. We, too, are greatly displeased because we have to spend so much time in idleness while many of our war comrades are bravely fighting at various points for the cause of liberty, justice, and humanity. All the efforts of our able captain to induce his superiors to order us to one of the battlefields have been in vain. Even several brigadier generals, including 2R. L. McCook and A. Moore, have brought our desires to the attention of higher authorities, requesting that our Company be placed under their command, but to no avail.

    "Last year, when more than 200,000 men were 'resting' for many months, camped on the banks of the Potomac, our little group was under long and strenuous service, fighting or marching day and night, and we always performed our tasks to the complete satisfaction of our leaders. Nor did the other contingents with whom we fought side by side utter a single complaint; and they will, I am sure, always be willing to vouch for our efficiency, and our readiness to serve wherever and in whatever capacity we can. At present we have only seventeen horses that we can depend upon for good service; and although we were promised long ago that we would receive better mounts, we have seen nothing of them to date.

    "We cannot pack and go wherever we want to; otherwise we certainly would no longer be here. We believe that this attempt to humiliate us is unjust, since 3we are forced to be idle. If we should happen to be called upon to face the enemy, and we hope we shall be called very soon, you may rest assured that we who are now inactive in Camp Gauley will do our duty, and do it well. Then no fair-minded citizen of Chicago will have reason to be ashamed to admit publicly that Schambeck's Dragoons are from Chicago.

    "Respectfully yours,

    "Hoffmann's Dragoons."

    Nobody who knows the situation will count it against these brave Chicago soldiers, since they are not to blame for their enforced stay at Camp Gauley. At least, every reader of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung knows that Captain Schambeck and his Dragoons have done their duty and have brought great honor to the Germans of Chicago. The exemplary discipline which they have maintained while forced to remain at Camp Gauley is certainly a model for other companies, and is just as admirable as the bravery which they displayed on the battlefield. However, we hope that their present superior officer, General Fremont, will soon give them an opportunity to show once more their fortitude and ability in battle.


    Then we will again report a lot of news about Schambeck's Dragoons, as we did last summer and fall during the West Virginia campaign.--The Editors of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung.

    "Camp Gauley Bridge, West Virginia, "May 14, 1862. "To the Editors of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, "Chicago, Illinois. "Hoffmann's Dragoons (Captain Schambeck) kindly request that you publish the enclosed lines in ...

    III D, I G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 07, 1862
    The Celebration of the Fourth of July

    In commemorating the birth of the nation, Chicago showed greater enthusiasm this year than ever before. In the early hours of the morning, a great throng of people, among them many farmers in Sunday attire, some afoot, some riding in wagons, could be seen moving along the streets. Nearly all the stores were closed, the Stars and Stripes waved gaily from all public and many private buildings, and most business places, German places of course, were decorated with birch foliage and wreaths of flowers.

    The first part of the celebration was not noticed by most residents; only a few heard the roaring of the cannon at Camp Douglas or the solemn tolling of bells.

    The various divisions of the festive procession gathered at their respective meeting places before proceeding to Michigan Avenue, where the whole 2procession was formed under the direction of the marshals. The paraders then marched down Michigan Avenue, each division led by a band.

    The Fourth Division, consisting entirely of Germans who came to participate in the festivities to be held in honor of General Sigel was particularly impressive. It constituted nearly three fourths of the whole procession. Along with the turners, the cavalcade of butchers attracted special attention. The vendors of meat wore white aprons, white sleeves, red sashes, and were mounted on splendid horses, with Jakob Kock, first marshall, and Wilhelm Woelffer, second marshall, at their head. The Fire Department--which unfortunately was called upon to show its ability that very afternoon--likewise attracted much attention with the brilliant display of its highly polished and beautifully decorated apparatus.

    When the procession reached Washington Park, where the English Division held 3its program, the German Division separated from the throng and proceeded to Wright's Grove. A large crowd had gathered at the Grove very early, and thousands of people--men, women, and children--made merry on the green grass, in the shade of fine, large trees, eating, drinking, jesting, singing, dancing, and watching splendid demonstrations of gymnastics by the turners. We estimate the attendance at about ten thousand.

    At three o'clock, the multitude gathered around the speaker's platform, on which the Sigel Committee, the marshals, and the speaker had seated themselves. Mr. Wilhelm Rapp was the first speaker. He had chosen as the theme of his address the words which John Adams wrote on July 4, 1776: "I know right well that it will require much trouble, money, and blood to maintain this Declaration of Independence and to defend the States; but I also know that the object is much more important than the means to attain it. And through all these dark clouds, I see the enchanting rays of light and 4glory." The speaker cited a number of instances to prove that the first war for American independence involved more alarming and desperate situations than the present war does, and that victory was won only because the political and military leaders during the Revolution were convinced that their cause was sacred. He also pointed out that the prospects for final victory in the present struggle are much better, not only because our resources have been greatly developed and expanded, but also because the present generation is much more devoted and much more ready to make sacrifices than were the people at the time of the Revolution. On the other hand, he said, our situation is worse, inasmuch as our political and military leaders are not equal to their task, while in the first war for liberty men arose whom the whole world still admires for their intellect.

    Then the speaker compared the "achievements" of our present native [i. e., American-born] generals with the deeds of Sigel. Referring to the Revolution 5again, he drew a parallel between the bitter experiences of General Steuben, the great predecessor of Sigel, and those which Sigel himself has undergone. At the same time, he cited several instances to show that German-Americans had displayed great courage, ability, and, above all, a fervent patriotism in the first war for independence. He mentioned big-hearted Margaretha Arkularius, a German-American woman, who was Washington's loyal self-sacrificing friend, who cheered him in the dark days of the Revolution, and consoled and tended to his sick and wounded soldiers, as a shining example for present-day German-American women.

    In conclusion, the speaker remarked that if our Government will rise above its indecision and corruption, it will be successful, despite the severe blows which have been dealt our cause lately, and despite the many dangers by which we are surrounded. He urged that we inscribe upon our banners the great ideal of liberty and emancipation in order to create the enthusiasm which is absolutely necessary to victory. Mr. Rapp's final words were a quotation from the speech which General Sigel made a few weeks ago from the 6balcony of Tremont House: "Even if our armed forces meet with unexpected reverses, final victory cannot be in doubt as long as the Nation fights for the great principles of liberty and emancipation."

    Thereupon Doctor [E.] Schmidt was called to the stand. He admonished the people to persevere during the present crisis, recalling to their memories the words which Lord Nelson addressed to his men before the Battle of Trafalgar: "England expects every man to do his duty."

    Then Mr. Heinrich Greenbaum, one of the marshals, spoke a few well-chosen words in behalf of the Sigel Fund. The Reverend Rentch was the fourth speaker. He contrasted the depravity of our present statesmen and representatives of the people with the sublime patriotism of our illustrious [German] forebears; he pointed to the crime which the Rebels committed in begging the most infamous character of all time, Louis the Fourteenth, King of France, for help against the advocates of liberty and justice, while our forefathers were 7casting off the yoke of dependency. [Translator's note: The reference is undoubtedly to some epoch in German history.] And he continued: "Only by the spirit of 1776 can we overcome this crime [of slavery] which is the worst that has ever been perpetrated. Cain wants to murder his brother Abel; he wants to be master of his brothers, and lord of the whole country; else he will bring destruction and ruin upon all. We can defeat the Southern rebels only if we are inspired by a sacred love for our fatherland and the freedom it offers to all who live within it's borders."

    The speaker expressed his dissatisfaction with the manner in which the graduates from West Point, especially Halleck and McClellan, had conducted themselves during the war. He said: "Bull Run, Ball's Bluff, Manassas, Yorktown, Shiloh, Corinth, and Richmond are proof of the inability of the leaders who have received their military training at West Point. These men evidently lacked the right spirit and the necessary knowledge of warfare.


    Contrast with them the heros of Carthage, Pea Ridge, Island Number 10, Fort Donelson, and New Orleans. What glorious feats of arms they performed! Never has the German name gained greater glory! When all were fleeing at Bull Run and an American officer asked General Blenker and his Germans to save the capital and the country, the much-maligned man answered: 'We Germans are not in the habit of fleeing before an enemy.' And the Germans stood their ground and saved the capital. Our illustrious leaders, Sigel, Willich, Osterhaus, Annecke, and others deserve a place next to Washington in the pantheon of liberty, for they are fighting for the divine ideal, the freedom of humanity. Emancipation is the only principle which will finally defeat the Confederates. Sigel and the Union! A free path for justice, the God-given heritage of all men!"

    Thunderous applause was the reward of this speaker, who considered it a sacred duty to perform his part of the program, although he had to appear on 9crutches and was unaware that his home and all that he owned was being destroyed by fire while he was making his address.

    In commemorating the birth of the nation, Chicago showed greater enthusiasm this year than ever before. In the early hours of the morning, a great throng of people, among them ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 18, 1862
    Results of Sigel Festivities [Report by the Treasurer]

    The undersigned, treasurer of the Sigel Agitationskomite herewith respectfully submits a report on the receipts and disbursements. In paragraph A is a detailed account of money received for drinks, for admission ribbons, etc. In paragraph B is a detailed list of expenditures. Mr. Rosenthal, who was in charge of admissions, also had a number of tickets made for his own convenience, and placed them on sale at various bars, realizing $39.50 in this way. His net receipts were increased by this amount.

    From this report it is evident to the German public of this city that the Sigel festivities were anything but successful from the financial standpoint. It was a great mistake to select the Fourth of July as the day to hold the Sigel celebration. As usual, quite a number of fires were reported in the afternoon of this Independence Day, and that fact kept thousands from attending the picnic. At the same time we had to compete with many other 2Independence Day picnics. For instance, thousands of our fellow citizens of German descent were at picnics in or about Chicago--in Haase's Park, Waukegan, Oak Forest, etc. And it is for that reason chiefly that our celebration was a fiasco, not one tenth of the expected attendance appeared. Our citizens still have the opportunity to save the reputation of Chicago's Germans by making direct contributions to the Sigel Fund.

    Very respectfully,

    Heinrich Greenbaum.

    Financial Report

    A. Receipts

    Received from Joseph Huhn, net income from sale of drinks $178.21
    Received from Mr. Joseph Huhn, sale of glasses 16.45
    Received from Arbeiter Unterstuetzungsverein, sale of ribbons 5.00
    Received from Mr. Rosenthal, sale of ribbons $228.92
    Total $428.58

    B. Disbursements

    Materials for construction of tables, benches, stands, etc. $187.30
    To Freedman and Goodkind for ribbons 40.00
    Cab for speakers 6.00
    Salary of two watchmen 4.00
    Counterfeit money 4.50
    Advertising: Chicago Union 15.00
    ": Illinois Staats-Zeitung 16.00
    ": Telegraph 5.50
    Total $274.20
    Net proceeds $154.38

    Heinrich Greenbaum.

    The undersigned, treasurer of the Sigel Agitationskomite herewith respectfully submits a report on the receipts and disbursements. In paragraph A is a detailed account of money received for drinks, for ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 01, 1862
    What Other German Soldiers Think of McClellan

    On Wednesday we published a letter which we received from a soldier of the Steuben Regiment. It is evident from this letter that the stories which appear in newspapers which sponsored and which favor McClellan, stating that German soldiers are enthusiastic about the General, are not true. What intelligent German soldiers think of him may be learned from a letter written by a well-trained artilleryman of the Potomac Army to his father, whose home is in Chicago, and who gladly sent the son to fight for the cause of liberty. For obvious reasons, we withhold the name of the writer. We submit the following excerpt from this letter:

    "Harrison's Landing,

    "July 12, 1862.

    "It is sad, it is dreadful, but it is true! General McClellan, or as he styles himself, the 'Second Napoleon,' was defeated decisively after 2sustaining a heavy loss of men, and was forced to retreat to the James River. The slaughter lasted for seven long days. The losses of the Rebels are reported to be even greater than ours. By the way, one must admit that the Rebels conducted themselves creditably on the battlefield; they fought like men. We fairly rained shot and bombs upon them, but they retreated not one inch. Shouting as they did at Bull Run, they advanced upon us and captured one battery after another. I cannot describe to you what the battlefield looked like. It was a horrible sight; thousands of men lay in the swamp, some without arms or legs, and all of them utterly helpless. The cavalry and artillery of the enemy rushed over our wounded, and those who were still living were trampled to death or smothered in the swamp.

    "But now let us get to the bottom of things. Who is to blame for our defeat and our losses? Where were our generals, these brave heros, when our right wing was attacked? Why did McClellan give so little support to our right wing where our boys fought in the heat of the sun all day, without anything to eat or drink? Why were the wounded and exhausted troops not relieved? 3Why did our smart leader blow up the bridges and leave our wounded at the mercy of the enemy?

    "To me it appears as though our officers do not wish to end the war at once; for the longer it lasts, the more money they receive. There are a great number of spies and secessionists in our army, and they lead our soldiers to the slaughter. Since leaving Washington, we have lost at least fifty thousand men. Our soldiers are very angry; many of them do not wish to fight against the Rebels any longer, because all their efforts are futile--a result of the ignorance and in-ability of our commanders. And now the 'Second Napoleon' is at his wit's end--and that is not very distant. He does not like to advance, and he cannot retreat.

    "President Lincoln visited us several times. His army is not what it was when it was in quarters near Washington. We have lost about fifty-three cannon, many horses and wagons, and, above all, many men.

    "I have spoken to a number of prisoners whom we captured on the second day 4of the battle. These men do a lot of bragging. They say that we will have to climb over mountains of dead comrades if we wish to reach Richmond. There is not a farmer in Virginia who has not one or more sons in the army.

    "No doubt you have read about the Seven Days' Battle; but you were not informed how we were led to slaughter. I have seen with my own eyes what I have written about our defeat and about all the attendant circumstances. I do not care if this letter is opened by the censor; all they can do is shoot me.

    "A soldier under the command of the 'Great Napoleon'."

    From this letter one can get an idea of the discontent which now prevails among our soldiers, not only among the Germans but also among many American soldiers in the Potomac Army. Only by a change in the command, only by replacing McClellan with a man like Sigel, whose very name electrifies soldiers, can this discontent be converted into new enthusiasm and eagerness to do great things, although the stanch fortitude of our soldiers will never degenerate to 5cowardice.

    The father of the author of the letter from which we have quoted has four sons in the Union Army; thus he has full right to express his opinion about the way the war is being carried on. Therefore, we submit a few lines written by the parent.

    "I am enclosing a letter which was written by one of my sons who is serving under the command of that wretch, McClellan, and who has just done his share of fighting in a bloody battle lasting seven days. Anyone who deserves to be called 'father' can readily imagine how I feel when I think of my three sons who are on the battlefield and of a fourth son who was forced to leave the army because of sickness which he contracted while in service.

    "That big windbag McClellan who surrendered the greater part of his fine army to destruction without gaining the least advantage for his country! He is indeed a sorry excuse for a general! Under French law he would have to die. 6And he deserves that punishment!

    "By the way, we plebeians have done our share. The patricians who live on Michigan Avenue need not think that only the sons of plebeians are fit and worthy to be slaughtered; and that the wealthy can sidestep their obligations as citizens of the United States and evade the rigors and hardships of military life, the dangers of combat, the bullets, bombs, and swords of the enemy, by using their filthy lucre to persuade the sons of the poor to subtitute for them [the wealthy]. What good is a hundred or even a thousand dollars, when poor men's sons must sacrifice life and limb under the leadership of those ignorant patrician generals?

    "It is high time that the rich, too, are forced to enter the army. Then things will change, for if the sons of the patricians are compelled to render military service, the latter will use all their influence to bring about a revolution in the conduct of the war, since only then will hostilities be concluded soon and the army demobilized. The honesty and uprightness of Lincoln alone are 7not sufficient to save this country from its present adverse situation. What we need is a thorough reorganization in the leadership of our army; we need a general who rules by force, if necessary, who is not afraid to apply any and every means to quell the Rebellion, not hesitating even to raze every Southern city to accomplish that end."

    On Wednesday we published a letter which we received from a soldier of the Steuben Regiment. It is evident from this letter that the stories which appear in newspapers which ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 04, 1862
    News from Schambeck's Dragoons

    Editor's note: The following letter was put at our disposal by the father of a member of Schambeck's Dragoons. Since the missive will undoubtedly be of interest to the relatives and friends of the author, we are glad to publish it. For obvious reasons we do not reveal the name of the young man who wrote the letter. By the way, we have received many letters of similar content.

    "Flat Top Tannery, Virginia,

    "July 20.

    "We left Gauley about two weeks ago, being assigned to the Second and Third German Regiments of Ohio, which refused to keep the American artillery detachment that had been part of their contingent. Our commanding general (Cox) is either a coward or a traitor, else he would not have ordered his division, which consists of excellent soldiers, to retreat so shamefully, after he had forbidden the artillery to use their guns to repel the enemy.


    "We do not know just what our future course will be. We cannot advance the distance of eighty miles to the railroad, from which we get our supplies, until East Tennessee is in our possession. As things are now, we must haul our rations by wagon from a depot sixty miles distant, and the road leads through a dense wilderness.

    "Meanwhile, we have daily skirmishes with guerrillas, who often came very near to our camp. Only yesterday, a soldier who had ventured unarmed beyond our outpost was attacked by a band of these murderous marauders, who tied him to a tree, made a target of him,and finally plunged his own knife into his heart; thus we found him. Naturally, this atrocious act caused great excitement in camp, and woe unto the cruel perpetrators of this crime, should they fall into our hands.

    "It is said that most of the guerillas are farmers from the neighborhood; even women and children participate in these cruelties. Whenever they capture a soldier, they torture him to death. Can anybody blame us if we avenge the 3death of a comrade by completely razing the homes of these beastly people, and hanging the guilty on the first tree we come to?

    "Just now we have but one wish--an immediate change in leadership; then everything would be well. But men like Sigel and Fremont are appreciated only when extreme necessity demands that such men be given the position they so well deserve. If Colonel Moor, a German from Cincinnati, who leads a brigade at present, had been our commander, we would now be in a much different situation; but an ignorant traitor is in authority.

    "We have been receiving our pay regularly during the past four months."

    Editor's note: The following letter was put at our disposal by the father of a member of Schambeck's Dragoons. Since the missive will undoubtedly be of interest to the relatives ...

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