The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1863
    The German Society

    The general meeting of the German Society of Chicago was held in the German House, May 3, 1863, with President Heinrich Greenbaum presiding.

    The report of Agent Schlund was read and adopted, and the matter relating to the Reform School was referred to a committee which will endeavor to persuade the executive board of the Reform School to act in line with Mr. Schlund's suggestion.

    The financial report was adopted as read. Election of officers took place with the following result: president, Heinrich Gindele; treasurer, Karl Vergho; secretary, Conrad C. Diehl. Butz and Schneider were appointed to inform the above of their election. The following rules were adopted:

    1) The newly elected officers may not refuse to serve.

    2

    2) Minimum membership fee shall be two dollars. [Translator's note: The secretary does not state whether this sum is the annual or monthly fee.]

    3) Anyone who pays fifty cents or more shall be permitted to speak and vote in the general meetings for the period of one year.

    4) The salary of the agent shall be three hundred dollars per year.

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President.

    Report of the Agent of the German Society of Chicago for April and May, 1862

    April May
    Secured employment for 93 85
    Secured railroad passes for poor 3 1
    Secured railroad passes for wounded soldiers 3 1
    Found baggage for 11 2
    3
    April May
    Located relatives for 5 3
    Families allotted food 7 5
    Assisted in financial matters 8 6
    Found lodgings for families 6 2
    Secured medical aid and medicines for 7 5
    Soldiers' families supported 6 6
    Assisted immigrants to proceed on their journey 4 1
    Corresponded for 120 98
    Referred to county for aid 5 2
    Total 281 219
    Total for April and May 500

    My activity as agent of the German Society of Chicago was interrupted by the President's call for the organization of volunteer state militia. In my spare time I have devoted myself to helping needy immigrants and 4countrymen without remuneration from the Society, until the Conscription Act was passed; but now my term of service has expired.

    The German public of Chicago, a city where fifty thousand Teutons live, should pay more attention to immigration which is the cause of the great and rapid development of the city.

    While Americans annually spend large sums of money for benevolent purposes, as for instance, for orphan homes, homes for the friendless, and homes for the aged, the German Society of Chicago, which has become a refuge for helpless immigrants and needy German citizens, ought not fall asleep; for the German Society of Chicago is the only German organization which aids needy Germans without respect to origin or creed

    If our German citizens would cease helping every beggar and bum who comes to their door or approaches them in the streets, especially in the winter, and would donate corn, flour, meat, potatoes, etc., no Chicago family 5that is worthy of support would have to go hungry.

    The German Society has done much to increase the school attendance of poor children by exercising a "moral" compulsion--by giving shoes and clothing to those poor pupils who attend school regularly.

    We take great pleasure in commending the work done in the Juvenile Home, where German children were always heartily welcomed and well cared for.

    The Home of the Friendless is maintained for the benefit of children of dissolute or criminally inclined parents, or children who are in danger of entering upon a life of crime, and it has proved to be very effective. However the Home of the Friendless is not a suitable place for the children of poor but law-abiding parents; these children should be placed in more pleasant and less dangerous surroundings, so that they are not estranged from their parents and do not fall prey to greedy employers.

    6

    The Home for Workers is in its infancy. It is the most pleasant and most necessary of all branches of charity; for who is more deserving among the needy than the man or woman who is diligent and faithful and would like to work but is prevented from doing so by age and physical disability, and would rather starve than become an inmate of a poorhouse?

    In the Reform School there are proportionately few German boys; and the majority of them have been placed there because of youthful carelessness or indifference on the part of their parents, who either send their boys out to gather old iron and other junk, or permit them to loiter idly about the streets and alleys. In time the lads meet bad companions and finally are confined to reform schools, where they come into contact with confirmed and hardened offenders, and as a result the boys are totally demoralized.

    I hope that the German Society of Chicago endeavors to have juvenile delinquents classified, so that light offenders, first offenders, or those who do not participate in evil deeds, but just accompany the offenders, are not 7placed on the same level with, treated as, and confined with, real criminals, thieves, robbers, murderers, etc., but are kept separate from the latter.

    The inmates of the Reform School should be classified in the following manner: 1) Non-participating observer; 2) Seduced; 3) Corrigible; 4) Incorrigible.

    As in Germany, the societies "for the protection of German emigrants" are expanding their activity, so we also should take greater precautions to protect immigrants in our country.

    In conclusion I wish to emphasize that if the German Society of Chicago is not more alert, the thieves and confidence men in New York and other ports will have a gay time; for the German Society of Chicago and the St. Louis Immigrant Society have done more to prevent swindling than any other organization in the United States. The German Society of Chicago may justly be proud of the fact that it has exposed several attempts to defraud innocent people of large sums of money and valuable property, and has also succeeded 8in locating much valuable baggage.

    If the German immigrants who come to Chicago are left without a source of information or material aid, the city will not only lose its wide-spread reputation for the assistance rendered immigrants, but also will soon be deprived of the valuable services of these people.

    The Chicago Turnverein and the Chicago Arbeiterverein have done much for charitable purposes; however, the great majority of the members of these organizations are of the laboring class; many of them are members of the German Society of Chicago, and their zeal is commendable. Yet it is desirable that those who have wealth--home owners, businessmen, and professional men--take a greater and more active interest in benevolence. And they really are obligated, for they avail themselves of the services of the Society when they need help in their offices, stores, or homes.

    I wish to thank our president, Mr. Heinrich Greenbaum for the valuable 9aid he has given me in my work. He was always willing to assist me whenever difficulties presented themselves, though at times it was necessary that he neglect his business in order to comply with my request.

    I have always tried to be just toward everybody; if I appeared to be unsympathetic in some instances it was only because I wished to discourage people who are not worthy of assistance. There are a great number of beggars who journey from city to city; they are very successful in arousing the sympathy of the public, much more so than worthy applicants for aid. They manage to lead the existence which appeals to them by carefully avoiding any flagrant offense against the laws pertaining to vagrancy. When I refuse to feed or house these lazy persons, they slander the German Society of Chicago. And the public, not knowing that these professional beggars have been driven from some neighboring city by the civil authorities, believes their stories about about inhuman treatment.

    .......[The next paragraph of this article contains a repetition of previously 10expressed thoughts.]

    Respectfully,

    F. Schlund, Agent.

    ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT

    Receipts for 1862 and 1863 $652.07
    Disbursements for 1862 and 1863 246.50
    Balance $405.57

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President.

    May 2, 1863.

    The general meeting of the German Society of Chicago was held in the German House, May 3, 1863, with President Heinrich Greenbaum presiding. The report of Agent Schlund was read ...

    German
    III B 2, II D 10, I D 1 a, I B 3 b, II D 8, II D 7, II D 4, II D 5, II D 3, II E 2, II E 3, III D, III G

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- October 16, 1867
    Premiums on Arson (Editorial)

    The recommendation which the grand jury made to the recorder yesterday contained a severe criticism of the methods used by so-called fire insurance companies. If the statements of the grand jury are true, these corporations should really be called stock companies for the promotion of incendiarism. No stranger can spend more than a few days in this city without unwittingly applying the not very flattering, but true words, "confounded nest of incendiarists" to the metropolis of the West. And no resident of Chicago is so blind and so ignorant that he does not know that eight, or even nine, of ten fires are started intentionally. Unfortunately, it is seldom possible to prove this, since no crime can be concealed as easily as arson; but we are morally convinced that arson exists whenever the amount of insurance is more than double the amount of damage or the actual value of the property.

    2

    The grand jury hit the nail on the head when it stated that the real cause of this evil, which is becoming more unbearable every day, lies in the fact that "insurance companies, in their greed for money, often insure property for as much as ten times its real value, a risk which is certainly not in agreement with sound business principles". The companies are actually levying high premiums on arson. The assumption that it is in their own interest to reject bad risks does not apply. Free competition becomes an inane, foolish, wild chase, a steeplechase, in which a few broken ribs or a broken neck do not count. Impertinent, "high-powered" agents talk the owners of tinderbox shacks into buying a thousand-dollar policy, although their dwelling, or rather their hut, is not worth, at the most, no more than three hundred dollars. Is it a wonder that many succumb to the temptation to do the company out of the money it is so anxious to get rid of?

    The public is not only interested in removing this evil, it has also the right, yea the duty, to do so. And the greater the evil, the more radical and severe 3the remedy must be. If the insurance companies themselves do not take the necessary steps to prevent these "wholesale fires," then the legislature ought to take a hand in the matter and enact a law which provides:

    1. That no house may be insured for more than three fourths its actual value.

    2. That no policy is valid unless the County Board, co-operating with the assessor's office, has testified that the first provision has been complied with.

    Perhaps a more thorough method would be to permit insurance not to exceed in amount the assessed value of the property. That procedure should be effective in reducing the number of fires by at least ninety per cent.

    The recommendation which the grand jury made to the recorder yesterday contained a severe criticism of the methods used by so-called fire insurance companies. If the statements of the grand ...

    German
    II E 3, II E 2, I F 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 09, 1871
    [The Administration of Justice]

    Republican writers have had to say terrible things about "Cabinettsjustiz" (justice dealt out arbitrarily by a king) in despotic countries. That a prince, according to his whim and pleasure, may stop all persecution of a criminal, or may persecute an innocent man, is justly regarded as the blackest blemish of the absolute monarchy. "Cabinettsjustiz" in this sense, however, has completely disappeared from the civilized nations of Europe, that is to say, from all except Russia and Turkey. The privilege of pardoning a criminal is also much less abused than in the United States. In Europe, of ten sentences at least nine are executed; in the United States hardly three...

    Here in our democracy we have the exact counterpart to "Cabinettsjustiz". Through the juries the people indulge their most arbitrary whims in the administration of justice. Every year sees hundreds, yes thousands of sentences that are a complete travesty of justice....But if the customary jury acquittals are already a blot on American judicial procedure - what expression would be strong enough to characterize the boundless impudence that the Chicago Grand Jury has just exhibited? After a short, secret session this Grand Jury has decided not to indict the young Leonard who slew his brother-in-law Scanland a few weeks ago, and the State-Attorney has been forced to set Leonard free.........

    2

    If in this case the Grand Jury had consisted of bums and ne'er-do-wells of the type that makes a dollar and a half in civil suits, the conclusions one would have to draw would not be so embarrassing. But the list shows that the jurors almost without exception were respectable, some of them wealthy business men belonging to the best circles of society. If such men are capable of condoning so unprovocated a killing as that of Scanland - because they did not like the nose, or the complexion of the victim, then that indicates so complete a degeneration of ethics and morality that the worst has to be feared for the development of our society. In that case people may shout themselves hoarse with enthusiasm about our"free political institutions" - freedom is only a euphemistic name for anarchy. The first condition for right prevailing in a country is the living consciousness of right in the people. Where that is lacking, the whole freedom is not worth a phony nickel.

    ("ist fur die Katz")

    Republican writers have had to say terrible things about "Cabinettsjustiz" (justice dealt out arbitrarily by a king) in despotic countries. That a prince, according to his whim and pleasure, may ...

    German
    II E 3, I F 3, I H
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 16, 1872
    The German Society and the Immigrants.

    The German Society is endeavoring as much as possible to protect the arriving immigrant against too heavy expenses and extortions. For that purpose, the president of the of the society, Mr. Geo. Schneider, with Mr. A. C. Hesing went yesterday to the bureau of police and had a long conversation with Messrs. Talcott and Klokke. They asked to have policemen stationed at railway stations to be on the look-out for immigrants. They also asked that their agents be granted the privileges of special policemen.

    They asked Mr. Parmelee to forbid his agents to solicit the patronage of immigrants. Mr. Parmelee is the owner of the omnibus wagons stationed at the railway stations. Too often a family of immigrants had to pay from five dollars to six dollars to be brought to their hotel just a few blocks away, since the price in the Parmelee bus is fifty cents per person. In justice it must be said that Mr. Parmelee knew nothing about that, and he gave his agents strictest orders, forbidding them to solicit the patronage of immigrants.

    The German Society is endeavoring as much as possible to protect the arriving immigrant against too heavy expenses and extortions. For that purpose, the president of the of the society, ...

    German
    III G, II D 10, II E 3, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- October 28, 1872
    Open Letter to the Committee of Twenty-Five.

    Gentlemen:

    The aim of our organization was to diminish the number of crimes in our city, and to assure the quick and certain punishment of criminals. To this end we already have agreed on the following measures:

    1. The improvement of our police and its numerical increase.

    2. A change in our Jury system which prevents the majority of the intelligent public from functioning as Jurors, and leaves, in cases of murder, the decision on punishment to the Jury.

    3. A change in the appeal procedure...

    4. Restriction of the pardoning power of the Governor.

    5. Changes in the criminal law concerning burglars and other 2criminals.

    6. A grant of the County Commissioners for extradition proceedings.

    While we were occupied with this important reformatory work,... a new movement was started and that on the initiative of gentlemen who have found the cure for all evils to which flesh is heir, in the enforced closing of all drinking parlors from Saturday evening to Monday morning.

    I am firmly convinced that their attitude is impractical and not fitting, contrary to the system of good government, and injurious to the spirit of our free institutions...

    Your Committee possesses the confidence of the public, and has the power to prevent the laudable tendency of an important and humane part of the public to improve the social tone and to create more complete security of life and property. Protect them from being misled into the bed of fanaticism and intolerance.

    3

    I therefore recommend that the Committee immediately and urgently petition the Aldermanic Council to change the Sunday law, in order to save the people the trouble, the anger, possibly the danger, of electing the new City Council, only with reference to this question.

    If I do not represent the views of the majority of your Committee on this question, I do not feel in my place as its Chairman, and in such a case I am presenting my resignation.

    Yours truly,

    Henry Greenebaum.

    Gentlemen: The aim of our organization was to diminish the number of crimes in our city, and to assure the quick and certain punishment of criminals. To this end we ...

    German
    II E 3, IV, I H
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- November 23, 1872
    Immigration

    This communication is due to an event I witnessed last Sunday. As I have been for three years an agent of a German Society, which has had, as its purpose, the protection of immigrants, I believe that I am speaking with some authority on this subject.

    When the Evening Post, claims that immigrants are received in as friendly a manner, here, as in any city of the Union, then this newspaper tells an outright lie. I wish to give just one concrete example. Last Sunday, shortly before 11 A. M. I boarded the Milwaukee train. There were some fifty six immigrants. Each of them had been cheated out of .50 cents or more by an agent of Parmelee and Company. If an immigrant had no American money, the agent would do him the favor of accepting a 5 mark coin instead, (which is worth .80 cents) 2The agent proceeds as follows: Fifteen minutes before the arrival of the train in Chicago he says to the immigrants something about "checks" and "tickets," and then simply requests .50 cents from each. The immigrants, who do not understand English, believe the agents to be railroad officials and pay without protest. For that they receive an ommibus ticket which they almost never use. Not one of the immigrants on my train made use of it.

    This communication is due to an event I witnessed last Sunday. As I have been for three years an agent of a German Society, which has had, as its purpose, ...

    German
    III G, II D 10, II E 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 18, 1874
    Young American.

    The concept connected with the name young American is not a very pleasant one. The term young America connotes youth which has outgrown its parents and which resents parental authority as an infringement upon its independence. Young America begins to blossom at the age of ten, to loaf at the age of thirteen and to become obnoxious at the age of fifteen. That is in regard to the boys. Young America among the girls is not any better. At the age of twelve she has a "beau" and at fifteen the miss starts her moonlight walks and her love affairs. Young America is bad, but not half as bad as "young German America".

    It cannot be denied that in many German homes the children grow up without any supervision and that boys and girls become loafers of the worst type. What a correspondent recently said, that here boys loaf in the saloons till past midnight is only half of the truth. He, who wishes to go on North Avenue on a Sunday afternoon, can see there clusters of boys at the street corners, who make the most indecent remarks concerning the passers by, who on evenings run around with girls just as young as they and who being work shy would not recoil from crimes. For this we have the word of the oldest and most experience policemen, who assert that no Irish street boy is as bad as a German boy.

    The concept connected with the name young American is not a very pleasant one. The term young America connotes youth which has outgrown its parents and which resents parental authority ...

    German
    I B 3 b, I B 3 c, II E 3, III A, III G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 01, 1875
    The Press as an Educator (Editorial)

    The press is the real "people's high school" of America. The ill-ordered quantity of mechanical knowledge which is imparted to the children in our English schools merely furnishes the tools which the pupils later use to read, understand, and study newspapers. And the American press has assumed a much wider sphere of activity than, for instance, German newspapers. The latter confine themselves chiefly to dry, sober politics and relegate those national and social events which we consider to be the most interesting news, to some inconspicuous column. The English-American newspapers, however, follow an altogether different policy. They strive to accommodate all tastes, to serve their readers with news from every phase of life, social, political, and national, to print any news that will interest a part of their subscribers, even though that news consists of the most despicable defamation, or of the darkest sides of social life.

    2

    The result is that while American newspapers contain an extraordinarily large volume of interesting and useful articles, and surpass the entire European press in this respect (even that of England), they are also a veritable pit for the offal and filth of public life. All manner of infamous deeds, crimes, villainy, and blackguardisms are described not only in detail, but also with a certain amount of sensual pleasure which completely nullifies the only real value which such articles could possibly have, namely, to serve as a warning and a deterrent.

    However, it is just descriptions of this sort that prove so attractive to people who are only mechanically and superficially educated, and thus lack moral or spiritual stability. It is no exaggeration to state that the English-American press in general is nothing but a school of crime and vice. That is true even of our daily press, the so-called political newspapers, but it is true in a much higher degree of those revolting "belletristic" publications that are issued by the hundreds in America and specialize in hideous murder stories and obscene pictures. This vulgar trash is displayed everywhere, 3especially in small bookstores which are located near schools, and always so that pictures of the most shameful obscenity or of the most hideous murders are plainly visible; and if you ask the storekeeper, he will tell you that half-grown boys and girls are his best customers. Nobody can estimate how many criminal and vicious acts have their origin in this salacious trash. In 1848 old Thadden Triglaff was called a half-witted man because he said: "Freedom of the press--yes! But let us always erect a gallows beside it!"--but there is nothing foolish about this utterance, if one applies it to the criminal press of America. Death on the gallows would not be too severe a punishment for the rogues who use "art and literature" to lead young boys and girls into a life of crime and vice.

    That the large dailies, too, and among them even those that claim they are especially decent, are diligently co-operating to spoil the literary taste of the public and to deaden all sense of shame and morality in our people, is evident from a merely superficial view of the headlines of the stories of crime and vice that they relate. Occasional unctuous remarks by the editor 4are no antidote against the rotten, poisonous stories which are told in a manner that appeals to the sensual side of man. These dull remarks call to our mind the words of Mephistopheles, "I shall sing to her a moral song, the more certainly to deceive her".

    We offer some of the headings, that appear in large letters over articles that were published in three of our local English morning newspapers on the last day of the year 1874, as a sample of objectionable items, and as a proof of our statements. First we shall quote from the Times, which is the chief offender, and then from the Tribune, which, unfortunately, has done everything possible to ape the Times--because the appetite of the English-American reading public is already so spoiled, that nothing save spicy food can satisfy it:

    Gallows Fruit

    A Murderous Pair Dropped from the Hangman's Tree

    John W. Goodman Pays the Penalty of the Worst of His Bad Deeds

    5

    His Last Words: "This is all Justly Done, I Committed the Crime".

    John Murphy's Sudden Death from the Tight Rope in Carson, Nevada

    A Wife's Mysterious Disappearance

    The Husband Arrested for Murder

    Duel in Pennsylvania--Fatal Results.

    Two Fools Fight over a Jug of Whiskey and Both Receive Fatal Wounds.

    Diabolical Attempt to Murder an Entire Family in Iowa

    A Row and a Butchery at a House-Warming in Minnesota

    Miscellaneous Criminal Record.

    6

    Tribune

    Dead Sea Fruit

    Mr. John Goodman, of Ottawa, Ohio, Being the Choicest Specimen.

    He was Suspended Yesterday on a Gallows for an Example

    A Major Criminal in Massachusetts--The Champion Sinner

    Murder, Robbery, Theft, Incest, and the Rest of the Cataloge.

    The Inter-ocean is somewhat more conservative. Following are a few of its headlines:

    Mosaic Law

    7

    Two Murders Pay the Awful Price of their Bloody Crimes

    Goodman Hanged at Ottawa, Ohio, for Killing John Haywood and Wife

    Execution of John Murphy, at Carson, Nevada, for the Murder of J. R. McCallum.

    And the publications quoted are among the decent "political" newspapers, and they would not deem it a compliment to be placed on the same levels with the Koelnische Zeitung or the Augsburgische Allgemeine Zeitung....

    The press is the real "people's high school" of America. The ill-ordered quantity of mechanical knowledge which is imparted to the children in our English schools merely furnishes the tools ...

    German
    II B 2 d 1, II E 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 05, 1875
    Life Imprisonment (Editorial)

    At the beginning of his administration Governor Beveridge of Illinois showed commendable staunchness in all matters involving punishment of criminals; he often mitigated the penalties of imprisonment and execution, regardless of the exhortations of large numbers of petitioners. But pardons soon became more common than during the terms of his predecessors--especially clemency for major criminals.

    That life imprisonment in America is almost a farce in many instances, and that it has lost its horror as far as culprits are concerned, is well known, and of late Mr. Beveridge has labored assiduously to strengthen this pleasant feeling among the criminal gentry. Within the past five months he has given full pardons to seven murderers who were convicted for life. Of this allotment 2one served fourteen years; another, nine; the third and fourth, eight; the fifth and sixth, six; and the seventh, four years. In some of these cases which have been enumerated the intercession of some fairly prominent politician sufficed to soften His Excellency.

    Whoever shows such compassion for desperate criminals should give commensurate consideration for the smaller fry.

    During the first year of his administration, Mr. Beveridge pardoned about fifty convicts, and the following year approximately ninety. This represents sixty-five pardons from January 1, 1875, to May 22, 1875.

    This surprising increase is allegedly due to the presence of many legislators at Springfield during the early part of the year, and requests for pardons supported by members of the State Legislature are almost always listened to by the Governor.

    3

    The Governor's forgiving poor devils who committed minor transgressions because of necessity or because of a neglected education we can condone and consider quite in order, since this is an era when great criminals are free, prosperous, and even highly respected. But among those whose sentences have been commuted by Beveridge one finds, aside from the aforesaid murderers, other serious criminals, killers who served but two or three years of an original twenty-four year sentence; robbers whose sentences were shortened eleven years, after they had been confined for only three years, and so on.

    At present not less than five hundred petitions for clemency are recorded in the Governor's office, and, if Beveridge continues to be softhearted and obliging, soon a swarm of criminals will again besiege society.

    A similar misuse of executive clemency is also found in other states of the Union, where such gubernatorial rights are established by law. A better state of affairs is to be found in those states where pardons can be obtained only by the collaboration and sanction of a special board.

    4

    An individual is less able to withstand importunate supplications than a board consisting of several persons, and an individual is more prone to succumb to political expediency than a body of men.

    These instances of wholesale pardons, particularly those of Mr. Beveridge, represent political considerations, usually deference to the personal desires of a more or less influential politician, and as such are the more detestable because these decrees are not based on a forgiving spirit or benevolence, the noble characteristic of humanity. Such intercessions are the product of abominable selfishness; cool, deliberate, political speculation which anticipates subsequent aid from the politician who has made the petition; hence, a reward for the bestowal of liberty. The rotten abuse of the pardoning power which flourishes in this country, benefiting the most vicious criminals, is one of the main reasons for the death penalty. Even a "lifer" goes to the penitentiary with the glowing prospect that he will be free within a few years.

    5

    "Only the dead do not return"; only the execution of a murderer gives assurance to society that he will not reappear in their midst.

    At the beginning of his administration Governor Beveridge of Illinois showed commendable staunchness in all matters involving punishment of criminals; he often mitigated the penalties of imprisonment and execution, regardless ...

    German
    I F 6, II E 3, I H
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- September 06, 1875
    The Schuetzenfest First Day

    Yesterday's great Schuetzenfest (Marksmen's Festival) had an auspicious beginning.....The weather was delightful....contrary to....the predictions of....pessimists....The first train brought the riflemen and visitors....Participants numbered many thousands....The riflemen formed a parade in the morning and....welcomed the out-of-town guests.

    As far as we could ascertain, the following gentlemen attended: [A list follows, of visitors from Bloomington, Illinois; Monroe, Illinois; Bellevue, Iowa; Joliet, Illinois; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Highland, Illinois; and St. Louis, Missouri.]

    Most of the guests arrived at the Milwaukee and Northwestern depot.....About fifty visitors came by train....and were conducted to the hall.....

    2

    The parade started on Illinois Street at 9:30 A. M. and marched in the following order: The fifteen target pointers led, followed by six bowling pin boys, all with the insignia of their rank; then the Grand Exposition Band with its leader, Mr. Nitschke; next the cadet corps under Captain Bauhn; then the marksmen from out-of-town and, finally, the Chicago marksmen. The parade consisted of about two hundred men. The route: On Illinois Street to Wells Street, thence on Erie Street to Clark Street; then on Randolph Street to the depot on Clinton and Canal Streets.

    The festival train reached the Park at about 11 A. M., and those who arrived later formed in ranks conforming to the previous order and marched through the Park to the Reception Hall.

    The Schuetzenpark (Marksmen's Park) has been considerably improved. The Park has an area of eighty acres. Of these eighty acres, forty are used as a park, ten form the rifle range, and the remainder is cultivated by Hermann 3Fink, the caretaker.....[Translator's note: Here follows a description of scenery, paths, flowers, fountains, pumping outfit, well, and building.] Further improvements are contemplated.

    ....The parade, marching to the music of the Grand Exposition Band, reached the Park building where A. Boese, the president of the Club greeted them in approximately these words:...."Friends!....A year has passed since we last met....Let us celebrate the festival and remember the proverb of the aged Swiss gentleman:

    'No apprehension, youngsters!

    But shoot while you may

    Our fathers also wasted

    Powder in their day.'"

    The banquet started at noon. It differed from banquets held at similar festivals in that there were no toasts....Mr. Fink, or rather, his culinary staff, 4deserve the greatest praise.

    After the banquet, shooting and bowling were in order, and about 150 marksmen participated in the shooting competition. In general not much can be said, as the results will not be made known until the end of the festival.

    We shall therefore speak....about the prizes.

    The Honor target: 47 prizes; the first, $50 in cash; second, $40, etc.

    The next target: Highest prize, $35.

    The King's target: Only the king's marksman can win the first prize; he must have the highest score for a hundred shots. The prize is $40 in cash and a gold token of honor, worth $20. (The cost of the latter has been defrayed by Bartholomae and Leicht, brewers.) Other prizes:...

    5

    The prizes for bowling amount in all to $250. The first prize is $75 in cash....

    The cadet marksmen had a special tournament. Adolph Guntrum received the first prize and became cadet king.

    A bugle call at 3:30 P. M. brought the assembly to the speakers' platform,....in front of the Park building, where Mr. Busse....introduced A. C. Hesing.

    Speech by A. C. Hesing

    "Marksmen and friends! Permit me to express my hearty thanks to the Schuetzenverein (Marksmen's Club). I appreciate my having been selected as today's speaker. You may rest assured that I am grateful for your confidence in me....

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    "I welcome the members of other clubs in the name of the Chicago Schuetzenverein. The festival celebrating the foundation of a Schuetzenverein should....always draw attention to its lofty purpose and its beneficial, far-reaching effect. Particularly the large English-speaking contingent should be familiarized with the festival--in view of the importance of marksmanship and its influence on the American nation in its period of development.

    "The objects of marksmanship are manifold, and only we Germans and the Swiss can fully understand the wide-spread effects which the great....Swiss and German....tournaments have produced.

    "While marksmanship is regarded as a sport and has difficulty in developing in monarchies, it is practiced to the fullest extent here in this free land, where it becomes a civic duty. Marksmanship in America should be recommended, practiced, and encouraged in every conceivable manner.

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    "In considering the serious side of the question--the civic duty, whereby every citizen becomes the defender of his home--let us remember that this is not the sole object; our constant chasing after the dollar will become less intense as we find time for recreation. Our American national character--still in the formative stage--would also absorb a liking for popular festivals. The virtue of comradeship, which is almost entirely absent from our indigenous population, would be developed. This pastime would provide an opportunity for that exchange of opinions among citizens which is so essential to a free state. Former differences would be ironed out.

    "As the main attributes of a good marksman are clear sight and strength, the body is developed by this sport.

    "One may say that the Schuetzenverein bears the same relation to the older men that the Turnverein (Turner Society) does to the younger generation. In other words: Whereas the latter is concerned in developing the body 8and furthering liberal, progressive attitudes, the former creates a brotherly alliance of free citizens and patriots; we may regard it as the citizen soldiery of the republic.

    "The wonderful influence which the Swiss Schuetzenvereine have exercised in creating concord and good fellowship among the various Swiss communities is too well known to require repetition here.

    "You all know that in the small, exemplary republic of Switzerland, the people regard marksmanship as one of the main pillars assuring unity, freedom, and independence.

    "In as far as these marksmen's tournaments affect the various provinces of Germany, one might mention the recent meeting at Stuttgart, where mutual encouragement and brotherly comradeship....strengthened the bond of friend-ship, and where friendly understanding with our racially related neighbors, the Swiss people, was renewed. That incident may well serve as an example.

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    "The Germans in America succeeded in introducing gymnastics, which proved a great blessing to our youth. The movement[gymnastics]has been started here and has taken root. Eventually it will be a permanent feature.

    "Our German song clubs awakened a feeling for music among our American-born citizens and helped immeasurably in making the people conscious of the proverbial German sociability.

    "But none of these associations are as suitable as marksmanship for introducing German ideas and the German spirit in this our adopted land. The American plays with guns while still in the cradle. In later years it becomes second nature. The average American has the proper qualifications: good sight, sturdy arm, and the necessary iron nerve or quiet cold-blooded-ness--characteristics now considered synonymous with Americanism.

    "What the American can do as a mere sharpshooter was proved in a splendid 10manner during last month's tournament in England. But the only object the American has in mind is to hit the bull's-eye, and here the civilizing influence of the German ideals of marksmanship will be needed, so that the American can understand the true significance, the deeper motives, involved.

    "I have no doubt that we are on the threshold of an American joint festival, similar to the German and Swiss affair, which is celebrated to promote good fellowship. This American festival should be a gathering of the Northerners, the Southerners, people born on foreign soil and, in fact, all who call themselves citizens of this republic. At the large tent with the American flag, representing unity,....the people will meet to resume old friendships,....thereby strengthening again the eternal alliance of the separate states.

    "An American Joint Marksmen's Festival according to the German-Swiss pattern! What a sublime thought!

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    "When shall we practice a custom like that of the Swiss, and send one or more delegates from each county of each one of the thirty-eight states of the Union, to appear at such a festival? Can there be any doubt that such a tremendous gathering of the best elements from all parts of the nation would do more for the unification of the North and South than all reconstruction and Ku Klux laws?

    "Such a meeting would form the germ of an adequate defense system for our republic, and even though all of us hope that the necessity will never arise to call such a system into action, nonetheless proper provisions should be made to protect us from possible contingencies.

    "By organizing a cadet corps composed of German-American children, the Chicago Schuetzenverein has shown that it takes full cognizance of this important question. The great strides which this young contingent has made in its marching and in the handling of its toy guns prove that a fertile field has been found, and only little effort will be needed to make our 12youth amenable to manly efforts later. Upon youth, according to the ideas implanted in it, depends the future greatness or decadance of the Republic.

    "Impress youth with a taste for beneficial exercises, as the turners do, and you will avoid the problem of finding the youngsters on street corners after working hours, insulting women and old men.

    "And we can truthfully say that, if the youth of all the larger cities throughout the country were enrolled in turner societies or Schuetzenvereine, the rowdy and loafer element--the canker of our American social structure--would be instantly abolished. Affiliating the youths with your Schuetzenvereine is also the surest and quickest method to implant marksmanship and make it acceptable to the people as a national institution. Permit me, before closing, to call attention to one important factor.

    "To realize such lofty goals the German Schuetzenvereine should encourage 13native-born Americans to participate in target practice and at the festivals[of the Schuetzenvereine]. In this manner the Americans will become familiarized with the club's activities--both useful and diverting. The clubs should induce the native element to emulate our Chicago Germans.

    "Perhaps I have considered this question too seriously, but it seems very important to me--in so far as our adopted country is concerned. Therefore I could not refrain from giving a brief explanation of the benefits accruing to the republic from a proper development of marksmanship.

    "In closing I wish to be forgiven for not having mentioned the fair sex in connection with today's festival. Who, after all, could think of such a festival without considering the lovely representatives of the species? Women are the main attraction of any German gymnastic, song, or marksmanship festival and like Martin Luther, I must exclaim:

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    "'Whoever does not love wine, women, and song Will never be a good marksman!'"

    When Mr. Hesing concluded his speech, the president of the festival called for a triple hoch for the speaker.

    Target shooting was continued after this interlude and the first day showed the following results:

    J. B. Hefner of Chicago shot the first twelve flags. Mr. Vickart of Highland Park shot the next twelve flags....

    The Committee on Arrangements....deserves full credit....The festival provided excellent entertainment; music, a good concert, a wheel of chance, etc.

    Marksmen from St. Paul, Minnesota; Dubuque, and other localities are expected....also the members of the local English-American Rifle Club, since the 15latter were....invited.

    The second and third days....promise to be a social occasion, since the marksmen generally bring their families then....No one should fail to be present when the prizes are distributed....

    Illinois Staats-Zeitung, Sept. 7, 1875.

    Second Day

    The Schuetzenfest had its second inning yesterday. Although the crowd was smaller than that of the first day, there was nevertheless a large throng at the Schuetzenpark. As previously mentioned, the second day was dedicated to serious work. At eight o'clock in the morning a cannon was fired, indicating commencement of activities. A large number of the marksmen remained at the Schuetzenhalle (Marksmen's Hall) at the Park in order not to be tardy. Real liveliness began to be manifested, however, with the arrival of marksmen on the eleven o'clock train.

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    Target shooting continued from morning until six o'clock in the evening with the exception of one hour for lunch. The beginning and end of that period were announced by the firing of a mortar.

    Silver medals were awarded to twenty-three marksmen. The silver medals were given to all who could score one dozen hits in the center of the target. J. W. Codon of Bellevue,....and N. M. Plottke, of Chicago, were thus honored. [Translator's note: Here twenty-three names appear. A large Chicago German group won in this division.]

    The medals were not given at the end of the various competitions, but immediately upon being earned. The recipient was led in a triumphal tour, headed by the master marksmen, and amid music was brought before the great marksman and punster, "Natz'1" (Mr. J. B. Hefner) who bestowed the prize while giving a suitable speech.

    The largest number of bull's-eyes were made by the following: D. Wiget of 17Highland, 85; M. Grau of Chicago, 69....

    On this target 7800 shots were recorded....Other results: Union target:....George Beuttenmueller of Chicago, 67 ringers....Man's target: Highest numbers: John Pfefer, 78 ringers....all of Chicago.

    Otto Mutschlechner, known as one of the oldest and most ardent members of the Schuetzenverein, said, as the silver medal was given to him amid great acclaim, that he does not consider himself one of the best marksmen any more, but that, nevertheless, he will always work....for the furtherance of marksmanship and the abolition of anything which proves injurious to the sport. In conformance with the aforesaid, as well as at the request of the Schuetzenverein, he [Mr. Otto Mutschlechner] and Messrs. Starke and Hartmann advocated and succeeded in bringing about an alliance of the marksmen of the East and the West.

    After calling attention to the great benefits gained from such a union, 18Mr. Mutschlechner expressed the hope that the West will be well represented at the next marksmen's festival at Philadelphia; and asked the assembly to hail the new alliance, whereupon all concurred vociferously.

    The president of the Schuetzenverein, A. Boese, agreed with the proposal and showed why the Schuetzenverein desired to be affiliated with the Eastern alliance. He, too, gave three cheers for the Schuetzenbund der Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika (Riflemen's Alliance of the United States). [Translator's note: The original does not explain whether this is the regular name of the Chicago Schuetzenverein, the Eastern alliance previously mentioned, or the proposed name for the Chicago and Eastern alliance.] Later....additional cheers were given by....various members, including the co-founder of the club, Abraham Stuedle.

    There was also considerable activity at the bowling alley. Last evening 1,070 rolls were recorded. Up to the present, John Bortenschlager has succeeded in dislodging the nine pins forty-two times, and William Starke 19and Jacob Schmidt are tied--each has scored forty.

    Today marks the end of the festival. Shooting will continue during the morning. Most of the more ambitious riflemen remained at the Park[overnight at the clubhouse]to gain the desired points.

    Mr. Hefner will distribute the prizes after proper calipering of the various shots and computing the ratings.

    Good music, dancing, and concert selections are announced again for today, and in every way ample provisions have been made for good entertainment.

    Illinois Staats-Zeitung, Sept. 8, 1875.

    The End. The Winners

    The Schuetzenfest of 1875 came to an end yesterday. A large crowd came 20from Chicago and vicinity, anxious to observe the final results....Trains, buggies, wagons, and other conveyances were....needed to accommodate the throng. Attendance....during the afternoon probably exceeded ...expectations....The festival was successful in every respect, and the weather was favorable throughout the duration of the riflemen's tournament. Interruptions which are usually associated with such affairs were no noticed.....

    Target shooting and bowling started at an early hour with a few intermissions for refreshments. A mortar shot at three o'clock proclaimed the end of the festival. The rifles were laid aside and everyone awaited the announcements....An hour later a bugle sounded, whereupon the assembly gathered before the clubhouse, where the master marksmen, the president, and J. B. Hefner, who attained the title "King of the marksmen," were stationed to distribute the prizes.

    Mr. Boese, the president of the club, stepped forward and spoke approximately 21as follows: "My Friends! During these days we have had ample opportunity to talk about marksmanship, and voice our diverse opinions.... and it is hardly possible to make additional comments.

    "The casual observer may think it a simple matter to distribute prizes during such an event. It is not. Every rifleman knows what it means to compete for three days with an able adversary.....and Mr. Hefner did just that. It was not easy for him to win. Mr. Wiget of Highland is an expert marksman. But and unflinching eye, a sturdy arm, and some luck made Mr. Hefner a master marksman. He is the 'King of the Riflemen' and it is my pleasant duty to award him the diploma and the gold medal!"

    The new king was given three resounding cheers, and he expressed his thanks in a few words. He said that he was elated over the victory and that he felt that the entire club shared his sentiments. "Let me say of Mr. Wiget that he is the best marksman in the United States, and in comparison to his I am a mere bungler. It was luck rather than superiority which gave me success."

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    In closing he again expressed his hearty thanks for the good will shown by his friends and by the fraternity of marksmen in general.

    Then Mr. Hefner awarded the various prizes to his fellow marksmen and added a few words of praise in every instance.

    The results: Union target, first prize: Wiget of Highland and Beuttenmueller of Chicago, fifty dollars in gold and forty dollars paper money; second prize: M. Grau, Chicago, thirty dollars:

    [Translator's note: Forty names appear, and three targets are listed.]

    Mr. Plotke obtained three prizes, and when Mr. Hefner awarded them he observed that Mr. Plotke had been a member for only two weeks and that such a victory had not been recorded since the time when the club was founded.

    Other prizes:....[Translator's note: The prizes are not listed in their 23entirety and my computation shows that $671 was paid out; adding the amounts which were not published and the $229 paid for bowling prizes and the medals, I find that about one thousand dollars in prizes were distributed.]

    ....Altogether, 17,236 shots were fired.

    In the bowling alley 3,705 rolls were recorded. As first prize, W. Starke, who was pronounced king, received a gold medal and seventy-five dollars in cash.....

    At the completion of the distribution of the prizes music emanated from the dance hall. Many found this an added attraction.

    At nine o'clock in the evening it was announced that the train was about to leave.

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    This was a delightful festival which will linger in the memory of all.

    Yesterday's great Schuetzenfest (Marksmen's Festival) had an auspicious beginning.....The weather was delightful....contrary to....the predictions of....pessimists....The first train brought the riflemen and visitors....Participants numbered many thousands....The riflemen formed a parade in ...

    German
    II B 1 c 3, II B 3, II E 3, III E, IV