The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1863
    The German Society

    The general meeting of the German Society of Chicago was held in the German House, May 3, 1863, with President Heinrich Greenbaum presiding.

    The report of Agent Schlund was read and adopted, and the matter relating to the Reform School was referred to a committee which will endeavor to persuade the executive board of the Reform School to act in line with Mr. Schlund's suggestion.

    The financial report was adopted as read. Election of officers took place with the following result: president, Heinrich Gindele; treasurer, Karl Vergho; secretary, Conrad C. Diehl. Butz and Schneider were appointed to inform the above of their election. The following rules were adopted:

    1) The newly elected officers may not refuse to serve.


    2) Minimum membership fee shall be two dollars. [Translator's note: The secretary does not state whether this sum is the annual or monthly fee.]

    3) Anyone who pays fifty cents or more shall be permitted to speak and vote in the general meetings for the period of one year.

    4) The salary of the agent shall be three hundred dollars per year.

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President.

    Report of the Agent of the German Society of Chicago for April and May, 1862

    April May
    Secured employment for 93 85
    Secured railroad passes for poor 3 1
    Secured railroad passes for wounded soldiers 3 1
    Found baggage for 11 2
    April May
    Located relatives for 5 3
    Families allotted food 7 5
    Assisted in financial matters 8 6
    Found lodgings for families 6 2
    Secured medical aid and medicines for 7 5
    Soldiers' families supported 6 6
    Assisted immigrants to proceed on their journey 4 1
    Corresponded for 120 98
    Referred to county for aid 5 2
    Total 281 219
    Total for April and May 500

    My activity as agent of the German Society of Chicago was interrupted by the President's call for the organization of volunteer state militia. In my spare time I have devoted myself to helping needy immigrants and 4countrymen without remuneration from the Society, until the Conscription Act was passed; but now my term of service has expired.

    The German public of Chicago, a city where fifty thousand Teutons live, should pay more attention to immigration which is the cause of the great and rapid development of the city.

    While Americans annually spend large sums of money for benevolent purposes, as for instance, for orphan homes, homes for the friendless, and homes for the aged, the German Society of Chicago, which has become a refuge for helpless immigrants and needy German citizens, ought not fall asleep; for the German Society of Chicago is the only German organization which aids needy Germans without respect to origin or creed

    If our German citizens would cease helping every beggar and bum who comes to their door or approaches them in the streets, especially in the winter, and would donate corn, flour, meat, potatoes, etc., no Chicago family 5that is worthy of support would have to go hungry.

    The German Society has done much to increase the school attendance of poor children by exercising a "moral" compulsion--by giving shoes and clothing to those poor pupils who attend school regularly.

    We take great pleasure in commending the work done in the Juvenile Home, where German children were always heartily welcomed and well cared for.

    The Home of the Friendless is maintained for the benefit of children of dissolute or criminally inclined parents, or children who are in danger of entering upon a life of crime, and it has proved to be very effective. However the Home of the Friendless is not a suitable place for the children of poor but law-abiding parents; these children should be placed in more pleasant and less dangerous surroundings, so that they are not estranged from their parents and do not fall prey to greedy employers.


    The Home for Workers is in its infancy. It is the most pleasant and most necessary of all branches of charity; for who is more deserving among the needy than the man or woman who is diligent and faithful and would like to work but is prevented from doing so by age and physical disability, and would rather starve than become an inmate of a poorhouse?

    In the Reform School there are proportionately few German boys; and the majority of them have been placed there because of youthful carelessness or indifference on the part of their parents, who either send their boys out to gather old iron and other junk, or permit them to loiter idly about the streets and alleys. In time the lads meet bad companions and finally are confined to reform schools, where they come into contact with confirmed and hardened offenders, and as a result the boys are totally demoralized.

    I hope that the German Society of Chicago endeavors to have juvenile delinquents classified, so that light offenders, first offenders, or those who do not participate in evil deeds, but just accompany the offenders, are not 7placed on the same level with, treated as, and confined with, real criminals, thieves, robbers, murderers, etc., but are kept separate from the latter.

    The inmates of the Reform School should be classified in the following manner: 1) Non-participating observer; 2) Seduced; 3) Corrigible; 4) Incorrigible.

    As in Germany, the societies "for the protection of German emigrants" are expanding their activity, so we also should take greater precautions to protect immigrants in our country.

    In conclusion I wish to emphasize that if the German Society of Chicago is not more alert, the thieves and confidence men in New York and other ports will have a gay time; for the German Society of Chicago and the St. Louis Immigrant Society have done more to prevent swindling than any other organization in the United States. The German Society of Chicago may justly be proud of the fact that it has exposed several attempts to defraud innocent people of large sums of money and valuable property, and has also succeeded 8in locating much valuable baggage.

    If the German immigrants who come to Chicago are left without a source of information or material aid, the city will not only lose its wide-spread reputation for the assistance rendered immigrants, but also will soon be deprived of the valuable services of these people.

    The Chicago Turnverein and the Chicago Arbeiterverein have done much for charitable purposes; however, the great majority of the members of these organizations are of the laboring class; many of them are members of the German Society of Chicago, and their zeal is commendable. Yet it is desirable that those who have wealth--home owners, businessmen, and professional men--take a greater and more active interest in benevolence. And they really are obligated, for they avail themselves of the services of the Society when they need help in their offices, stores, or homes.

    I wish to thank our president, Mr. Heinrich Greenbaum for the valuable 9aid he has given me in my work. He was always willing to assist me whenever difficulties presented themselves, though at times it was necessary that he neglect his business in order to comply with my request.

    I have always tried to be just toward everybody; if I appeared to be unsympathetic in some instances it was only because I wished to discourage people who are not worthy of assistance. There are a great number of beggars who journey from city to city; they are very successful in arousing the sympathy of the public, much more so than worthy applicants for aid. They manage to lead the existence which appeals to them by carefully avoiding any flagrant offense against the laws pertaining to vagrancy. When I refuse to feed or house these lazy persons, they slander the German Society of Chicago. And the public, not knowing that these professional beggars have been driven from some neighboring city by the civil authorities, believes their stories about about inhuman treatment.

    .......[The next paragraph of this article contains a repetition of previously 10expressed thoughts.]


    F. Schlund, Agent.


    Receipts for 1862 and 1863 $652.07
    Disbursements for 1862 and 1863 246.50
    Balance $405.57

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President.

    May 2, 1863.

    The general meeting of the German Society of Chicago was held in the German House, May 3, 1863, with President Heinrich Greenbaum presiding. The report of Agent Schlund was read ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 18, 1874
    Young American.

    The concept connected with the name young American is not a very pleasant one. The term young America connotes youth which has outgrown its parents and which resents parental authority as an infringement upon its independence. Young America begins to blossom at the age of ten, to loaf at the age of thirteen and to become obnoxious at the age of fifteen. That is in regard to the boys. Young America among the girls is not any better. At the age of twelve she has a "beau" and at fifteen the miss starts her moonlight walks and her love affairs. Young America is bad, but not half as bad as "young German America".

    It cannot be denied that in many German homes the children grow up without any supervision and that boys and girls become loafers of the worst type. What a correspondent recently said, that here boys loaf in the saloons till past midnight is only half of the truth. He, who wishes to go on North Avenue on a Sunday afternoon, can see there clusters of boys at the street corners, who make the most indecent remarks concerning the passers by, who on evenings run around with girls just as young as they and who being work shy would not recoil from crimes. For this we have the word of the oldest and most experience policemen, who assert that no Irish street boy is as bad as a German boy.

    The concept connected with the name young American is not a very pleasant one. The term young America connotes youth which has outgrown its parents and which resents parental authority ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 16, 1876
    Body of a German Found on the Lake Shore.

    The body of a man was found yesterday on the lake shore in the neighborhood of Rogers Park. From a letter found on the body it was identified as that of a German, by the name of John Becker. The letter was from Waukegan and was signed Sarah Dembran. Becker was told in the letter, that due to the opposition of the parents, he should look for another girl friend. Besides the letter a knife was found, the blade of which fitted the wound perfectly.

    Becker was a fresco painter and came as such to Chicago about two years ago. He had taken part in the Franco-German War and was 30 years of age. His last works were the mural paintings in Koody's Church, corner of Chicago Ave. and LaSalle St.

    The body of a man was found yesterday on the lake shore in the neighborhood of Rogers Park. From a letter found on the body it was identified as that ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 27, 1879
    German in the Public Schools (Editorial)

    We received a letter from Mr. Keith, member of the school board, wherein the gentleman took exception to our remarks published in the Thursday, December 25, issue of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung. We accused Mr. Keith of having broken his word. He said that he had merely promised the editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung that he would not join in the attacks which were then being made against, the teaching of German in the public schools, and that he had fulfilled that pledge, but that he had never made a declaration that he would maintain that attitude throughout his tenure of office. He was not prejudiced against the Germans or their language, but it was his conviction that teaching the German language in the public schools was of no educational value. If people wished to reproach him for his act, then he would have to accept their censure, but he objected to anyone's saying 2that he disregarded his promises, because such a statement was not founded on fact.

    Well enough. We do not intend to be unfair and therefore we gave his views. Whether his explanations will convince others we leave to our readers. We wish to add, however, that according to Mr. Keith's opinion the reduction in the appropriation for salaries of special teachers is by no means an indication that German instruction will be dispensed with. The appropriation affects only the salaries of the "superintendents" of the special branches, German, music, and drawing, for whom no money will be available after July 1, 1880, but the status of the teachers remains unchanged.

    According to this explanation, only the salaries of the afore-mentioned three superintendents of the special branches would cease after July 1.


    If a definite issue were to be made of the question whether German instruction should be continued or eliminated, the school board's decision would be entirely different from its vote on Stone's motion, three days ago. At least two members (possibly even Keith, as a third, but he did not definitely say this) who voted for Stone's motion would then vote for the retention of German in our schools.

    Let us hope so, and if it does happen, then we will be indebted to the energetic intervention of the German press.

    We also received a communication from another source, wherein the sender endeavored to show that the Germans themselves showed little concern about the teaching of their native language, and proof was offered by quoting statistics of the constantly diminishing attendance at German classes due to parental choice.


    These figures are misleading, because the large number of children who study German at home, in parochial or private schools, or who are far advanced beyond their age group in the public schools and therefore do not study the language there, are not listed. One will readily perceive the importance of German instruction if he considers those children of Germans who have no opportunity to learn the language at home or at a private institution. One can admit, however, that the pedagogic value of maintaining the German language in the school curriculum is less important than the moral value as long as it is taught in the present unsatisfactory manner. Above all, our citizens of German origin will become staunch advocates of the public schools, whereas otherwise our schools might meet with considerable and justified criticism based on sensible teaching methods.

    Those Americans who at heart are opposed to German instruction are the very ones who should favor the teaching of German in the public schools, because 5thousands of children who now attend private or parochial schools would then go to our public schools. Many far-seeing Germans have recognized this fact and opposed strenously the teaching of German in public schools, because the children became Americanized thereby. What inconsequential German is taught in the public schools is entirely disproportionate to the English-American influence prevailing there; however, the majority of the German-speaking people in Chicago are not aware of this fact.

    Another factor which is of moral significance: German instruction steadily reduces the animosity which exists between German-American and English-American children. Those of our readers who have been here for twenty years or more have had experience along this line. A quarter of a century ago the middle and lower classes of our native population had the same attitude toward the Germans as Californians have toward the Chinese today. The Germans--and above all, their language--were ridiculed, and 6it was not unusual for American rowdies to tell Germans not to speak their native tongue in public or while riding on a train. Whenever Germans spoke their native language, Americans scoffed or grinned, so that many Germans, fearing mob violence, resorted to English jargon.

    After the German language was introduced into the schools of our larger cities, matters improved considerably. The new generation does not ridicule people anymore when they talk a foreign language, because it is taught in schools now and therefore commands respect. Fluency in another language is now regarded as an accomplishment, and most of the friction is now a thing of the past. And what applies to the children also applies in a large measure to the parents. The continuation of German instruction in our schools gives assurances of ever-growing mutual esteem between the English-Americans and German-Americans, and helps in fostering friendly relations.

    On the other hand, if we discontinue the teaching of German in the public 7schools we revert to former days, and old grudges will be renewed.

    If the American Republicans, the Irish, and the Kentucky Democrats [Translator's note: This refers to Mayor Harrison, a Democrat from Kentucky, and his followers--hence, Kentucky Democrats], wish to combine to bring about this undesirable condition, then they must expect to be treated as bitter enemies by the Germans.

    We received a letter from Mr. Keith, member of the school board, wherein the gentleman took exception to our remarks published in the Thursday, December 25, issue of the Illinois ...

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  • Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- February 13, 1883
    The Northside Socialists.

    The weekly meeting of the northside Socialists yesterday was well attended at which comrade Lange presided. Comrade Brassholz gave the weekly report with an ensuing debate. This was followed by comrade Schwab's announced speech on the theme "Free Love". He gave a picture of the marriages of today which are the result of industrial conditions. He said this was the cause for murders committed on unborn children as well as on the ones, having been brought into the world. Modern marriages are based on nothing but misery. Under our present system the wife is subordinate to her husband but under the Socialist system she would be his equal. The material interest which plays the principal part in marriages of today would be disregarded. Marriage would not mean slavery to women any more.

    People would live in palaces, comparatively equipped with all the latest comforts and, machines to do the heavy work. Children would be reared in educational institutions. Only then, marriage could be noble and only then affection could be considered. Such unions would eventually prove to be of longer duration than modern marriages are. But in a case of incompatibility, the union could be dissolved.

    The weekly meeting of the northside Socialists yesterday was well attended at which comrade Lange presided. Comrade Brassholz gave the weekly report with an ensuing debate. This was followed by ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 28, 1887
    Not One German Among Them

    During the last 8 months, we German-Americans had to hear repeatedly, that hardly without exception the sentenced Anarchists were all Germans. To be correct, only 5 of the sentenced men were born in Germany, 2 are natives of America and 1 is an English subject. But of what nationality were the feminine admirers of the sentenced anarchists, to whose trials they have run day after day? To what nationality did these women belong, who before and after the sentence was passed, visited the condemned men all too often, turning their heads with flattery? Among these women never a German was seen, unless it was a close relative of the accused men and then her behavior was always dignified. These women who found pleasure in visiting the jail and its occupants, are members of the so-called better class of English-Americans. Spies of course was the involuntary center of their interest. The fact that 6 of the condemned men are married was a little barrier, and they were left alone by the half crazy women folk.

    Lingg, the youthful dynamite bomb manufacturer is a single man and in addition 2a much handsomer man than Spies. He is also considered a much more interesting man, for he resisted his arrest most vigorously. But Lingg's expression is sulky, his manners reserved and he showed himself not at all in favor of feminine visitors. As a matter of fact, it is not at all necessary for a sentenced man to be handsome, in order to become a darling of "ladies" of that caliber. This shows the case of murderer Mulkowsky clearly. That he did not become engaged to marry one of the fair sex was probably due to the fact, that his lawyer was not a match-maker. Not one woman present at court preceedings or a visitor to the jail, was German, for the German women still believe in decency. In German families the daughter does not rule her parents; the father is not the "old man" or the mother the "old woman" relinguishing the rule of the house in favor of the daughter. They have and continue to be the bosses in their own home. This is of course, the result of sane rearing of German girls, who don't allow themselves to become sickly sentimental or oppose custom and decency.

    During the last 8 months, we German-Americans had to hear repeatedly, that hardly without exception the sentenced Anarchists were all Germans. To be correct, only 5 of the sentenced men ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- September 29, 1887
    The Public Schools.

    The Turn community opened its winter season, last night, at the north side Turner Hall. As the program promised to be one of interest to teachers, the audience was composed largely of teachers. Turner Max Stern acting as chairman introduced Charles Bary as first speaker. Mr. Bary is well known for the excellent services he has rendered us on the normal school question, and the retention of its director, Mr. Parker. Mr. Bary, American born, chose for his subject "Our public schools" using splendid German. After a short historic sketch about the development of the American public educational system, and a humorous remark about the now abolished system of memorizing, he devoted his speech to comparisons between the public school system of America and that of Germany. Of course the comparison showed that the German system is much more effective and Mr. Bary closed his address with the recommendation to cultivate the German educational system. This was followed by a play, "A scene in a Berlin police court" played by four members of the dramatic school. The next number on the program consisted of a debate concerning the question: "Would education be benefited by exclusive employment of male teachers in public schools?". 2The chairman's invitation for a general participation in the debate did not find any response, therefore, Mr. Bary was approached again with the request to give his opinion on this subject. He paid tribute to women's kind and beneficial influence upon the heart and soul of the child, therefore, prefers a female teacher for the elementary school and male teachers for the more advanced pupils, and he also endorsed Frobel's educational system.

    Turner Neinrich Suder contended, that the disrespect shown to our women teachers is the result of the home atmosphere of the pupil, and caused an outburst of applause when he praised the well mannered boy who, when meeting him would salute him properly and simultaneously remove his hat; but what disrespect was shown by a boy just saying "Hallo Suder". It was a very animated evening.

    The Turn community opened its winter season, last night, at the north side Turner Hall. As the program promised to be one of interest to teachers, the audience was composed ...

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  • Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- April 28, 1888

    Raster writes that it is not necessary to take the menacing nagging of some fanatic women seriously. Does he mean his article does not have to be taken seriously? His main reason is that women do not want the right to vote.

    It is hard for us to say that a nominal amount of women do not want suffrage but we will even concede that most of them do not care about their rights to vote, This is because of our having given them a wrong education and of having surrounded them for centuries with prejudices which dulled them to their own interests.

    The attainment of suffrage is in the interest of woman as the development of the political and economic conditions interest and touch her often far deeper than the man. Notice the rise of prices and fall of wages because of the tariff.

    Besides the interest any woman has in a reasonable molding of political and economic conditions she possesses an incontestable right for co-operation on legislation. She fulfills the same allegiance to the government as does the man and equal duties should have equal rights.

    Do not take exception to the fact that women are not subject to military service 2since in several countries, men are also not subjected. Besides for a woman it is as great a sacrifice to send her husband, sweetheart, son, or brother to war while she remains at home in constant fear for the life of her loved one.

    Not only has the woman the right to participate in public matters but she also has a pressing interest in it. And if this right has not been acknowledged by the legislature of most countries then it is for the reason that so far men have made laws in their own interest and to the disadvantage of women.

    There would have never been such important laws about divorce and subsistence for children born out of wedlock or about adultery on the part of women in contrast to men, if women had participated in legislation.

    The reason that women as yet do not have much interest in public affairs, prefering gossip and newspapers to economic and political questions, lies in the fact that they had no right to participate in these questions. If they possessed the right they would soon learn how to make use of it to the fullest extent. But it is disgraceful and humiliating that women should declare it not proper to show any interest in politics, that this is against feminism, that men will look after those matters, etc.

    We feel sorry for a slave who does not feel his chains, but more pitiable is one 3who boasts about his chains. And to this number of unfortunate ones belong a large number of our women.

    Raster writes that it is not necessary to take the menacing nagging of some fanatic women seriously. Does he mean his article does not have to be taken seriously? His ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 14, 1888
    A Practical Application.

    About two weeks ago the so called General Beem died. Since his death he has obtained more publicity than during his whole life. Out of his career of shame and disgrace many practical applications can be made; but whoever thought of making such a special one as did the local newspaper, Globe? This paper has taken over the bitter hatred of Germanism from the old Times and publishes the following: "This man Beem who assumed the title of "General" without having any claim to it whatever, this member of the best social clubs, this pretended learned man, and ambitious, politician, is now being exposed as a man not only without morals, but also without brains. One exception, however, must be admitted. Although he was insane, there was method in his insanity. He was a German. Of course, it can not be said that all Germans are crazy, but psychiatrists are of the opinion that there is a considerable tnedency towards lunacy in the German blood (hear ye). This opinion is confirmed by the large numbers of Socialists, Communists, Anarchists with which the German states are flooding the world."


    The Globe should have gone a little farther and paraphrased the well known citation from Horace Greeley: "Not all Democrats are thieves, but all thieves are Democrats" into: "Not all Germans are crazy, but all crazy people are Germans".

    It is not worth while to get indignant and angry about an explosion of hatred against Germans so vile that it is nothing short of insanity.

    It is, indeed, true that Beem was a son of German parents, although he tried very hard to cover it up, and he understood not one word of German, or, at least, he did not want to understand it.

    To make a practical application of this matter it should be said: A son of German parents, who intentionally denies his German descent and pretends to be of American origin, is in danger of exchanging all the good qualities of his German nature for all the worthless contemptible traits of the Americans.

    Woe unto those German parents who favor their children's degermanization in their stupid illusion that the English language, which they themselves understand very 3deficiently, is the superior one. In too many cases children learn only the scum of the conversational language and of the English papers they prefer those publishing scandals and indecent stories.

    Therefore it is a crime which German parents commit against their children and this country, if they deliberately try to up root those excellent inborn German traits in order to make of them worthless mock Americans who are ashamed of their German origin.

    Children, raised by German parents, with genuine German discipline and honor, make the best American citizens, who highly esteem the German language as a dowry from their parental home. Those children of German descent, who despise their being of such parentage, usually turn out to be worthless, as was the case with Beem.

    About two weeks ago the so called General Beem died. Since his death he has obtained more publicity than during his whole life. Out of his career of shame and ...

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  • Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- September 26, 1888
    Woman's Vocation. By Johanna Greie.

    In the hands of the woman rests, for the bigger part, the task of raising the future generation, and of making this generation understand true human virtues.

    Then why is it that we women are kept eternally in a condition of bondage, when in our hands rest the good and evil of future generations? Why should the only class that produces mankind, be stripped of its human rights?

    These are questions that come up involuntarily when one realizes how numerous are the enemies of a reasonable emancipation of women.

    The progressive class-conscious workers especially should realize the necessity of giving more consideration than has been done so far to womankind as educators and formers of the future generation.

    How can a mother be in a position to teach her children reasonable understanding 2of our world and life when her own mind is crammed with antiquated screwy ideas and prejudices.

    If a woman wants to give her children a good education aimed at a practical life, she must be in a position where she herself is able to judge happenings and events in practical life, and she must be acquainted and well versed with those. She can and will only then be able to teach her children rational thinking and acting, after she has learned them first herself.

    Mothers must be given entirely different positions in society if the education of children is to be a real solid one in conformity with actual conditions. There must not be any rules of exception for women, or the degeneracy of coming generations will infallibly be the result.

    It is indeed unspeakably sad to have to admit that our children must combat always anew the errors and mistakes produced by the same faulty education as we had in youth, in order to reach a clear, rational view and that this fight is going on under much more disgusting and pressing conditions now.

    Is it not far more our holiest duty to help and try to make this battle easier 3for our children? Should we not direct our undivided attention to the early acquisition of consciousness of genuine human dignity on the part of our children, to which acquisition every single human being as a part of the universe has the same right.

    If we want to reach this goal we have first to bring to life this consciousness. The interest of all women must be aroused for present day questions and demands of imminent importance to all workers.

    This understanding will come just as it did with men.

    The mother, being acknowledged to have the greatest influence in most cases on the mental development of her children, will then be in a position to form her children into real human beings who will become loyal, spirited followers of the suppressed and enslaved proletariat.

    Is not this aim worth while - to throw away old ideas of rights and laws, opinions and habits?

    Is it not high time to help women in their efforts to become emancipated, by advice and deeds, instead of working against them, and to use head and hand for 4energetic co-operation in order to realize the demands of a rational emancipation of women which is in harmony with the principles of justice and humanity!

    Just cast a glance at present day married life. I will not go into details with regard to the married life of the upper ten thousand, as I presume that the way those marriages are contracted and the growing demoralization in marital fashions are well known to everybody.

    The same stands for marriages within the so-called bourgoise or middle class.

    There is no concern whether the future bride is physically well or whether her character guarantees a happy married life in the future. No, the first question is: Is there money in her family, and how much?

    You will hardly find more than three or four marriages in a hundred that are found to be at least a bit bearable. There cannot be any talk of happiness, as found in a union based on free mutual harmony and love in which the two individuals supplement each other.

    And married life within the working class? Seldom, very seldom do we meet 5a couple of human beings who are of equal mentality and feeling.

    Defective education and the steady grinding fight for existence, for daily bread, hinder the formation of a harmonious, really happy life.

    When the earnings of the husband are not sufficient to procure the barest necessities and wife and children must go to work for support of the family - then what is life of such a married life?

    It is now easily understandable that as a consequence of these pressing worries for existence disharmony and dissatisfaction appear.

    And how does all this affect the minds of the children who a re witnesses of unpleasant scenes, resulting from this disharmony?

    Or let's assume that the earnings of the husband are sufficient to enable him to live a halfway decent and care-free life. The wife, then, is in a position to give herself fully to the education of the children and to make a comfortable home for her husband.


    But he is also interested in liberal progressive ideas. He goes occasionally to meetings and tries to discuss afterwards with his wife what he heard and saw. But she shows no understanding, no interest in such serious questions and perhaps even differs with her husband and agrees with the opinions of reactionary tendencies, as, by the way, most females do.

    The husband stands firm in his conviction, the wife the same in hers; one word leads to another and the matrimonial disrupture is accomplished.

    The wife begins to hate the causes, the meetings, organizations, etc., out of which come these ideas and discussions which in her opinion estrange her husband from children and herself.

    What a different picture is presented to our eyes when husband and wife are mutually interested and have understanding between themselves.

    A little patience and indulgence on the part of the man, and graciousness and reasonable discernment on the part of the woman, and it cannot be otherwise than that the woman will grow to respect, honor and love her husband's convictions.


    She will become interested in the ideas of our present time and will understand them, and will perhaps become a fearless fighter for truth and right.

    The man, on the other hand, will now be able to have discussions with his wife of a more serious nature, which will gain in interest as the mutual exchange of ideas and opinions furnishes the necessary stimulus.

    He will feel more comfortable in his home from then on, the spare time left him after the day's work will become a time of real recreation because he knows that his wife is of the same feeling and thinking as he.

    The wife must be the best friend, the most loyal comrade to her husband.

    Then this marriage will show a mental harmony which is necessary for happiness.

    The wife will, furthermore, in correct judgement of the situation, raise her children to be energetic brave men.

    No sneaks, flatterers and egoists, excelling in servility, slavery and bigotry, will grow up, but an absolutely true, proud and brave generation will bloom 8forthwith!

    Mothers, take interest in all those serious questions concerning the good and evil of mankind. Learn to realize that you have to make use of your energies in the interest of humanity.

    Do not be afraid of obstacles and interceptions in your way but fight your way bravely through trash of silly prejudices of past days.

    Demand your human rights and fight for them. Your slogan shall be:

    "It is for the future of our children," and you, men, do not remain any longer in inactivity and stubbornness in regard to woman's emancipation, but try to have your wives and daughters spend a few hours for the advancement of a just and rational woman's emancipation.

    You should be proud when your wife learns to think instead of remaining thoughtless all her life and unacquainted with high idealistic aims of humanity.

    It is not the purpose to set women against men but to but to bring them to the point of a realization that is necessary for the whole nation.


    Don't let us forget that all we are doing should be done in the interest of suppressed and suffering mankind.

    Therefore we demand liberation of our women from those unworthy chains with which custom and laws have bound them.

    Let us help to raise women to what they were predestined: "The educator and true mother of her children, the loyal companion and respected comrade of her husband."

    In the hands of the woman rests, for the bigger part, the task of raising the future generation, and of making this generation understand true human virtues. Then why is ...

    I K, I H, I E, I B 3 b, I B 3 c