The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 21, 1872
    The Evangelical Community in Chicago. By Rev. M. Stamm.

    Late in the summer of 1836, a considerable number of German families, mostly Alsatians, moved from the town of Warren, Pa., to the state of Illinois, and settled in four different groups, partly in the city of Chicago, at Dutchmans Point, and at Wheeling, Cook County; also at Naperville, and at Sharon on the Rock River. As they were in these vast prairies without any pastoral care, they addressed together several petitions to the Western Conference of the Evangelical Community, whose activities at this time extended to Ohio, to send them a preacher. In the first days of July, 1837, a member of the Conference, Rev. F. Boos, undertook the long and hazardous journey on horseback, arriving in Chicago, after endless hardships, on July 23rd. He was the first Protestant minister to proclaim God's word in the German language to the Germans of Chicago, 2Dutchmans Point, Wheeling, and Naperville. In these places he organized the first German Protestant communities in the Northwest, and made them elect so-called class leaders who would preside over their meetings till they could get their own ministers. This done, Rev. Boos immediately returned to his district in Ohio, which had an extent of 300 to 400 miles.

    For eight months these communities were without a preacher. Then the Western Conference took up activities in Illinois and sent Rev. M. Hauert. Mr. Hauert reached Chicago on September 3rd, 1838, and travelled, as the second German Protestant minister, to most of the German settlements in Illinois. His salary for a whole year then amounted to only $74.32. At the Conference he could report a total of 78 members in Illinois.

    3

    The first German Protestant church in all the Northwest states was built by the community in Wheeling of squared logs. Wheeling became the center of all church activities of this Protestant community. From 1840 on, every Sunday a German sermon was given in Chicago. In this year the Rev. J. Hoffert and Rev. D. Kern preached; in 1841 Rev. H. Stroh, and again D. Kern; in 1842 the Rev. Dr. Wahl and Rev. A. Plank. Wahl who, a few years later, left the church on account of his insufficient salary, became the first permanent German minister in Chicago. His community was given two excellent lots by the "Canal Camp ", corner of Wabash and Monroe, on which they built the first German-Protestant church in Chicago. Rev. G. Augenstein succeeded as minister in 1844.

    In 1854 the community sold its property for $6,000 and split into two parts, each receiving $3,000. One part built with this a church, first on S. Clark Street, sold it, and built in 1856 on the corner of Third Ave. and Polk Street, for $8,000, one of the best German churches of brick, which it still owns.

    4

    The Illinois Staats Zeitung gave a detailed account of its dedication. This community was again divided in 1864, on the initiative of the Illinois Conference, and on a far part of it, Rev. J. G. Escher built a pleasant mission chapel, on the corner of 12th and Union streets.

    The other half of the old Wabash Avenue community built a church, corner of N. Wells street and Chicago Avenue. Internal difficulties led to a division in 1869. One part built one of our best city churches under the leadership of Rev. J. Schafle on Second and Noble streets. The main part of the Wells Street community built in 1869 our biggest and finest church at Sedgwick and Wisconsin streets, under the active guidance of Rev. J. Miller. The third and smallest part of the old Wells Street community built a magnificent hall on N. Wells Street community built a magnificent hall on N. Wells Street with three beautiful shops; separated completely from the Evangelical community, and elected the Rev. J. P. Kramer 5its temporary minister. In the great fire this hall and the church on Wisconsin Street were destroyed. The Wisconsin Street community will rebuild early in the summer. The independent community has already built during the winter, under the supervision of the Rev. Augenstein. At the dedication they declared themselves willing to return to the Evangelical community..........

    To sum up: The Evangelical community now has five communities with 550 members, five churches and four parsonages, and 3,000 volumes in its libraries. Out of the five small communities of 1836 have grown in 36 years, six conferences with about 725 permanent ministers, 30,000 church members, 400 Sunday schools, and a flourishing college at Naperville. This church also possesses the oldest and largest German church paper in the U. S., with 20,000 subscribers distributed over most of the Western States. A similar spiritual propagation no church or organization in the whole United States can boast.

    Late in the summer of 1836, a considerable number of German families, mostly Alsatians, moved from the town of Warren, Pa., to the state of Illinois, and settled in four ...

    German
    III C, III F, II B 2 d 1, I A 2 b, V A 1, III A, III G, III H, II F
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- November 18, 1876
    Pastor Joseph Hartmann's Jubilee

    Today, November 18th, Rev. Joseph Hartmann has been pastor of the First German Evangelical Parish of Chicago - St. Paul's Church - for 25 years. Rev. Hartmann was born Sept. 18, 1824, at Bornheim in Bavaria. He received his education in the Gymnasium of Speyer and that of Zweibrucken. He also attended the universities of Bonn and Uztreeht, where he studied philosophy and theology.

    In 1849 he came to America and in the same year he passed his examination before the German Evangelical Synod of North America in Cleveland, Ohio. His first parish was at West Turin in Lewis County, in the state of New York. From there he came to Chicago. His activities here were most successful. Besides his increasingly flourishing parish, he started 2several new German Evangelical parishes. He is also the creator of many Anglo-German parochial schools and thus deserves fullest recognition for the preservation of the German language and German customs in Chicago and in the Northwest.

    His activities as synodal president and as preacher were equally successful. He is also the founder of our German orphanage. After the fire of 1871, it was his driving power which was mainly responsible for the rebuilding of his church and school and of the orphanage.

    Pastor Hartmann has, here in Chicago, baptized 11,562 children, confirmed 2,810 children, married 4,677 couples and given the Last Supper to 37,500 people.

    3

    During the Civil War he strongly advocated the Union and fought with great ability in the "Hausfreund" published by him in the interests of the preservation of the Union and the Abolition of Slavery.

    On account of what he has done for the Germans and the Republic, Rev. Hartmann has become highly respected and beloved. The church celebration in his honor will take place Sunday in the midst of his parish. But all the Germans from Chicago wish to extend to this highly deserving man their most sincere congratulations!

    Today, November 18th, Rev. Joseph Hartmann has been pastor of the First German Evangelical Parish of Chicago - St. Paul's Church - for 25 years. Rev. Hartmann was born Sept. ...

    German
    IV, I A 2 b, II D 4, III C, II A 1, III A
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 27, 1879
    German in the Public Schools (Editorial)

    We received a letter from Mr. Keith, member of the school board, wherein the gentleman took exception to our remarks published in the Thursday, December 25, issue of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung. We accused Mr. Keith of having broken his word. He said that he had merely promised the editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung that he would not join in the attacks which were then being made against, the teaching of German in the public schools, and that he had fulfilled that pledge, but that he had never made a declaration that he would maintain that attitude throughout his tenure of office. He was not prejudiced against the Germans or their language, but it was his conviction that teaching the German language in the public schools was of no educational value. If people wished to reproach him for his act, then he would have to accept their censure, but he objected to anyone's saying 2that he disregarded his promises, because such a statement was not founded on fact.

    Well enough. We do not intend to be unfair and therefore we gave his views. Whether his explanations will convince others we leave to our readers. We wish to add, however, that according to Mr. Keith's opinion the reduction in the appropriation for salaries of special teachers is by no means an indication that German instruction will be dispensed with. The appropriation affects only the salaries of the "superintendents" of the special branches, German, music, and drawing, for whom no money will be available after July 1, 1880, but the status of the teachers remains unchanged.

    According to this explanation, only the salaries of the afore-mentioned three superintendents of the special branches would cease after July 1.

    3

    If a definite issue were to be made of the question whether German instruction should be continued or eliminated, the school board's decision would be entirely different from its vote on Stone's motion, three days ago. At least two members (possibly even Keith, as a third, but he did not definitely say this) who voted for Stone's motion would then vote for the retention of German in our schools.

    Let us hope so, and if it does happen, then we will be indebted to the energetic intervention of the German press.

    We also received a communication from another source, wherein the sender endeavored to show that the Germans themselves showed little concern about the teaching of their native language, and proof was offered by quoting statistics of the constantly diminishing attendance at German classes due to parental choice.

    4

    These figures are misleading, because the large number of children who study German at home, in parochial or private schools, or who are far advanced beyond their age group in the public schools and therefore do not study the language there, are not listed. One will readily perceive the importance of German instruction if he considers those children of Germans who have no opportunity to learn the language at home or at a private institution. One can admit, however, that the pedagogic value of maintaining the German language in the school curriculum is less important than the moral value as long as it is taught in the present unsatisfactory manner. Above all, our citizens of German origin will become staunch advocates of the public schools, whereas otherwise our schools might meet with considerable and justified criticism based on sensible teaching methods.

    Those Americans who at heart are opposed to German instruction are the very ones who should favor the teaching of German in the public schools, because 5thousands of children who now attend private or parochial schools would then go to our public schools. Many far-seeing Germans have recognized this fact and opposed strenously the teaching of German in public schools, because the children became Americanized thereby. What inconsequential German is taught in the public schools is entirely disproportionate to the English-American influence prevailing there; however, the majority of the German-speaking people in Chicago are not aware of this fact.

    Another factor which is of moral significance: German instruction steadily reduces the animosity which exists between German-American and English-American children. Those of our readers who have been here for twenty years or more have had experience along this line. A quarter of a century ago the middle and lower classes of our native population had the same attitude toward the Germans as Californians have toward the Chinese today. The Germans--and above all, their language--were ridiculed, and 6it was not unusual for American rowdies to tell Germans not to speak their native tongue in public or while riding on a train. Whenever Germans spoke their native language, Americans scoffed or grinned, so that many Germans, fearing mob violence, resorted to English jargon.

    After the German language was introduced into the schools of our larger cities, matters improved considerably. The new generation does not ridicule people anymore when they talk a foreign language, because it is taught in schools now and therefore commands respect. Fluency in another language is now regarded as an accomplishment, and most of the friction is now a thing of the past. And what applies to the children also applies in a large measure to the parents. The continuation of German instruction in our schools gives assurances of ever-growing mutual esteem between the English-Americans and German-Americans, and helps in fostering friendly relations.

    On the other hand, if we discontinue the teaching of German in the public 7schools we revert to former days, and old grudges will be renewed.

    If the American Republicans, the Irish, and the Kentucky Democrats [Translator's note: This refers to Mayor Harrison, a Democrat from Kentucky, and his followers--hence, Kentucky Democrats], wish to combine to bring about this undesirable condition, then they must expect to be treated as bitter enemies by the Germans.

    We received a letter from Mr. Keith, member of the school board, wherein the gentleman took exception to our remarks published in the Thursday, December 25, issue of the Illinois ...

    German
    I A 1 b, II B 2 f, I A 2 b, I B 3 b, III A
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 31, 1879
    German in the Public Schools (Letter to the editor)

    To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung:

    I would like to submit two phases about German instruction in our schools.

    1) The first point involves the recent statement made in your paper by Mr. Delany, a member of the school board. He declared in your paper, as well as in other publications, that he would never favor abolition of German language instruction and was opposed only to the employment of three special teachers, or so-called superintendents for German, singing, and drawing. I do not intend to argue particularly with Mr. Delany, as he only recently became affiliated with the school board and therefore has not been in a position to become fully conversant with all the details.

    I admit, it is not the duty of the superintendent of German instruction 2personally to teach the children. It is his duty, however, to supervise instruction and to guide the younger teachers, since we do not have a normal school anymore and our young personnel lacks experience. Furthermore, the superintendent must examine the pupils at least every two months; he prepares the material, adapting it to the various schools, and yet must arrange it in such a manner that pupils who are transferred to another district school can readily continue their studies; he must also appraise the relative value of instruction material, prepare the monthly and annual reports, and find suitable substitutes whenever a teacher is sick. He also examines the applicants who wish to become teachers and, after accepting them, supervises their activities and gives advice when the occasion arises.

    Briefly, he bears the same responsibility to his teaching staff as the principal of a school does to the English teachers, with one additional disadvantage: The superintendent of the special branches must visit every school regardless 3of inclement weather, whereas the principal of a school need not leave the building. To dismiss the superintendent would be equivalent to discharging the principal of every school and leaving matters to the discretion of the school teachers, most of whom are young. All who might favor the abolishment of the superintendents, should consider that this would be the entering wedge whereby German instruction would soon disintegrate. It is a fact, that every attack on German language instruction during the last years was preceded by attempts to abolish the superintendency. If that position is shelved, the rest will follow-quickly.

    2) We believe that it is timely to give official figures about German instruction. In the month of November, 1879 for instance, according to the report submitted to the school board by Superintendent Doty, we find that 35,454 pupils attended the four lower grades and 8,801 pupils were in the upper four grades. Total attendance was 44,255.

    German instruction is limited to four grades in eighteen of our schools. These eighteen schools have 5,737 pupils of the grammar classification. We 4append a list so that facts may be easily visualized:

    Name of School Number of Grammar Pupils Children Studying Grammar
    Franklin 552 272
    Kinzie 312 111
    North Clark Street 156 70
    Lincoln 287 93
    Newberry 198 119
    Ogden 398 133
    Calumet 157 125
    Cottage Grove 267 57
    Haven 267 64
    Moseley 485 147
    Brown 690 125
    Carpenter 189 40
    Dore 333 171
    King 277 106
    5
    Scannon 240 76
    Skinner 423 49
    Washington 273 26
    Wells 233 61
    5,737 1,845

    We have another restriction: A resolution of the school board provided that German shall not be taught in any grade unless at least twenty pupils apply. In most of the schools, particularly in the eighth grade, there are usually less than twenty pupils in all. As a result of that resolution passed by the school board another 921 pupils were deprived of an opportunity to learn German, so that only 4,816 pupils have a chance to study German--not 50,000, as our opponents declare! And of these 4,816, only 1,845 take German instruction!

    This is an accurate report! And now we ask if this is not a favorable indication (?) considering the difficulties confronting the teachers who labor while

    6

    a veritable sword of Damocles is suspended over their heads. It is really surprising that the Germans have not asked to have the language study included in every school. The parents of 150 children who attend the Pickard School (and this also applies to the Foster School), asked the school board to include German instruction but to no avail! As a result, the Pickard School has practically no attendance, while the neighboring parochial and private schools, which teach German, are crowded--and in these institutions there is no free tuition!

    In regard to the value of language instruction, your valued paper has treated the subject so thoroughly, and in such a masterly manner, that no more can be added. I was only concerned in disproving the aforesaid two assertions.

    Respectfully,

    Veritas

    To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung: I would like to submit two phases about German instruction in our schools. 1) The first point involves the recent statement made in ...

    German
    I A 1 b, I A 2 b
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- September 25, 1886
    Reopening

    The German Evangelical Church St. Paul, corner La Salle Avenue and Ohio Street, will resume its church services on Sunday, September 26, after six weeks spent in repairs, painting and interior decoration. All this work was done masterfully by a decorator, Emmel, and gave the church a new and refreshing appearance. A special divine service will be observed Monday evening, on which occasion the new teacher of the St. Paul's German-English congregational School, C. A. Weiss, will be introduced.

    Mr. Weiss already has been principal of the school two weeks and had proved his abilities as principal and teacher.

    The German Evangelical Church St. Paul, corner La Salle Avenue and Ohio Street, will resume its church services on Sunday, September 26, after six weeks spent in repairs, painting and ...

    German
    III C, I A 2 b
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 19, 1887
    The German Language Jeopardized.

    Even the most radical German unbeliever has to agree that the German language and its use in this country depends much on the support it receives from German churches. The unbelieving element of the German-American is in the minority; the majority is devoted to its churches. The steadily growing number of German Churches gives evidence enough of the religious belief of German people. The burden and responsibility of the upkeep of these places of worship rests on the shoulders of church members. The state has no obligations toward the church whatsoever. Millions of German-Americans will continue the use of the German language, as long as the churches to which they belong will not discard the mother tongue. Therefore it seems, that special effort should be made by these churches to preserve our German language through the example they can set. In regard to the German Protestant Churches, we should not feel concerned about the German language being extinguished in this country. The two largest German-American religious associations of the Protestants, namely, the United Evangelical Church and the Lutheran Evangelical Church, were far sighted enough to erect schools and seminaries, preparing even young men born in this country to become ministers fitted for the pulpit of German Churches. But according to the opinion 2of a German-Catholic theologist, the German-Catholic Church does not build seminaries, neither is it especially interested in the perpetuation of the German tongue in this country. This scholar's warning is: "We are approaching very quickly the time when we shall become aware of the fact, that German speaking Catholic priests are becoming more scarce as time goes on. The German Catholic Churches in America received their principal support from priests who were raised and educated in Germany. Due to better political conditions in their native land, many of these priests are leaving our shores to return to Germany. For instance, the Order of the Franciscan Fathers has now been permitted to return to its homeland, from which it had been banished some time ago. This Order has supplied the German Catholic Church in the United States with many priests and churchmen." It is to be hoped, that the German Catholics of America will not disregard the warning of this scholar, and will fortify against that danger by erecting German Catholic colleges, at which a good German education should be afforded our youth. Action is required and, the sooner the better.

    Even the most radical German unbeliever has to agree that the German language and its use in this country depends much on the support it receives from German churches. The ...

    German
    III C, I A 2 b, I A 2 a, III A, III H
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 28, 1889
    Josephinum - a New Educational Institution of the Northwest Side

    The "Sisters of Christian Charity" is a religious society, which was founded at Paderborn, Westphalia, Germany about forty years ago....Nothing in the field of charity is excluded from their activities, but from the beginning they have primarily concentrated their efforts along educational lines and have obtained their best successes in the training and educating of youth. About 900 sisters belong to this society today and their activities are extended to Germany, Belgium, Denmark, North and South America. More than half of them are in the United States and of these the majority who joined the society here come from this country.

    The provincial mother house of this religious order is located at Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania. Forty-four branch houses are subordinated to this central seat. These branches are almost without exception parochial schools belonging to German-Catholic churches and since so many of the churches are located in the West, the management of this society considered it its duty to establish a new home here.

    The Sisters of Christian Charity have, since their establishment in the 2United States, aimed at more efficient and fitting educational methods, but one peculiarity is their persistence in clinging to the German spirit and the German tongue. However, they also recognize the necessity of the English language for the German-American youth and in all schools under their leadership, English takes its proper place. Nevertheless, they know how to impart to their students a great skill in German and even a preference for it, in the more talented, which is usually not the case of the courses in German in our German-English private schools. It is therefore necessary for the sisters to maintain among themselves essential German traits. Conditions have been in their favor in this respect. During a number of years it became impossible for the order in Germany to receive new members, due to economic struggles, and the consequence was, that many of these young women from the higher social circles came to America to find admittance at Wilkesbarre. These young women transmitted German traits, disposition, thought, emotion, and the German language in its purity, to the young Americans who likewise attended a teaching course......

    We have to congratulate, indeed, the Northwest Side and, in a broader sense, all Germans in Chicago and vicinity, because of the founding of this new 3institution. Besides the excellent culture of mind and heart being maintained here, it will prove itself as an invigorating and preserving force of German culture and customs to all who come in contact with it.

    The sisters plan to have a boarding school and a day school in the new building. Besides, they will make it possible for those students who live too far away, to have their lunch at the institution.

    The Josephinum consists of one main building which extends 345 feet on Oakley avenue. At the north and south ends, 120 feet-long wings are joined to the main building. The chapel is being erected at the hub of the building, and the heating system at the north boundary line of the estate.

    The "Sisters of Christian Charity" is a religious society, which was founded at Paderborn, Westphalia, Germany about forty years ago....Nothing in the field of charity is excluded from their activities, ...

    German
    III C, V A 1, I A 2 b, III A
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 07, 1890
    The Agitation against the German Schools.

    Thus far the new compulsory school law of Illinois, does not appear to affect Chicago very much, because its enforcement here is well taken care of, being entrusted to competent officials. Outside of the Chicago district, that is in Illinois, many transgressions are perpetrated in rural districts by the bucolic school boards and the obliging courts. These are not based on the fact that they are parochial schools, but that they are German schools. The school committee of German Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Illinois has correlated all the various forms of agitation. This compilation was entrusted to its Secretary J. I. Groose.

    2

    Many of these instances we have mentioned ourselves, also the fact that none of the schools of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church, the Evangelical Unitarian, etc., and also of the Roman Catholic Church, are free from this impertinent interference by the county school boards. These persecutions are also disgraceful restrictions of religion and the freedom of conscience.

    By suppressing these German schools, the religious instruction which is given in them, is either likewise abolished or profoundly curtailed. Since these vexations affect both, the German, and also the religious sentiments of the maligned, it is but logical that a subsequent resistance will assert itself in a very decided and forceful manner. A very efficient organization against these propagandists has been created by the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Illinois, as has been previously alluded to.

    3

    It has formed a committee for the purpose of either abolishing the Compulsory School Law, or cleansing it of all objectionable features. Furthermore, advice and assistance shall be given to all the harassed communities as well as legal representation before the courts. The president of this committee is Rev. Hoelter of Chicago, assisted by Rev. Grosse of Addison and Rev. Schuessler of Joliet, and also the laymen, Eduards, Melcher, W. Tatge, the latter is an attorney at law.

    What weight the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Illinois can throw into the scales of justice, may be deduced from these well authenticated figures: It controls 226 schools with 18,463 scholars. There are 192 clergymen, 114,693 church-members, 68,436 communicants, and, at least, 15,435 voters.

    4

    These are, hark ye well! only the Evangelical-Lutheran voters. It would be desirable to ascertain the voting strength of the other German-Protestant churches. One would be confronted with mighty figures. But how will these numbers be increased if we add the many German-Catholic voters:

    Thus far the new compulsory school law of Illinois, does not appear to affect Chicago very much, because its enforcement here is well taken care of, being entrusted to competent ...

    German
    I A 2 a, I A 2 b, I A 1 a, III C
  • Abendpost -- April 18, 1890
    The Compulsory School Law.

    175 Representatives of the 35 Evangelic Lutheran Parishes of Chicago and vicinity, divisions of the Missouri, Synod met on the evening of April 14th, in the school of the Evang. Lutheran Immanuels Gemeinde to consider how the above law may be fought most advantageously. Mr. T. C. Diener led, as chairman, Mr. H. Ruhland functioned as secretary. A declaration by Pastor Hoelter, his motion was accepted. Its text in general follows: the members of these districts are antagonistically inclined towards a sensible compulsory school law. They are not opposed to Public Schools; on the contrary, the state would be delinquent in its duty, if it failed to give the growing youth an opportunity to study the elementary subjects. They do not object to the teaching of the English language but they very energetically reject the various provisions of the present compulsory law which curtails parental, personal and religious rights in a deplorable manner, and it subjects all private schools to such state-control, that their continued existence becomes doubtful. It is unfortunate that the necessity has arisen, which compels citizens to obtain their legal rights by political intervention. What has this law achieved? Parents were convicted as criminals, because they entrusted their children to schools, built and financed from their own resources, in which nothing is taught that conflicts with the state. They must, therefore resort to votes, if no amendments will be made.

    175 Representatives of the 35 Evangelic Lutheran Parishes of Chicago and vicinity, divisions of the Missouri, Synod met on the evening of April 14th, in the school of the Evang. ...

    German
    I A 2 b, I A 2 a, III C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 05, 1891
    Retrogression of German

    There are Christian churches in eastern cities which were founded by Germans years ago, but where services are now held in English only. At the present time such retrogressions do not occur frequently. The hot battle that was fought for the continuation of Protestant and Catholic German parochial schools assures the maintainance of German in the churches at the same time.

    It is regretable, however, that the German language is more and more supplanted by English in some of the Jewish temples because the rising generation desires it. Quite a few of the outstanding German rabbies in this country were substituted with English-Jewish clergymen, because of their inability to master both languages thoroughly. It must be admitted that the younger generation in the Jewish congregations, who desire the change are usually very generous towards their German clergymen thus forced to resign.

    Of course, the rising generation of the Jews in this country has the right and privilege to make rules and regulations in their inherited temples according to their own desires. But just as indisputable is the right of the German-American 2Press to deplore the retrogression of the German language among such a capable race. The most splendid achievements in Jewish pulpit oratory in the United States are and remain German.

    There are Christian churches in eastern cities which were founded by Germans years ago, but where services are now held in English only. At the present time such retrogressions do ...

    German
    III C, I A 2 b, III A, III C, III A