The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 19, 1875
    German-American Catholics (Editorial)

    The Catholic Wahrheitsfreund, (Friend of the Truth), of Cincinnati, once expressed its objection to the agitation carried on by Catholic fanatics; at least that paper definitely condemned the requests of those apostles who demanded certain divisions of the school fund. And the paper reiterates its opinion now, although lately Archbishop Purcell of Cincinnati, in his organ, the Catholic Telegraph, has been renewing the demands for school funds with determined insistence, invoking the authority of the Syllabus. [Translator's note: Syllabus; A document issued by Pope Pius IX, December 8, 1864, condemning eighty current doctrines of the age as heresies.]

    [Translator's note: The omitted paragraphs consist of an excerpt taken from the Wahrheitsfreund, and comments thereon.] 2Nevertheless the conduct of the Wahrheitsfreund; its opposition to Catholic agitators and disturbers, deserves recognition. The paper undoubtedly acts in conformance with the attitude of the tremendous majority of German Catholics in the United States, at least, surely, in accordance with that of practically all German Catholics in Chicago, and everyone who is at all familiar with conditions here will concede that the Chicago German Catholics are, completely tolerant and loyal to the country of their adoption.

    Any attempt to undermine the interdenominational peace among local Germans would prove farcical. And the new generation of German Catholic is fully steeped in the true, American form of tolerance; the absolute equality of all religious denominations.

    The Catholic Wahrheitsfreund, (Friend of the Truth), of Cincinnati, once expressed its objection to the agitation carried on by Catholic fanatics; at least that paper definitely condemned the requests of ...

    German
    I A 1 c, I A 2 a, III C, I C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 03, 1892
    Confusing Public Schools with Church Schools

    Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul, has repeatedly expressed himself more or less pointedly in favor of turning over the Catholic church schools to the state or changing them into public schools. This has reference to the famous Faribault Plan, which is named after the country town Faribault, in which the plan originated. It was also introduced in another Minnesota town near St. Paul.

    In accordance with this plan the Catholics turned over their church schools to the state to be used as public schools. The school board then agrees to engage catholic nuns as teachers in these schools. The teachers are required not to give any religious instruction during school hours, but to restrict the same to children of Catholics after regular hours.

    This is the agreement. Children of Protestants and other non-Catholics attended these schools. But among these parents utmost discontent prevails lately and they make the following complaint: The teachers daily instructed the children during the noon hour in the Catholic catechism and attempts were made to force non-Catholic children to participate. The non-Catholic population became so excited that plans were supposed to have been made to engage militia for the

    Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul, has repeatedly expressed himself more or less pointedly in favor of turning over the Catholic church schools to the state or changing them into public ...

    German
    I A 2 a, I A 1 a, I C, I A 1 c
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 27, 1892
    Altgeld's Masterful Interpretation of the Parochial School Question

    Altgeld has expressed his sentiments about that torrid election question which now holds sway in Illinois. His remarks at the time of his nomination and subsequent speeches have now been amplified as well as perfected by the addition of necessary detail. We quote, without omission, and have conscientiously translated it into German. In its direct, compelling logic and understandable, progressive attitude, it represents a veritable arsenal of efficient weapons with which the "Know-nothingism" and the Republican Fiferism can be combatted.

    "Like the Democrats, I am in favor of compulsory school attendance. Likewise, I desire that every child shall have a certain, definite education and that schooling shall be at state expense, if it is not otherwise provided for.

    The public schools of the state shall be under state supervision, and no sectarian religious beliefs shall be taught there, so that no particular creeds may be implante into the easily susceptible minds of school children.

    The state-schools have been created, to take care of all those children, whose 2parents or guardians refrain from sending them to private schools.

    There was a period during the history of the world, when no common public schools existed. Whoever wanted to learn something had to hire an individual teacher or pay for it in an exclusive school. But in the course of time, the well directed, amply state financial public schools, particularly the elementary and grammar classes, have supplanted the private institutions.

    But the parochial school, with its church connection, survived. When such a school was founded, the church provided worldly and religious instruction, both from the same instructor. The parochial schools of the various denominations are a part of their respective churches, just as the Sunday School is a division of the English-American Protestant church. We have no right to interfere. The principle on which our public school system has been built, does not contain any paragraph, which authorizes the state to compel people to accept this system, if they do not desire it and are providing instruction for their children elsewhere. The public school is here to cope with the problem of insufficient schools, but not to abolish parental control and choice in regard to their offspring's education.

    Like the Democrats, as aforesaid, I am for compulsory school attendance. It cannot be tolerated that a person shall grow up in ignorance but the state has no right 3whatever to meddle with parents who obtain an education for their progeny.

    The state shall regard the curriculum of a parochial school as sufficient and legal, even if it has no supervision over such institutions. The state is no less concerned in the child's welfare than the parents.

    In educational matters, as in other affairs which affect children, parents may err occasionally, but their intentions are good. No one endowed with intelligence will therefore insist, that the state has a right to prescribe to parents the methods they shall use to raise their children or to maintain discipline.

    Supervision over parochial schools is not a state right, because the state does not contribute anything towards them. Only if something ocours there which comes in conflict with the criminal laws may the state intervene. If it becomes evident that such schools teach subjects which are detrimental to the state and the commonweal, or that the scholars are maltreated, then the state would have the right to take steps in order to abolish such conditions, but only then. Even the most inveterate enemies of the parochial schools have never brought such accusations. They admit that from an educational stand point they are good.

    4

    The state does not have the right to inspect parochial schools in order to ascertain if everything proceeds properly. Based on the same right or rather illegality, it should be possible for the state to enter the sanctity of the home, just to be assured that no wrong is committed therein. The state must act on the presumption that where no complaint has been made no misdemeanor exists. Parochial schools must not be inspected by the state when there is no evidence of some infraction. If some unlawful act has been perpetrated in such a school, and someone knows about it, then he should register his complaint. The same is true in regard to maltreatment of minors by their parents or guardians. If certain people, mostly church adherents, take recourse to the parochial, instead of state schools, then they save money for the state. Let as consider this case, the state deliberately drags children who do not belong to a certain congregation into a private school and demands they should be tutored in a certain manner, in short, treats them as if they were in a public school. Thereby the state would become a partner of a parochial school. But, if the state goes to such extremes, then the parochial school which has never asked for a state subvention, would have the right to demand financial assistance, at least to defray the cost of instruction in those branches over which the state exacted control.

    Such payments would not be permissable, since the constitution prohibits recognition 5of any church in state affairs.

    If the state of Illinois would investigate the parochial schools and then fasten the proclamation onto the portals: "Inspected by the State of Illinois and accepted as a school" then the state would recognize the power that lurks behind the school, namely, the church. Inspection of a parochial school by the state is a preliminary step towards recognition of the church by the state. If the state were to pay money towards the maintainance of such a school, then our courts would declare it as unconstitutional. But, as I have shown, it is contrary to the spirit of the constitution to inspect any church-schools.

    In this parochial school question, we hear much about the teaching of foreign languages. In the entire state of Illinois, there is not a single such school, where English is not being taught; all children there obtain an English education. The gibberish, that the parochial schools might bring the English language into oblivion, is silly, and no one considers or believes it seriously. For these very reasons it is entirely uncalled for, that a definite, compulsory, language teaching program should be enforced among parochial schools.

    6

    Among the Germans of this country, we find the reasonable desire, that their children should be able to read and write their parental language. If it were the absolute intention of the state to prevent children from learning the well entrenched German or any other language besides English, then state officials would have to penetrate the innermost family circles where English is often omitted in order to induce children to learn this tongue by imitation, whereby they acquire it from their very infancy.

    The addiction to the German language at home, and its use during teaching hours in the various courses of the parochial schools is resorted to, since teachers and parents know, that this is the only method whereby the student can obtain a thorough knowledge of his mother tongue, aside from the English. But hide or hair, its not a state affair."

    If Altgeld's ideas will bring victory on Nov. 8th, when the Illinois ballot tells the outcome, and we can expect that he emerges victorious, then the first months of the next year will give us a repetition of what transpired in Wisconsin a year ago, Under Gov. Altgeld's influence the new legal administration of Illinois will abolish the Edwards law; his instigation will help in creating a new school-law, which containone of the objectional features of the Edwards mandate and it will give the parochia private, and state schools equality and justice.

    Altgeld has expressed his sentiments about that torrid election question which now holds sway in Illinois. His remarks at the time of his nomination and subsequent speeches have now been ...

    German
    I A 2 a, I A 1 a, I A 1 c, I A 2 c, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- November 02, 1892
    Dividing the School Funds.

    Republican and "Know-Nothing" newspapers accused the Lutherans as well as the Catholics in former years, of striving to get a share of the public school fund for their parochial schools.

    This reproach has practically ceased, as far as the Lutherans are concerned, but continues against the Catholics. It is regrettable that, once in a while, a fanatical Catholic will make some irresponsible remarks, which will occasion such gossip. However, single and stupid fanatics are not the authorized representatives of the Catholic citizens of this country. A highly esteemed bishop, respected by non-Catholics for his brilliant mind and his tolerant attitude, undoubtedly has the right to speak for his fellow-believers. Recently the Republican politician, Harding, accused the Catholic bishops of Illinois of wanting a majority in the State Legislature in order to divide the public school fund.

    Bishop Spaulding replied in one of the local newspapers:

    "The Catholic bishops of Illinois are not ignorant blockheads. They know very 2well that the State Legislature has no power to divide the public school fund; but they are hoping that a sufficient number of honest and unbiased men will be elected to the State Legislature, to have the unjust and hated Edward Law repealed. This is what we are aiming at, and not at the dividing of the public school fund.

    "Mr. Harding need not worry about the financial burden, which the Catholics bear, due to the maintenance of our parochial schools. In reality our present arrangement is less expensive, than sending our children to public schools. The taxes would have to be greatly increased for all citizens, and, therefore, for us also, if we sent our children to public schools. The increase of expenditures would correspond with the increase in scholars."

    Republican and "Know-Nothing" newspapers accused the Lutherans as well as the Catholics in former years, of striving to get a share of the public school fund for their parochial schools. ...

    German
    I A 1 c, I A 2 a, III C, I C
  • Abendpost -- February 26, 1896
    Pleasing Prospects (Editorial)

    Because the income of the City of Chicago does proportionally decrease from year to year and bonds cannot be issued any more, the City Council resolved to lessen all expenses. At the most it cut down the grants for the public schools, which shall get along with $1,600,000 less than was demanded by the finance committee of the School Board. On account of this, not only all new buildings have to remain undone, although they are planned and absolutely necessary to remedy the overcrowding of many school buildings, but without doubt the attempt will be renewed to eliminate all the "fads" from instruction. As a fad is counted, not only instruction of the German language, but also drawing, gymnastics and singing as qualified branches of teaching only reading, writing and arithmetic will be allowed. This means that the public schools of the City of Chicago shall be suppressed below the average of the very poorest German village schools. Nothing shall be done to develop the body, the eye, and the talent for art. The entire education shall be organized as if all the pupils are to become "Grocery Clerks" in their later life. Individual thinking, manual training, and taste are articles of luxury which the rich city of Chicago must deny to their increasing citizenry.

    Because the income of the City of Chicago does proportionally decrease from year to year and bonds cannot be issued any more, the City Council resolved to lessen all expenses. ...

    German
    I A 1 a, I A 1 b, I A 1 c
  • Abendpost -- March 04, 1896
    The Question of Salaries for Teachers.

    The salary reductions recommended by the Economy Committee of the school board, which had been prevented in January by the opposition of Messrs. Thornton, Brennan etc. will be proposed again on account of the large reduction in the school funds, ordered by the Council. It is expected that the proposal this time will be accepted. The reductions will be made in all salaries in such a way that wages above $2,000 will be cut 10% above $1,000 5% and smaller ones 2 and 21/2%. In that manner a saving of $600,000 may be attained. The old enemies of the special courses, (German, gymnastic, singing and drawing), will take advantage of this favorable opportunity and will propose the elimination of those courses for a temporary period of one year. The budget of the high schools in any case will be reduced very considerably. The administration of the high school in Hyde Park for instance, in the month of February has spent #152 for natural gas in the biological department of the school to keep alive some frogs. The heating of the entire school by coal has not cost much more for this month.

    A number of unemployed have applied for service with the school census. Members of the school board and especially members of the census committee are at present very much worried persons.

    The salary reductions recommended by the Economy Committee of the school board, which had been prevented in January by the opposition of Messrs. Thornton, Brennan etc. will be proposed again ...

    German
    I A 1 a, I A 1 c, I A 1 b
  • Abendpost -- March 23, 1897
    Against Free Schoolbooks

    In the matter of the Schoolbook question, there was held another meeting by the opponents of the free distribution of schoolbooks to the pupils of the Public Schools, in the localities of the Bonifacius community, corner Noble and Cornell Streets. After Reverend Evers called the meeting to order and explained in a few words the object of the meeting, Mr. John Kolle was elected as Chairman, and Mr. Andreas Behrendt as Secretary. The Pastors Netzraeter, Burelbach and Erz, also Mr. Frederick C. Happel made speeches, in which they explained the reasons, why they protested against the position presented at Springfield. Pastor Netzraeter called attention to the fact, that more than half of all the pupils in the public schools are not past the age of elementary classes. The parents of these children, mostly workers and small business men, would have to bear the cost of the schoolbooks, together with the better situated citizens, who are in the position to give their children a higher education.

    2

    In similar vein, spoke Pastor Burelbach, while Mr. Happel, from the fact, that at the present time there is agitation carried on in six different states of the union, in favor of the system, of free distribution of school books, drew the conclusion, that the Schoolbook Trust stands behind this movement. Pastor Erz called it an injustice, that those, who save the State much money, through maintaining Community schools, and in spite of that, participate in the burden of paying a share for the public school expenses, should be taxed for something, which offers them no advantage.

    All those present, signed the protest resolutions, which will be submitted to the State Legislature.

    In the matter of the Schoolbook question, there was held another meeting by the opponents of the free distribution of schoolbooks to the pupils of the Public Schools, in the ...

    German
    I A 1 a, I A 1 c, III C
  • Abendpost -- June 20, 1924
    Taxes and the School (Editorial)

    Budget Director Herbert M. Lord reminds Americans that Federal taxes are relatively lower today than they were ten years ago. This statement is in part true, but is in need of much modification. Actually, the expenditures of the Federal government are three and a half times as great as they were ten years ago. Of the total sum that is obtained by taxation and subsequently spent, the Federal government receives forty per cent, the remaining sixty per cent going to the States, counties, and cities.

    Formerly [i. e., ten years ago] the relation was exactly the opposite. At that time, sixty per cent of the tax receipts went to the Federal government, while the States, counties, and cities had to be content with forty per cent. The Budget Director's statement is to be understood in this sense, namely, 2that the Federal government obtains a smaller proportion of the total tax receipts at the present time than it did ten years ago. Actually, the Federal government has just as little reason as the other [i.e., State and municipal] administrative agencies to be proud of its tax policies. In the case of all of them, expenditures have risen in such a manner as to instil grave doubts in the minds of all sober-minded citizens. Our participation in the World War--with all its startling orgies of graft and wasteful spending--is responsible for the high Federal taxes. In the case of the other [i.e., State and municipal] governmental agencies, the growth of expenditures has, of course, different reasons. In most large cities, the unreasonably high disbursements for school purposes constitute one of the main reasons for their financial difficulties. There is scarcely one branch of human activity which is not included as a subject of instruction in the curriculum of a large school system. Young people possessed of an offensive ignorance in elementary subjects are given instruction in psychology, biology, sociology, and all other sciences. They are instructed in technical subjects which ought to be reserved for the university or for practical experience, and 3they are let loose upon their fellow humans with a mass of undigested and confusing facts.

    The American school system has developed with a rapidity which is amazing. It must be acknowledged that in the process of this development the American people has displayed a truly astonishing amount of energy and generosity. It is obvious that in the course of this rapid development many weeds are bound to shoot up. The school is now in danger of forgetting its most important purpose, the real aim of its existence. Instead of affording youth a sound and thorough knowledge of the elementary subjects, thus laying the foundation for future professional training, the school endeavors to supply this professional training. This it cannot and should not do. In making the attempt, it becomes untrue to its purpose and does more harm than good.

    No one until now has ventured to raise his voice against this abuse. Our super-educators and those who make a hash of the school always have available 4the miserable stock argument that a man who rises in protest against their giddy ideas to make imbeciles of the youth, values his dollars higher than his children. Much abuse has been made of this catch phrase. It is time that the citizens offer resistance to the onslaughts of the school reformers. For even the tax screw cannot continually be tightened, and if the largest part of the tax receipts is spent for school purposes, then there will soon be nothing left for other important purposes. And what is more, the people will get a totally miseducated offspring made of dunces and ne'er-do-wells.

    Budget Director Herbert M. Lord reminds Americans that Federal taxes are relatively lower today than they were ten years ago. This statement is in part true, but is in need ...

    German
    I A 1 a, I A 1 c
  • Abendpost -- February 05, 1934
    School Politicians at Work (Editorial)

    The National Education Association is an organization composed of school politicians. Its avowed objective is to obtain the greatest possible appropriation for school purposes. It has little interest in the disposition of the money. The Association takes the viewpoint that the money must first be appropriated; and that when that has been done a suitable use will soon be found for it. The February issue of the official organ of this Association tells of a widespread agitation for the purpose or eliciting money from the Federal Treasury.

    It must be admitted that these school politicians know how to propagandize and to influence Congress, and they are evidently determined to educate the teachers under their influence, in this remunerative act. In the aforementioned issue of their magazine we find the following instructions:

    1) Write immediately to your congressional representative and to the 2President of the United States and urgently request them to support our public schools.

    2) Co-operate with the advisors of the General Committee for the Support of Schools, and with other friends of the school in your state, to influence public opinion on behalf of appropriating money for our schools from the Federal treasury.

    3) Request organizations to which you belong, or in which you hold positions on executive committees to demand that the members of Congress and of the Executive Department appropriate money for our schools from the National Treasury.

    4) Report what you have done, or what you intend, to do, to the Chairman of the General Committee for the Support of Schools.

    5) Act immediately--today!. The amount of success depends upon how soon 3and how energetically the organized teachers of our country act to attain the desired coal.

    One can easily imagine what an effect such propaganda will have in Washington. The leaders of the Government oust gain the impression that the entire country is making strong demands for appropriations for school purposes. Of course that impression would be inaccurate, for an overwhelming majority of our people, especially the much-plagued taxpayers, are urging greater economy in the operation of schools and a decrease in expenditures for educational purposes, What will sound in Washington like the powerful voice of the people will be nothing but the systematic and organized agitation of school politicians.

    How, what do these people really want. They want the Federal Government to appropriate money to pay teachers who work in communities which are not able to pay their teachers promptly, or which are forced to reduce expenditures for educational purposes. Part of the money is to be used to prevent the responsible authorities from carrying out sensible ana necessary economic measures, and part 4of it is to be used to help out, of their dilemma politicians who are in financial difficulties because of their dishonesty, extravagance, or incompetence.

    In other words, this organization with the nice long name is trying to create a widespread and intense agitation with the view of causing the Federal Government to pay a premium on graft, incompetence, ana extravagance. Let us hope that the teachers nave too much self-respect to help promote such a fraud.

    The National Education Association is an organization composed of school politicians. Its avowed objective is to obtain the greatest possible appropriation for school purposes. It has little interest in the ...

    German
    I A 1 c, I F 6, I H
  • Abendpost -- July 25, 1934
    Toupees Are in Evidence (Editorial)

    The Illinois Municipal League and the Illinois Teachers' Association have adopted a fighting attitude toward the groups who would like to limit taxes to one percent of the full value.

    They regard the whole idea as absurd. Their attitude is that no city or communal administration could exist on the revenue from such reduced taxes, and that this is purely a political measure intended to help certain office-seekers, in a word--absurd! But unfortunately, they say, there are many uninformed persons who have accepted this idea as a God-send, and therefore it is necessary to look into it. They advise the most astute resistance.

    The Municipal League and the Teachers' Association promptly composed a circular which they sent to the chief municipal officers. This does not surprise us; 2the League obviously has the interests of the municipal administration in mind rather than the interests of the taxpayers. Apparently they believe that it is the duty of the taxpayer to pay whatever the municipal administration demands. It has always been thus; why should it change now? If at any time one does not pay, well, there is always a way out. It is easy to manipulate tax assessments, as was demonstrated in recent years. However, they feel that they might possibly warm up to this idea if care were taken to supply the municipal administrations with sufficient means to take care of the people.

    This attitude is understandable. Less understandable is the attitude of the teachers, although it, too, can be explained. It is they who should be the first to demand a well-regulated administration. They have been waiting long enough for their back salaries and will have to wait quite a while longer. It is one thing to receive money, but still another thing to spend it. But they, too, fear for their incomes, that is, for their salaries. There is a suspicion that these salaries are a little high in comparison with those of 3other administrative or private employees. In addition, there is undoubtedly room for reforms which would considerably simplify the whole system, and yet make the school administration much more efficient.

    For the time being, the attitude of the two organizations must not be taken too seriously. The members of the League will have to become accustomed to the idea of managing with much less. Things will work out in the same way. They realize fully that conditions cannot remain the same. They know best the number of barnacles which cling to the bottom of the administrative ship, and which have to be taken along, although they are not useful. They know that this time something much different is at stake--that the question is whether the taxpayers will have a voice, or whether they will be forced to submit to the dictate of the party moguls.

    The teachers have taken the same course which they took seven years ago. They have learned nothing. At that time, in spite of repeated warnings, attempts were made to real-estimate the values of real-estate property in Cook County. 4Increased taxes were expected to bring increased salaries. As a result, taxes were muddled and the teachers suffered great losses. But it seems that they haven't suffered enough. They have renewed their efforts, and must again oppose a reform which, although it might mean a small loss, would otherwise mean security for their incomes. As a result of their perseverance in working without salaries, they have gained many sympathizers. It would be advisable for them to keep these sympathizers. In the long run it is the taxpayer who gives them wages and bread. There is an adage which says: "Where nothing is left, there even the Kaiser (tax collector) can exercise no rights".

    The Illinois Municipal League and the Illinois Teachers' Association have adopted a fighting attitude toward the groups who would like to limit taxes to one percent of the full value. ...

    German
    I F 3, I A 1 c, I H