The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Chicago Tribune -- March 07, 1886
    Manners and Customs of the Bohemian Portion of the City's Population. They Are Industrious, Thrifty and Generally of a Most Peaceable Disposition. a Community That Is Rapidly Growing Rich by the Efforts of its Individuals.

    There is probably no more interesting and progressive section of Chicago's foreign population than that inhabited by the Bohemians. Some years ago there was a decided prejudice against them on the part of American workingmen and capitalists. They took a very active part in the strikes and riots here some eight years ago, and they established a Socialistic propaganda which was far from being popular. They so far succeeded in carrying their ideas into effect that they were the ringleaders of the strikes, and they elected four of their nominees - not all of them Bohemians, however, to the Chicago Common Council. One of the most active among them at the time was Belohradsky, who is now living in Texas. Another so-called leader was Leo Meilbeck, Alderman and 2legislator, who afterwards committed suicide while acting as Public Library attendant. Frank Stauber and J. J. Altpeter were also elected to the council as representatives of the German and Bohemian Socialistic elements, as was Christian Meier. It is only fair to say, however, about Stauber and Altpeter that there have been few more conscientious councilmen than they. But as before stated, the Bohemians lost caste about the time alluded to on account of their Socialistic tendencies and "striking" propensities. When they first came to America they were willing to work for almost anything. They would underbid the Irish and German and American workingmen, and naturally evoked considerable hostility against themselves as a result. They were to suffer for this, and were, in fact, looked down on as outcaste, and not entitled to much sympathy. When they took to striking and communism they were cursed up hill and down dale by employers and employees. Latterly all this has changed, and in the lumber and furniture manufacturing regions, where they are now employed, they are looked upon as some of the thriftiest members of the community, useful citizens, capable and efficient workingmen and large contributors to the wealth and growth of Chicago.

    3

    The first Bohemian Immigrants.

    The first Bohemian immigration to Chicago began about the year 1848 - "the year of revolution". The Czechs rose in rebellion against the Austrian authorities, with whom they have never been on good terms, but were speedily suppressed by the Emperor and his army. Those who were prominent in the rebellion had to flee the country. Most of them came to America, some of them settling in Montreal, where they engaged largely in the cigar-making business. The Bohemian emigration was at first about the rate of 6,000 per year. In 1878, 1879 and 1880 it reached probably 10,000 per annum. It has fallen off again to 6,000. Most of those who came here were farmers, farm laborers, workers in wood, or weavers - usually carpet and cotton weavers. Those of them who located in Chicago settled down in the lumber region of the Sixth and Eighth wards. Some settled in the hardwood region of the Fourteenth Ward. F. B. Zdrubek, editor of the Bohemian daily paper the Svornost, estimates the Bohemian population of Chicago now at 40,000 at least. He estimates the entire Bohemians of America at 20,000. Outside of this city 4they are located in Nebraska, Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin on farms. Of the 40,000 in Chicago 26,000 are in the Sixth Ward, 9,000 in the Seventh and Eighth Wards, along Canal Street and Blue Island avenue principally, and about 5,000 are in the Fourteenth Ward.

    Lumber Workers and Furniture Men.

    They readily find employment in the lumber yards and furniture factories. The lumber merchants say they are steady, faithful workingmen. They are constant, but they do not rush matters. The ordinary pay is about 15 cents per hour, though they get as high as 20 cents. They have practically driven out Irish and German lumbermen. The latter will not work by the hour. They work by the piece - by contract - and are not satisfied unless they make from 40 to 50 cents per hour. At Harvey's, where the foreman, John Kallal, is a Bohemian, very few of the Bohemians are employed. The same is true of Hatch and Keith's. At Beidler's Germans seem to have preference. But as a rule the Bohemians have the call. Many of them are excellent cabinetmakers and upholsterers. They make from 535 to 40 cents per hour at this trade. They are nearly always at work - always driving at something. Their wives and the members of their families are also employed washing for families, tailoring, etc. Any person who goes into the Bohemian district will encounter some Bohemian man or woman in every block loaded down with bundles of pantaloons or vests on the way to some down-town clothing house. The housewife usually employs four or five girls at this work. The girls make from $5, to $6. per week, and their employers make a handsome profit. The practice which prevailed in Bohemian regions some time ago, of sending the women around to pick up shavings and kindling wood is fast dying out. The women's time is more valuable now-a-days and begging is unknown among them. The Italians appear to have a monopoly of that. The "dagos" can be even encountered in the Bohemian quarter plying their vocation.

    Getting Rich.

    People so hard working and so thrifty as the Bohemians cannot but prosper. The Bohemian quarter in the Sixth Ward is certainly a credit to their industry and zeal. There is not a more cleanly or better built workingmen's section in 6Chicago. The district west of Halsted to Lawndale, south of Sixteenth to Twenty-second Street, is built up with comfortable three-story brick dwellings and stores, nearly all of them owned by the Bohemians. The buildings occupy nearly the entire length of the lot. They are all neat and substantial, although there is some degree of sameness in the plan of building. Portions of some are frame structures pushed back on the lot and built up in front. All are neatly painted and have a wholesome and healthy appearance. Along Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-first, Centre Avenue, Throop Street, Ashland Avenue, Blue Island, Wood Street, Hoyne Avenue, the structures are very fine; the stores are especially substantially built and commodious, and would reflect credit on any part of Chicago. From a sanitary point they are all right too, though perhaps there is too much crowding. Nearly every floor has three families. This is not always conducive to morality, it is claimed. The Bohemians, as is well known, are very fond of soups. The odor from that article of food is not always the most pleasant. But, on the whole, there is little cause of complaint nowadays. Being so very frugal they do not buy the best cuts of meat, but they buy good cuts. Mr. Curran of Curran and Delany, who do an extensive trade with the Czechs, 7says they always buy good but not the best meats, and they are excellent at paying. They always come to time with their bills. They are good customers and not in the least clannish. Very many of them are in the butcher line themselves, and though there are some in the saloon line, there are not many. The editors of the Svornost say there are only about fifty in the "Cesky vinopalna line" (Bohemian distillery). There are almost as many in the drug store business. Quite a number are also in the carpet-weaving and clothing trades. Nearly all of them are making money. It is estimated that at least 60 per cent of the Bohemians are property owners. They have twelve building societies, with an average membership to each society of 700, and Mr. Cermak, one of the editors of the Svornost says that the weekly receipts from each society varies from $600 to $900. Besides, there are a number of men who are not members of those societies who are large property owners; William Kaspar is reported to be worth $100,000. John Kallal is a member of the firm of T. W. Harvey and Company. Dr. Kadlec of the Public Library Board; Frank Fucik, the West Town Clerk; John Matuska of Matuaka and Craig, the furniture dealers; and several others well-to-do. The editor of Svornost publishes besides the daily, two weekly papers, the Amerikan Mondays and the Prilcha Duchu Casu Sundays. Besides, he publishes quite a number of books and 8pamphlets, and his establishment on South Canal Street is well stocked. He employs about fifteen typesetters. Nearly all of the Bohemians can read and write their own language. Their public school system in the old country is conducted almost entirely by the priests. In this country the priests try to control the education, but the liberal thinkers' society - the C. S. P. S. (Czecho-slovak Benevolent Society) - which has a membership of 2,000 in this city, stoutly opposes. The C. S. P. S. by the way, has a magnificent hall and school in the Eighteenth Street. The organization is condemned by the church, but it flourishes. The editor of the Svornost seems to be the leading spirit in it. Liberal thought has been a phase of Bohemian public life since the time of John Huss. The attendance at the Catholic schools - there are three of them - is quite large. They are taught by the sisters. The children in attendance are all neatly and comfortably clad. They seem to run to bright colors. Every one wears a bright red hood, strong, thick-soled shoes, and a comfortable calico dress with abundance of petticoats. The Bohemian attendance at the public schools is also quite large, especially at the Throop, Longfellow and Garfield 9schools. Few, however, remain to complete the Grammar School course. The young women nearly all marry early. There is a disposition among the boys to be somewhat wild. This is especially the case with those of them who get to have a contempt for their parents and their parents' country. There are three Bohemian Catholic churches, one in the Fifth Ward, one in the Sixth Ward and one in the Eighth. Nearly all the women attend church while not more than half the men do so. John Kallal, already alluded to, is the leading Catholic layman. There are three theatres and about a dozen Bohemian halls. There is usually theatrical entertainment every night, and there is sure to be a dance every Saturday. At these dances some of the young Bohemians are apt to be boisterous, but as a rule they are well conducted, and there is little trouble.

    Habits and Mode of Life.

    There is an impression abroad that the Bohemians are slovenly in their habits. This is not the case. On the contrary they are clean and tidy as a rule. The 10women especially are very cleanly. They get on very well with their neighbors. Since Sadowa there has been some feeling between them and the Germans, but it is dying out. They take very kindly to the Poles. The Irish do not play them fair in politics, they say, and there is a tendency among them to be more self assertive. They like Cullerton because he attends to ward improvements, but they are down on Lawler for many reasons, though Frank appointed a leading Bohemian sub-Postmaster of the Southwest district. The leaders among them say that they will demand a better representation among the political parties in the future. They have a sort of natural penchant for politics. They manage to secure representation in all the principal offices in town. They claim from 6,000 to 7,000 votes, though this is probably an exaggerated estimate. They claim a population of but 40,00 altogether, and as they have abnormally large families, and, as many of them neglect to take out naturalization papers, 6,000 or 7,000 is too high an estimate. They have very nearly a majority, however, in the Sixth Ward. Hitherto they have acted with the Democrats, but the leading ones among them, with the exception of Kallal, Schlessinger and Nikodeun, say they are tired of the Democratic party, particularly of the Harrisonian branch 11of it. They assert that they have been victimized by the contractors in street-paving jobs, and, rightly or wrongly, they hold administration responsible therefor. They also complain of the espionage of the police. As a usual thing the Bohemians are orderly and law-abiding - they are, as stated before, a little boisterous at their society meetings when they indulge too freely in beer, which they too often do, and the policemen are too apt to use their clubs on them. There is a general impression, too, that the women are so desirous of getting rich that they do not know the difference between "mine and thine" very frequently. This is pronounced a gross slander, however, by the Bohemians themselves, who complain that the police treat them harshly, spread false reports about them and allow young toughs to break into their amusement halls, where the aforesaid toughs insult the women. This is especially the case at the Bohemian Hall on Taylor Street, near Canal, and frequent fights result as a consequence. In the Sixth Ward places of entertainment the Bohemians are amply able to take care of themselves.

    12

    The Loafers Among Them.

    It is very noticeable that they do not loaf about saloons to any great extent. The present is a very dull time in the lumber region, and many hundred men are idle there, but in the Bohemian saloons in the vicinity very few men are to be found. They devote much of their time now-a-days to improving their buildings, constructing sidewalks, and clearing away rubbish or assisting their industrious wives. They are seldom found idle. Two young men met on Twenty-second Street last Thursday were asked why they were not at work. "No work to do", they replied. No house - no work now". They went on to explain as best they could that they had been in search of work.

    Besides the religious, anti-religious and building societies, the Bohemians have also several gymnastic societies. They practice nearly every night. They are very athletic fellows although they are not quick. For persons who are such skilled tailors they display very poor taste in dressing. The men's clothing is generally speaking, coarse and badly fitting, the pantaloons bag at the knees 13and are many inches too short, while the shoes are coarse and heavy. They are a healthy race, though there is considerable mortality among the children in summer, very likely due to overcrowding and the neglect of other sanitary regulations. Though they have prospered in Chicago there is a general tendency among those who have ready cash or who can dispose of their property, to leave here and go to live on farms. Their papers here are filled with advertisements of farms for sale in Nebraska, Dakota, Texas, and parts of Wisconsin, and there are a couple of farm agencies here doing a big business. For this and other reasons it is not likely that the Bohemian population of Chicago will increase to any great extent in the future, though they are a prolific race, and many of those who go to farming return in a few years. The Bohemian quarter of the Sixth Ward is now nearly built up. The Scandinavians are crowding in on them west of Ashland Avenue, in what is called the Stockholm region. The lumber business there is not expanding. Much of it is likely to go to South Chicago, and the furniture factories are already crowded. As small traders they do not make much headway, their trade being confined mostly to people of their own nationality. The extension of the tracks of the West Division Railway Company 14on West Nineteenth Street, will open up some new territory, but not a great amount. The building societies of the region have practically done their work. Very few dwellings are going up now. Nearly all are three and four story store buildings of a very substantial character. The Bohemian are not the only buildings, however. The Germans and the Hebrews are doing more than their share.

    Religious Opinion

    It is curious that, though there are very many Bohemian Jews in this city the relation between them and the Bohemian Christians appear to be far from cordial; and the Catholic Bohemians and the liberal thinkers appear to cordially hate each other. The liberal thinkers seem to be the most prosperous, and also to be the better educated. They seem to have a decided preference for Voltaire, Huxley, Darwin and two or three of their own writers. Their literature is not extensive. The women have two or three societies of their own, and, strange as it may seem in women, the societies are not of a religious character. It is a mistake though, to suppose that the Bohemians as a whole are not religious people. Of the 40,000 15who live here more than two-thirds attend church some time or other. The average Sunday attendance at the church at the corner of Allport Avenue and Eighteenth Street is about 6,000. Twice that number of different persons attend during the year. The attendance at the DeKoven church numbers about 4,000 on the average, and the attendance at the Portland Avenue Church in the Fifth Ward is about 2,500. The Bohemians of the Fourteenth Ward attend the Polish church. The pastors pay great attention to the societies belonging to the church, and devote their entire energies to keeping them intact. Among no foreign nationality is there such pronounced hostility to formal religion, and it requires all the zeal of the clergymen to combat this.

    Mr. Frank Fucik, a well-known Bohemian of the Seventh Ward, said yesterday, in relation to the building societies and other matters: "The district between Halsted Street and Ashland Avenue is now almost built up, and the Bohemians are beginning to build in the district between Ashland and Western Avenues. The Scandinavians are also building in there, but west of the lime kiln on Hoyne Avenue and thereabouts the Bohemians seem to have it all to themselves.

    16

    Value of Their Property

    "What is the value of their property? I heard it estimated at $20,000,000, but that is an exaggeration, perhaps. They own at least $16,000,000 worth of property in Chicago. They seldom send money to the old country, except for the purpose of assisting relatives to come out. What they earn they keep here. It is a mistake to think that the Bohemians are only common laborers and wood-shovers. They are blacksmiths, watchmakers, and wood-turners, etc. Those along Canal Street, Canalport Avenue and Blue Island Avenue work at various mechanical trades. They work at the manufacture of American cutlery to a very large extent, and they are all steady, sober, active men. They have frequently been slandered because they have not been understood."

    "To whom do the house-owners rent"? "To people of all nationalities - generally to their own countrymen though. They usually get $7 or $8 for three rooms. A good proportion of the rent goes for a time to pay interest. The death rate is as low in the Bohemian quarter as in any other portion of the city.

    17

    Their homes look as neat and as clean. They appear clean themselves, and I dont think there is the least ground for prejudice against them now."

    Mr. Chatfield of the firm of Street, Chatfield and Keep, lumber dealers, who traveled through Bohemia, said that in their native country the Bohemians appear to be industrious, frugal, hard-working people. Like the Irish they did not like their form of government. There have been frequent uprisings. They seemed to be of considerable political and intellectual force in their native country. He considered them a very valuable portion of the population. He had heard few things derogatory to them.

    A three days' sojourn in their midst was convincing as to their thrift, their industry, their cleanly habits, their generally high moral character, their saving habits and their intellectual advancement. They usually make good citizens; they have aided more than any other class of the population in building up the best portion of the southwestern district of the city; they have done their part by their labor in adding to the material prosperity of the 18city in adding to its taxable value. They are excellent members of society, and they and their children have done and will no doubt continue to do their full duty towards the great city which they have chosen for their future home.

    There is probably no more interesting and progressive section of Chicago's foreign population than that inhabited by the Bohemians. Some years ago there was a decided prejudice against them on ...

    Bohemian
    I D 1 b, II A 2, IV, II D 1, III C, I C, I F 1, I K
  • Svornost -- February 04, 1892
    Bohemian Women at the Exposition

    A Bohemian Section in the Women's Palace is now assured. It has become a sort of habit with us, that if we wish to accomplish something we get the help of our women folk. Whenever the women and men join for some purpose, success of the undertaking is assured from the very beginning, for we will not allow it to be said that our women lead us in resourcefulness and energy.

    Bohemian women went to work quietly without any fanfare, and to day announce to the public the results of their efforts. A committee was appointed and it called upon Mrs. Palmer, Chairman of the Women's section of the Exposition, who received the committee very kindly and assured them that the Bohemian Women would have a separate section allotted to them. We feel certain that a Bohemian section in the Women's Building would arouse only admiration,and with congratulations to our Chicago committee for the results thus far accomplished, we wish that they should continue in the same manner. Since they are assured of space in the exhibition they should secure for the Bohemian section the finest of products such as only the artistic hands of Bohemians are able to produce.

    A Bohemian Section in the Women's Palace is now assured. It has become a sort of habit with us, that if we wish to accomplish something we get the help ...

    Bohemian
    II B 1 c 3, I K
  • Denní Hlasatel -- May 31, 1902
    The Opinion of Some Americans about Immigrants

    The reading of English language newspapers, especially the Tribune, is very interesting. From them we learn what sort of opinions prevail among the various circles of American society, especially about immigrants and particularly about Bohemians. Thus, the Tribune informs us about what the committee which was to investigate localities where small parks could most conveniently be established, told the West Park Commissioners in regard to our "Pilsen." In their report, these gentlemen criticise our Pilsen as follows:

    "The people living in this section are dangerously crowded into tenement buildings. Every inch of land is covered with buildings of this type. The rear tenements are the worst in Chicago. In one block without an alley, there are several three-story buildings, extending from street to street. The population of the 10th ward is increasing rapidly, and tenement conditions are fast becoming worse, overpopulation is more perceptible, and the landlords are more avaricious, endeavoring to 2cover every inch of their land with high tenement buildings. Land here continually rises in value. "

    In this light is seen our Pilsen and especially our landlords by the gentlemen of the West Park Commissioners' Committee. The Tribune also informs us on how some American ladies look upon immigrants and their wives, in its report of the meeting of the Chicago Political Equality League, where a lady named Vida Goldstein of Melbourne, Australia, lectured on the subject, "Women's suffrage in Australia." A certain Miss Cordelia Kirkland declared that the women of the United States cannot follow the example of Australian women in seeking voting rights. This lady, evidently a spinster, clinging to her own prejudices, gave the following reasons for her assertions:

    "This country has been flooded with immigrants, who, for the most part, are brutes, and they brought with them wives who are only a little removed from animals. Those men are governed by the lowest instincts, and their wives do whatever the men order them to do."

    3

    This lady received from several of the more moderate ladies a deserved rebuke, but her words, nevertheless, clearly indicate how immigrants are looked upon in some American circles.

    The reading of English language newspapers, especially the Tribune, is very interesting. From them we learn what sort of opinions prevail among the various circles of American society, especially about ...

    Bohemian
    III A, III G, I K, I C
  • Denní Hlasatel -- July 02, 1902
    Masaryk's Lecture.

    T. G. Masaryk, gave a lecture last night in university hall, 4630 Gross Ave. The attendance was large, especially a great number of women attended. Almost all were countrymen. The singing society, "Volnost," sang before the start of the lecture. After that, Miss McDowell introduced Prof. Masaryk, who upon the stage escorted by the professor of music, Weichert. He welcomed Masaryk in the name of "Volnost" singing society. Then prof. Masaryk expressed his thanks and was presented with a bouquet by Mrs. B. Janovsky. Prof. Masaryk then began to speak once more and in a very interesting general talk discoursed upon the standing of American women as compared to that of the women of Bohemia. After the conclusion of the talk, the Volnost society sang two numbers. Miss McDowell thanked the audience for its attendance for its attendance and added further, that everyone should buy only from firms employing union salespeople. Credit for the arrangement of the lecture belongs to Mrs. Engelthaler.

    T. G. Masaryk, gave a lecture last night in university hall, 4630 Gross Ave. The attendance was large, especially a great number of women attended. Almost all were countrymen. The ...

    Bohemian
    II B 2 g, II B 1 a, I K
  • Denní Hlasatel -- July 27, 1902
    Masaryk's Opinion. What the Prague Professor Thinks about the Woman Question and Liberal Mindedness. His Speech at the Friday Session of the Jed. Ces. Dam. (Bohemian Women's Unity) Convention.

    P. 2 - When Professor Masaryk had been introduced to the chairman, Mrs. K. Honomichl, and to all the delegates, he spoke to the gathering as follows:

    'I take the privilege of speaking to you, but it should be just the reverse - I should sit and listen and you should speak. Rather, than that I should speak to you about women in comparison with men. As you probably know, the famous Bohemian professor, Professor Albert, expelled the women from college, because he was convinced that ordinarily they were unsuited for surgery, that they were not strong enough for it. Personally I opposed him for this. I wrote an entire treatise about it, because he asserted that as nurses women were excellent.

    You maintain, I wrote, that women as nurses are excellent, that they do not require as much strength as a doctor, who performs a single operation occasionally.

    2

    Is a nurse working from 5 o'clock in the morning, weaker perhaps, than you, who work merely a few hours daily in the practice of medicine? According to my judgement it is a downright farce, the way many believe that woman being more delicate than man is considered as an idol and the woman herself believes it. However, I maintain, that man governs because of this sentiment and if a woman should be a good mother, the man should be a good father, by which is understood, that if the man works from morning till night, in order to provide for the family financially, it becomes the duty of the woman to manage the entire financial budget and to count the pennies so as to be able to manage on that, which he earned, and in addition she looks after, and raises the whole family. When I compare it, the man does not do one half, not even one tenth as much as the woman. According to my opinion, even educated men, in the broadest sense of the word, have no precedence over women. Because education is pounded into their heads for twenty-five years or more, and if they know when the Greeks arose, at what time they dressed or in which century they dressed this or that way, it cannot be called any superiority, but a learned trade, the same as any other. Therefore the woman is far stronger than man, or at least his equal, because without preliminary study she must adjust herself to him. That women are indifferent, is a very erroneous opinion. It is demonstrated by the fact that men have retained for themselves the ministry, priesthood and missions - in short the most 3lucrative channels. If woman was obliged to take care of and participate in everything, in a religious sense, woman would also have to be in the pulpit, at the altar and, the various spiritual works would have to be in her hands. It is said that women are taking men's jobs, creating great competition, and this according to my idea, is a mistaken and unjust accusation. For instance I am the father of a boy and a girl. The boy dedicates himself to study and preparation for life so that he may be able to support himself, whereas the girl finishes her education in some convent (as is customary in Europe). She learns to play the piano, a little French, in fact a little of everything that belongs to a little better standard, after which she diligently begins to gather material for a trousseau and some sort of dowry. Then she must wait to see if some foolish man can be found, who will take this poor little idol, this foolish little goose, into his household. I see competition there, where the father must strive to dispose of three or four daughters or as many as he has; whereas if they were raised so as to be self supporting, they would lessen the competition among the fathers and they would better repay for their existence here. On the other hand, if the young ladies belong in the household and are not to work because of the competition this would create, then those hundreds upon hundreds of other women 4workers who are employed in unhealthy factories, should not work either; their place is also in the home. (applause)

    I could say a great deal more, but your time is limited therefore I close with the wish that you may mature spiritually as much as possible. If you provide your children with an education it will bring you more than the wild chase after the dollar."

    The chairman of the convention, Mrs. Kristyna Honomichl, stepped over to Professor Masaryk, presented him with a beautiful bouquet of fresh cut flowers, bound with a costly bow, of national colors, on which was inscribed, "In remembrance of the Sixth Convention of the J. C. D. from the delegates at the convention in Chicago. The Professor expressed his sincere thanks for the honor.

    Mrs. Honomichl then addressed the professor as follows: "I wish you would answer and explain the following: Liberalism is continually preached to us, but at no time is the meaning of that word explained to us. I beg of you, give us a correct definition."

    A 11 of the listeners were eager to hear the famous scholar on this subject, which is of such importance to us Bohemian-Americans.

    5

    Taking the floor again Masaryk said, "Liberalism has a far reaching significance. I think however that you are asking me about liberalism in the religious sense. From my standpoint I do not belong to any church. None will suffice for me. I have read and meditated over much and I have my own special opinion on the matter. If I may express myself about liberalism as it is understood by you, here in America among Bohemians, then I must say with sorrow, that you have taken an erroneous view. Genuine liberalism means unwavering conviction. In the honorable dealings of a liberal--minded person there must not be found even the shadow of prejudice toward the believing man, no matter what he believes. Equally dear to me are honorable Catholics, Protestants, Jews or Mohammedans, and likewise repugnant, dishonorable believers of whatever faith. I find that you liberals here provide poorly for your young people, that you seek liberalism by blaming this or that other side. The way you err, so err those in the opposite camp, and both of you stand in harsh opposition to each other. If the other side calls you names, you can with your generosity and culture show that you are their betters. You must convince them, preach to them. Your duty is to convert them to your convictions, but you cease being liberal-minded, just as soon as you throw stones at anyone because they do not believe in that which you believe in and are not of the same opinion as you. Especially you who 6are the most liberal-minded, you must excuse me, when I tell you the truth, you do not educate your children in liberal-mindedness. You wanted to know the truth and I have given it according to my judgement."

    He was then entertained by the ladies.

    P. 2 - When Professor Masaryk had been introduced to the chairman, Mrs. K. Honomichl, and to all the delegates, he spoke to the gathering as follows: 'I take the ...

    Bohemian
    II B 2 g, II D 1, III C, III H, I K
  • Denní Hlasatel -- December 20, 1903
    Bohemian Artists.

    No doubt the report of the organization of a Bohemian Artists Society, bearing the name of one of the greatest living Bohemian masters, will interest our public in the greatest degree. The number of artists in our midst continues to grow and become more powerful, in this respect we can boast that we have far surpassed many other nationalities. The number of creative artists is increasing unusually rapidly and of these, painters decisively occupy first place. These young artists finally came to the realization that it will be for better for them, and for art in particular, if they are united in one strong organization. The work of organizing the Bohemian artists had been going on for a long time until finally on the 22nd of Sep. the Mikulas Ales society of Bohemian artists was organized.

    The society will meet every Sunday morning between 8:00 and 11:30 A.M. in the Bohemian-American Hall at 588 West 18th street. At these meetings, lectures will be given about art and at the same time drawings from models will be done. For the membership this will be not only entertainment but excellent practice. As we are informed, it is the goal of this society to hold expositions twice each year, in spring and fall.

    2

    Every Bohemian painter may become a member of this society by merely paying fifty cents a month dues, no initiation fee is required. At the time of the organization of this society the following officers were elected: Jan Jirse, Chairman. Ladies are also accepted in the society and many of them applied. This is a welcome revelation, because it convinces us that our Bohemian ladies are in nowise remaining behind, going forward with exemplary determination in everything, also in art.

    No doubt the report of the organization of a Bohemian Artists Society, bearing the name of one of the greatest living Bohemian masters, will interest our public in the greatest ...

    Bohemian
    II B 1 b, I K
  • Denní Hlasatel -- January 16, 1910
    The Bohemian, Womens' Unions, J.C.D. (Bohemian Womens' Union) and S.P.J. (Mutual Benevolent Sisterhood) Placed Almost $300 in the Hands of Mrs. J. Liska, to Be Used in the Relief of Suffering in Cherry, Illinois

    P.1--Our public gave a splendid example of beneficence, following the Cherry, Ill., catastrophe, where more than 300 miners died, leaving almost 1,000 widows and orphans. Thousands of dollars were gathered, contributed mostly by the working class, for the purpose of alleviating the distress and drying of the tears of the survivors of the unfortunate miners. Bohemian women and girls were the chief contributors to the collection started by this paper.However, this did not suffice for them. They wished to show more emphatically, their desire to aid the most wretched of the unfortunates. To do this the J.C.D. and the S.P.J. of the State of Illinois, appropriated considerable sums of money from their treasuries and urged individual lodges to do likewise. The money so gathered, was turned over to Mrs. Marie Liska, an experienced worker, who will surely use it in such a way, as will do the most good.

    P.1--Our public gave a splendid example of beneficence, following the Cherry, Ill., catastrophe, where more than 300 miners died, leaving almost 1,000 widows and orphans. Thousands of dollars were gathered, ...

    Bohemian
    II D 10, II D 1, I K
  • Denní Hlasatel -- January 24, 1910
    Distribution of Funds in Cherry, Ill. --Mrs. Marie Liska, Reports on the Distribution of Money Collected by the Bohemian Ladies Societies.

    P.1--A week ago, we published a report of the generous gift, donated by our Ladies Societies, to the widows and orphans of the coal-miners of Cherry, Ill. The Union of Bohemian Ladies collected $203.25 and the Sisterhood Benevolent Society, $87. Both organizations turned the money over to Mrs. Liska, who then had $290.25 at her disposal.

    This sum she distributed according to the following report, which she made to the public and to her organizations.

    During her stay in Cherry, Mrs. Liska carefully studied conditions existing there. She made inquiries, and in that way arrived at the following conclusions: that no widow, no orphan and in fact no survivor of the unfortunate victims of the catastrophe needs to suffer with hunger or cold; that families are now better provided with necessities than when their supporters were alive.

    The entrance to the mine, where 168 bodies are still buried, is closed at present. The widows held a meeting on the 16th of this month, at which lawyers 2and representatives of the company owning the mine were present. As Mrs. Liska was told, the widows were offered compensation, if they would not insist upon the removal of the remains of their dear ones from the mine. The widows however refused to accede to this.

    Numerous families of the survivors have already moved away from Cherry. Some of the widows informed Mrs. Liska, that they will remain there as long as they continue to receive aid from philanthropic or other sources. As soon as that ends, they will move.

    Mrs. Liska in her report writes: "It's an old saying, that it is better to give, than to receive, but here it ought to be just the reverse."

    Mrs. Liska, ought to further explain this sentence.

    Finally Mrs. Liska, thanked Mrs. M. Hodan, of Chicago and Mrs. Katherine Bednarik, of Kengley, Ill., who accompanied her and were of assistance in Cherry, Ill.

    P.1--A week ago, we published a report of the generous gift, donated by our Ladies Societies, to the widows and orphans of the coal-miners of Cherry, Ill. The Union of ...

    Bohemian
    II D 10, I K
  • Denní Hlasatel -- April 05, 1910
    Miss E. Destinn - the Opera Star (Editorial)

    P. 4, Col. 1--The English newspapers of Chicago all carried articles about Miss E. Destinn, a well known Bohemian opera singer who is in Chicago.

    It seems puzzling to them why she prefers to live in a kitchenette apartment, rather than in an elaborate suite in some fashionable hotel. They do not know that practically every Bohemian woman can master the art of cooking, and takes great pride in preparing her own meals. This is the reason why, even an opera star such as Miss E. Destinn, is not ashamed to admit, that she cooks her own meals in preference to eating in restaurants.

    The American woman does not practice the culinary art as extensively as the Bohemian.

    Bohemian cooking is famous all over the world. There is an old Bohemian saying--"The way to a mans heart (or love) is through his stomach."The Bohemian people believe home cooking to be beneficial to health and the general welfare of their family.

    P. 4, Col. 1--The English newspapers of Chicago all carried articles about Miss E. Destinn, a well known Bohemian opera singer who is in Chicago. It seems puzzling to them ...

    Bohemian
    V B, I B 3 c, II A 3 b, I K
  • Denní Hlasatel -- December 20, 1910
    Druggist Honsik and Dr. Fara Protest against the Decla-Rations of Dr. Ross Wistein about Conditions in Bohemia

    P.1--The statements made about conditions in Bohemia by Dr. Rose Wistein, who has returned from a two-year visit to that country, were denied by Bohemian-Americans yesterday. Dr. Wistein traveled to her mother country for the purpose, as she said, of uplifting her sex there.

    "The women of Bohemia enjoy as many privileges and receive as much attention as American women," said Dr. J. F. Fara, of 3523 West Twenty-sixth Street. "I believe that the standard of morality in Bohemia is a little bit higher than in America."

    Frank Honsik, a druggist at 3335 West Twenty-sixth Street, said: "Our Bohemian women are renowned for their motherliness. Bohemian men do not treat their women any worse than do men of other nationalities."

    Even the American press has printed this report, and it thus becomes necessary 2to point out that Bohemian men are not barbarians, as people of other nationalities might think that they were, since one of our own people has cast reflections upon our race. If some one who makes claims to leadership among us expresses a burning desire to aid the enslaved Bohemian women, he or she casts an unfair reflection upon our nationality before other nationalities, we are thereby represented as ignoramuses whose eyes have just been opened by our immigration to America. In Bohemia live thousands of educated and enlightened women, who have no need to travel to America to acquire intelligence. Their activities will surely suffice for the preservation and elevation of Bohemian women and of the Bohemian people, especially since they work quietly and do nothing of which they need to be ashamed before the people of other races.

    P.1--The statements made about conditions in Bohemia by Dr. Rose Wistein, who has returned from a two-year visit to that country, were denied by Bohemian-Americans yesterday. Dr. Wistein traveled to ...

    Bohemian
    III H, I C, IV, I K, I B 3 a