The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Svornost -- April 26, 1880
    Immigrants.

    On Sunday, April 25th, there arrived in Baltimore, Md., on the steamship Strassburg, en route from Bremen, 1914 Bohemian, German, Swedish and Norwegian immigrants.

    They were taken to the railroad depot and put on board, the majority with Wisconsin, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota as their destination.

    On Sunday, April 25th, there arrived in Baltimore, Md., on the steamship Strassburg, en route from Bremen, 1914 Bohemian, German, Swedish and Norwegian immigrants. They were taken to the railroad ...

    Bohemian
    III G, I C
  • Svornost -- April 27, 1880
    Patriotic Duty of Chicago Lodges a Great Need for Protection of Immigrants

    Mr. J.F. Vosatka, Bohemian Immigration Agents, on his way to New York after a trip through the west, was a visitor at our office. He took advantage of the opportunity to inform us that immigrants from Europe, especially the Czecho, are well provided with protection against all sorts of knavery. He has many letters from settlers now living in the western part of our country praising the service provided for their benefit through out the entire journey with the exception of Chicago. It is said that there are more thieves and swindlers waiting to entice the unwary immigrant from the railroad stations in Chicago than anywhere else on the entire American journey.

    We are not surprised by this for we know that at all railroad depots, where immigrants unfamiliar with our domestic language arrive, there are many agents of crooked hotels waiting for them and striving with all their power to direct these quite often penniless immigrants to these strange hostelries, where they are lodged over night or longer, fed miserable food and charged from $2.00 to 2:50 per day. At last they are sent on to some railroad depot to continue on their journey. They hold out the immigrant's 2baggage checks if they do not have the money with which to pay the exorbitant charges accrued, and send them on without the baggage, holding it back until they receive the money owed them.

    Immigration is at a very high peak this year, especially of Bohemians, so that there are two or three times each week, large groups of Bohemians arriving in Chicago. Many of these fall into the hands of these swindlers.

    The German people have provided for the protection of their immigrants through an Immigration Society which looks after the welfare of new arrivals, but our nationals do not have even a single representative to look after the welfare of our newcomers. As a matter of fact there are some Bohemians, who have sold out to these greedy sharks, who, as a rule, board the immigration trains at some distance from Chicago in order to be able to line up the victims who are then turned over to the various hotels on a commission basis. We do not know the names of any of these wretches, but we have letters from some of their victims in which it is stated that they were often spoken to in Bohemian and that therefore they were sold-out and robbed by Bohemians.

    3

    What can be done about this? Of course it often happens that there are many Bohemians at the depots who, while waiting for the arrival of friends, do not hesitate to give a helping hand to some other newcomer, as we saw last Sunday, but it is not always so and even with the greatest care it is not possible to protect every Bohemian against loss, for if one is not protected by some kind of organization, he is very often pushed around if not actually beaten by the runners of these privileged hotels.

    In order that all Bohemian immigrants might be protected and properly taken care of it is necessary to organize some kind of agency which would have the Bohemian immigrants welfare to look after, take hold of them and their baggage as far as needs indicate and to deliver them to their friends here or to the next depot as the case may be.

    In this manner there would be hundreds, yes, thousands of families protected against great loss, and this achievement would be much more appreciated than ten times the achievements of missionaries somewhere in Africa or Australia.

    4

    The question remains as to how we can provide such a responsible agency? We have any number of honorable and able countrymen among us who also know the English language, but they are mostly poor people and we do not have any who could take this service, with all of its duties and necessary expenses, and carry on throughout the year without some remuneration. It is necessary that we provide enough money to at least cover unavoidable expenses.

    This week there is to be a meeting of all Bohemian Steamship Agents here, who could discuss this matter and make some recommendation as to how to meet the situation. Let them not delay, but step right in and work this problem out.

    From the relative standing of our Chicago Lodges we can hardly expect to get enough countrymen to organize a protective society, such as the wealthy Germans have, but we can at least accomplish the most necessary. If all our national lodges and societies, both benevolent and church, without exception, accepted the resolution, that every quarter year they would appropriate from their treasuries $1.50 for the protection of immigrants, there would be collected every quarter from at least fifty lodges 5the sum of $75.00 for which we could obtain the services of a reliable Bohemian who would take upon himself the obligation of looking after our We immigrants. We believe that this could be accomplished in Chicago.

    Each of the lodges could appoint one of its members to represent it in the ranks of a protective society which would meet from time to time, and make public reports as to their progress, of what benefit their work is and what further steps should be taken. These members could take turns in accompanying the paid representative, to the various depots to meet the arrival of immigrants and assist him in his duty of looking after the welfare of the immigrants.

    This is our opinion in the matter, which surely will come to the attention of all our countrymen in Chicago and we hope that the Steamship Agents, who derive a profit from this immigration, will take the first step to secure the co-operation of all lodges in this matter of aid and protection of immigrants to Chicago.

    Success for this undertaking.

    Mr. J.F. Vosatka, Bohemian Immigration Agents, on his way to New York after a trip through the west, was a visitor at our office. He took advantage of the opportunity ...

    Bohemian
    III G, II D 10, II D 7, II D 1
  • Svornost -- May 08, 1880
    Let Us Help Ourselves

    There is considerable talk in public about the collection of donations for the establishment of a National Theatre in Prague. It is hoped that some contribution will be sent from Chicago, but before any start is made to collect funds for this purpose, it is unavoidably necessary, as we said more than a week ago, and which becomes more urgent day by day, that we take every cent, every dollar, which it is possible to collect from our charitable donors, for the benefit of our countrymen arriving here continuously from our native land moving to America to make homes here for themselves and their children, which, in their native land, they were unable to accomplish because of the government and bad times.

    At the present time, every cent so graciously contributed should be used only for the help of those hundreds of our countrymen who passed through Chicago each week toward the west. It would be a sin to divert this money toward any other purpose, no matter how worthy, while we see these hundreds of our countrymen at the railroad depots each week, unfamiliar with the language, robbed of all their means, wornout groaning with hunger; and thirsting for every bit of sincere advice and for all help no matter how small.

    2

    Any one who has visited the railroad depot just once, when a train of immigrants arrived and has met his country men there, men, women and children, who following our example, are coming to build for themselves a more dignified life in this land of freedom, has seen their troubles, has seen how they are swindled, robbed and oppressed in spite of all efforts of the city police and railroad officials, will not harden his heart toward these unfortunates and will admit that all other cultural purposes must wait until this condition is remedied.

    We called attention, to this matter publicly last week, to the Bohemian Ticket Agents who sell railroad and steamship tickets to the people, thereby deriving a profit and a living; they are citizens: J.B. Belohradsky, Vaclav Kaspar, Fr. Novak, Aug. Geringer and V. Fiala. It should be their chief concern to see that some sort of aid is provided and steps taken to provide some kind of organization for the benefit of immigrants to Chicago. They make a profit from this, their interests and gain are first. Thus far not one of them has signified that he would take any step in this matter.

    3

    We know of no other method whereby this much-needed organization can be realized, except that the above-named citizens should meet, dedicating one whole evening for the purpose of consulting and taking the necessary steps among the lodges and citizens of our city. Or must we wait until the summer's sultry days have passed, until it begins to snow, until several thousand Bohemians have passed through Chicago are cursing the city and all its inhabitants, because at no other point in their journey did they meet with any injustice or robbery except here, (as is pointed out in the previous paragraphs)? Shall we wait, as so often happens in national undertakings, until Bohemians stop arriving, and arrive with the cross after the funeral?

    In the name of several Bohemian citizens who have many times gone to the railroad depots and convinced themselves of the suffering and need for some kind of aid for Bohemian immigrants, and in the name of our national honor, the love toward our brother countrymen felt by our Bohemian fellow citizens, we call once more for the cooperation of all our countrymen, and we urgently beg that the above named citizens, the ticket agents, whom it concerns most, should not delay, but that they meet and decide as to what in their opinion would be the proper procedure.

    4

    Let us show our countrymen, that there are in Chicago Bohemians, and to be sure Bohemians who are not denationalized, but with a warm heart and with the good old Bohemian spirit, which seeks to help those brothers in distress.

    There is considerable talk in public about the collection of donations for the establishment of a National Theatre in Prague. It is hoped that some contribution will be sent from ...

    Bohemian
    III G, II D 10, III H, IV
  • Svornost -- May 13, 1880
    Immigrants to Chicago and the West.

    According to reports of the German steamship Agency, there were 50,000 immigrants during the month of April landed in New York. At least 25,000 of these continued on to Chicago and Westward.

    Among these were 4000 Polish, 2000 Bohemians, Germans 1800. Of these 2500 Polish and 1200 Bohemians, remained in Chicago expecting to earn their livelihood here.

    Those who continued further were for the most part people of some means while those remaining were mostly laborers without any property. From present indications there will be as many arrivals, if not more, this month as there were last month. There are plenty of inquiries for farm hands and for servants for there seems to be few farm hands and scarcely any servants among the new arrivals.

    According to reports of the German steamship Agency, there were 50,000 immigrants during the month of April landed in New York. At least 25,000 of these continued on to Chicago ...

    Bohemian
    III G, V A 2
  • Svornost -- March 27, 1882
    For the Protection of Bohemian Immigrants

    A meeting was held yesterday afternoon in the hall of the Bohemian American Sokol, for the purpose of organizing a society for the protection of Bohemian immigrants. Forty-five citizens were present. Mr. Fr. Kaspar called the meeting to order and Mr. Ed. Uhlir was elected chairman; Mr. Kralovec Jr. was elected secretary.

    After several motions, which did not reach a vote, citizen L.W. Kadlec, moved that the chairman appoint nine Chicago citizens as a committee, this committee to take charge of the matter as it now stands, organize themselves into a solid body and make plans for future development; then call a public meeting where steps would be taken for their fulfillment.

    Mr. Chairman Uhlir is to exercize care in naming men who are capable and familiar with the matter, and who have the confidence of the public. Mr. Kralovec added that other nationalities, having such societies in existence should investigate and our committee of nine make a report on their activities. Let our society be patterned along the lines of whichever one of the various organizations is recognized a the most suitable. The motion being accepted, the meeting was adjourned.

    A meeting was held yesterday afternoon in the hall of the Bohemian American Sokol, for the purpose of organizing a society for the protection of Bohemian immigrants. Forty-five citizens were ...

    Bohemian
    II D 7, III G
  • Svornost -- May 08, 1882
    [Society for Protection of Immigrant Organized]

    The Society for the protection of Bohemian immigrants has finally been organized in Chicago. Whether it will actually function at the proper time, is another question. At the meeting held May 5th, at which there was present a total of fifteen persons, there was elected a board of directors, consisting of three members; also a chairman, a secretary and a treasurer were elected. Thus far there 71 Chicagoans and 2 out-of-town applicants for membership.

    "Pokrok Zapadu" (Progress of the West) is earnestly interested in bringing the society to life and successful activity, and is urging our countrymen settled in the west to join the Chicago society (for the protection of Bohemian immigrants) in large numbers, and to support to their utmost its honorable purpose and effort.

    The Society for the protection of Bohemian immigrants has finally been organized in Chicago. Whether it will actually function at the proper time, is another question. At the meeting held ...

    Bohemian
    II D 7, III A, III G
  • Svornost -- May 27, 1884
    An American about the Bohemians in Chicago

    Not long ago the Rev. E. A. Adams lectured here in the Palmer House, before the Missionary Society, on the subject "Our Bohemian Citizens."

    Before we will start to interpret this very interesting lecture we wish everybody to know that the Rev. Adams, an American lived ten years in Praha (Bohemia, Europe), that he speaks Bohemian and is very well acquainted with all peculiarities of our nation.

    Three to four hundred ladies and gentlemen listened to the lecture which he gave with intense interest.

    Rev. Adams said, "Until 1870 there was in the United States census not a single item regarding Bohemians. Although 4,289 people born in Bohemia 2were living here. In 1880 this number grew to 85,361, which proves that every year 8,107 people born in Bohemia have emigrated to America.

    The census of 1880 showed that there were 11,887 Bohemian immigrants in Chicago. This number was a little less than one-seventh of the total Bohemian population in this country. If we should add the number of American born Bohemians to the number that had immigrated from the old country, we would find in Chicago not less than 31,000 Bohemians, and maybe 40,000. The last number is the correct one.

    The research of Mr. Blatchford, and our own experience, shows with very few exceptions not worth mentioning that the Bohemians are living within the city limits in four different districts, or colonies.

    3

    One of the two smaller colonies is concentrated on 25th Street and Portland Avenue, the other one around Milwaukee Avenue and Noble Street. As a rule, the Bohemians are mixed among other nationalities and sometime it is a very hard problem to contact them. Their smallest Catholic church is situated on the corner of 25th Street and Portland Avenue. The other two districts, populated by about three fourths of all Bohemians here in Chicago, are more isolated. The smaller district of the two is situated in the region of Bunker and DeKoven streets, between 12th and Taylor streets, extending from Halsted Street to the river. A really large Catholic church of this district is located on DeKoven Street at Desplaines Street. The Bohemians are scattered on Canal Street as far as Canalport Avenue, which links this small colony with the largest one. This section looks like a real Bohemian 4town. It is bordered on the east by Fisk and Morgan streets, on the north by 16th Street, on the south by the river. On the West Side the Bohemians are mixed with other nationalities as far as Western Avenue. Their main buildings are in this neighborhood. The largest Catholic church is on 18th and Allport streets, the large hall of the Secret Societies is on 18th Street, one block from Centre Avenue and right now they have started to build a large Bohemian theater at the corner of 18th Street and Center Avenue. A person who is acquainted with Bohemian in Europe, when walking around in this district, feels he is in a regular Bohemian town. It is really like a foreign city.

    In newspaper advertisements and in general they call this part of the city Plzen (Pilsen). It is so strange that it could be taken for a town on the 5other side of the Atlantic Ocean. At least 20,000 Bohemians are dwelling in this district and about 10,000 in the district of DeKoven Street. Thus we have in this community of a mile radius 30,000 Bohemians.

    The three Catholic churches which we mentioned represent the faith of our 40,000 Bohemians. Six or eight years ago there were few Protestants among the Bohemians. The percentage of Protestants among the Bohemians is very insignificant.

    Although the three Catholic churches mentioned above are large enough to accommodate 2,500 people, I was informed from a very creditable source that half and maybe two thirds of the local Bohemians are not active members of those churches. I later met two persons who were speaking with entire respect of the Roman-Catholic church and stated that they came to this country as good and faithful Roman-Catholics.

    6

    However, the more intelligent Bohemians start soon to be dissatisfied with the teachings of the Roman-Catholic Church and seem convinced that this doctrine is not right. They accuse the preachers of being hypocrites. The main cause of this apostasy is the belief that the idea of liberal thinking is a kind of style that one should adhere to regardless of its consequences. We do not suppose that these intellectual Bohemians, coming here, make as good Catholics as the Irish, and we don't think that the majority have mentally grown up to the point of being able to believe in God, or the immortality of the soul.

    The strangest society is the Bohemian-Slovenian Benevolent Society (Cesko-Slovanske Podporujici Spolky). I have seen their statutes and have found nothing indecent in them. It is a society whose aim is mutual help and assistance. Morals and obedience to the law are the main duties of the members. The members state themselves that they are not for or against the church, but they are against all forms of worship. They are familiar 7with the Catholic religion only, and are against that because of different secret lodges sustained by the church.

    Another achievement of the Bohemians in Chicago is their national cemetery. This idea originated, I was told, as a result of some misunderstanding with the Catholic priest. Now they bury their deceased people entirely without a priest, neither calling him to the house nor to the cemetery.

    The main objection against the churches is their rapacity and the immoral life of the priests.

    Our city has two Bohemian newspapers. A third one appears irregularly, I presume, but I have not seen it. One of them has a circulation greater than the circulation of the other two put together. This paper is a daily publication with a Sunday supplement and its aim is instructive with some 8entertaining and colorful articles. It stands firmly against dynamiters and anarchists. Its viewpoint on religion can be seen from the fact that its Sunday supplement has articles, for example, as "Vek Rozumu" (The age of wisdom), which prove that religion does not originate from God but is an invention of human beings, spread through the world through education.

    The other newspaper is spreading anarchistic ideas. It is a publication not only socialistic, but it proclaims further that all institutions of the government are bad and only such men can be called free who do what they please regardless of others. The watchword is "A tooth for a tooth and an eye for an eye." An extract from this newspaper will be sufficient to convince one of its aims.

    The Rev. E. A. Adams read one article translated in English from the 9Bohemian anarchistic publication. He then continued:

    "I have good information that only a small percentage of Bohemians are supporting these ideas, but on the other hand, this newspaper has appeared before as a bi-monthly and now is printed weekly with satisfactory success. Whether the ideas of this paper are true or not, they are nevertheless spread and with no opposition on our part. Maybe the church has no influence on the intelligent classes. Our Protestants are inactive. The best proof of this is that nine different Bohemian Bibles are here in circulation. Their theories lead towards disorganization, anarchy and destruction, although we do not believe that would be really a desire of these Bohemians who are now spreading the ideas of unbelief and skepticism.

    I presume it was Voltaire who, during a discussion with his friend about atheism, said: "Wait until my servants will be far away from here. I do not want to have my throat cut during the night."

    10

    My personal opinion is that the result of the atheism always must be anarchism. I was advised by my missionary authority in this city to call meetings for Bohemians and to give lectures to them. There were distributed one thousand pamphlets Friday, with the announcement that services would be held on Sundays. This also was advertised in the Bohemian paper, I had expected a dozen or at the most twenty Bohemians present, but there appeared about seventy-five, who listened very diligently to my lecture. The following Sunday 200 appeared. The fifth Sunday there were only seventy. Two evening meetings were arranged. The evening audience was first twelve in number, then twenty persons. I have sold nine Bibles and received orders for more. This will serve as proof how little influence a church has on its most faithful members.

    Atheism is spreading among the people who have retrogressed from the church, more than I thought. They are instructed and they believe that Thomas Paine was the main agent of the deliverance of this country, and 11that his principles are the only ones which assure the freedom of humanity. The whole missionary work among these Bohemians was accomplished by the scholar, Robert Ingersoll, and we are still in possession of his documents and literature. If his works are read by the Bohemians, I do not know. The Bohemians are very economical, quiet, obedient and capable. They have their own building loan associations and they are building many beautiful houses around Western Avenue.

    Regarding their political attitude, I have very scanty information, but I think they adhere firmly to the country which guaranteed their liberty. They observe with caution each stranger who approaches them, for they do not trust him, but when they perceive sincerity, they cling to him.

    The experience gained by me in Praha convinces me that their work here will need plenty of patience, and if I am not mistaken in their enthusiasm 12for any enterprise that they start. I am full of hope that in time they can be transformed into most reliable American citizens. They are here for their own and our benefit.

    Should they be let alone and exposed to the injurious influences of this country, they will bring harm to us and to themselves."

    The Rev. Adams mentioned, then, the conditions of different English churches and added finally: "We intended to construct a mission building in the district encircling Halsted, 16th, 12th streets and the river. For the proper enlightenment of the Bohemians a building worth $15,000 is needed."

    All statements of Rev. Adams seem to be true and show that he is very well 13acquainted with our conditions. There is only one thing mentioned by Rev. Adams to which we must offer protest, namely, that we will not harm anyone even if we do not believe in religion, and that such a person should not perish either likewise.

    Not long ago the Rev. E. A. Adams lectured here in the Palmer House, before the Missionary Society, on the subject "Our Bohemian Citizens." Before we will start to interpret ...

    Bohemian
    III A, II B 2 d 1, II D 1, III A, III C, III G, I C, I E
  • Svornost -- May 19, 1885
    The Corporation Bohemian Settlement

    The Corporation Bohemian Settlement, is composed of Bohemian Citizens, who really intend to move out of Chicago. The corporation has resolved to move to one of the south-western states, which will be recommended by a committee, sent there previously. The corporation cannot promise other privileges than the following: 1, the journey will cost half of the amount paid in by a single traveler; 2, the agricultural implements can be bought more cheaper than by a single person, and the factory must send it free to the place related; 3, establishing our own market we will be able to compete successfully with the big farmers; and 4 by buying land collective colonization the price per acre will be much lower. The corporation has decided to buy a tract of land in the middle of the state, to survey it and to make subdivisions in such a way, that every member of the Bohemian Settlement will receive one lot of about one acre in size. The homes will be displayed each in its marked position in such a manner, that the whole acquired tract will be occupied with the homes of the members of the Bohemian Settlement and everyone who will follow us 2to the settlement must be satisfied with the lots situated farther from the central part of the village.

    The corporation Bohemian Settlement, is not composed of capitalists and does not possess any capital, consequently it cannot advise the people without any means to participate as members in the corporation.

    Everyone should know that the start will be very hard and will inevitably require some amount of money with which to start. We found that everyone must have at least $200 besides transportation expenses.

    Everyone,who is a Unites States Citizen or in the possession of his first paper can buy a house. Everyone, who pays fifty cents, initiation fee to the secretary can be a member of the corporation. This fifty cents fee is required of the members as a kind of obligation or guarantee and it used for the current expenses. The clerical work in the organization is performed by the employees without any compensation, and they are rewarded with the 3consciousness that they are working for the benefit of this countryman. When the committee for the purpose of making a definite selection of the location will be elected, the final estimate of expenses will be divided among all members of the corporation. The corporation organized in Chicago is sixty members strong. Josef J. Wolf is the secretary.

    The Corporation Bohemian Settlement, is composed of Bohemian Citizens, who really intend to move out of Chicago. The corporation has resolved to move to one of the south-western states, which ...

    Bohemian
    III A, III G
  • Chicago Tribune -- July 07, 1893
    Bohemian-Amercans' Annual Delegates Decide to Continue the Publication of Official Organ

    The third annual session of the Bohemian-American National Committee opened yesterday morning at 10 o'clock in the Bohemian-American Hall, 400 West Eighteenth Street. President L. J. Palda of this city presided. The day was taken up with the reading of the minutes of the last session and the presentation of reports of the Correspondence Bureau and Emigration and Statistics Committee and closed with a discussion on the continuance of the organ, Bohemian Voice, published in Omaha. It was finally decided to continue the publication.

    The Bohemian National Committee represents, through its various societies in America, 3,000,000 Bohemians. The principal object of the Committee is to represent the Bohemians before the Americans as they are, and further to collect statistics of Bohemian immigration and present the situation to the people in Bohemia who are struggling for home rule. To-day will be taken up with the reading of committee reports.

    2

    The Closing Session

    The closing session of the Bohemian-American National Committee was held yesterday. Peter V. Rovmianek of Pittsburg opened the morning session with an address on the "Progress of the Bohemian Nation." Paul Albiera, a playwrite and author of Prague, Bohemia, in a short speech declared his intention on his return home of writing a history of America in the Bohemian language, that his countrymen might know more of the land to which so many of his people have immigrated. Mrs. R. L. Pitte of Chicago, President of the Bohemian Women's Benevolent Association, which has a membership of 4,000, delivered a short address, in which she assured the National Committee that the Association which she represented was ready to lend moral and financial support to any object which would tend to elevate the Bohemian nation.

    Upon a motion of Peter V. Bovmianek, it was unanimously decided to hold a Slavonic Congress in the future, in which will participate Bohemians, Poles, South Slavonians, and Russians. The congress will take place in Chicago on some day memorial to the history of the Slavonic race. The afternoon was taken up with the biennial election of officers.

    The third annual session of the Bohemian-American National Committee opened yesterday morning at 10 o'clock in the Bohemian-American Hall, 400 West Eighteenth Street. President L. J. Palda of this city ...

    Bohemian
    III B 4, III H, III G
  • DennĂ­ Hlasatel -- January 09, 1902
    [Immigrants Charged with Lower Wages]

    American employees and employers alike, charge immigrants are guilty of lowering wages and creating competition through cheap labor. We must admit that this accusation is partly true. The immigrant upon his arrival in this land is ignorant of local conditions and easily becomes the instrument of conscienceless profiteers, almost always Americans. Various henchmen work to deliver the immigrant into sweatshops, where he is forced to labor to exhaustion for such low wages that this promised land becomes a hell on earth for him, and he the unwilling tool that hurts the interests of all other workingmen. It is the duty of American Bohemians to so conduct themselves that such an accusation can not be made against our countrymen. We should take care of this, both individually and collectively. In this matter we must again point to the Germans, who have immigration offices in all the larger cities, where the immigrant is given information and help, and in some instances, a job is procured for him.

    Bohemian labor organizations and societies ought to take this matter under consideration, and endeavor to put our immigrant brothers on the right road, so that they may not become the victims of bad people through their own unfamiliarity with local conditions.

    American employees and employers alike, charge immigrants are guilty of lowering wages and creating competition through cheap labor. We must admit that this accusation is partly true. The immigrant upon ...

    Bohemian
    III G, III A, I H, I C