The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Svornost -- October 04, 1878
    [Bohemian Meeting in Sixth Ward]

    Last night a meeting was held by Bohemian Citizens of the 6th Ward at Krejcih's Hall on 18th Street, citizen Frank Chlupsa acting as chairman and Frank Dvorak as secretary.

    At the request of those present, Mr. Leo Meilbek spoke at length of ways and means of improving conditions of working-men. After short addresses by Mr. Pavel and Mr. Chlupsa the meeting was adjourned.

    Last night a meeting was held by Bohemian Citizens of the 6th Ward at Krejcih's Hall on 18th Street, citizen Frank Chlupsa acting as chairman and Frank Dvorak as secretary. ...

    Bohemian
    I F 4, I H, IV
  • Svornost -- September 17, 1884
    Proclamation of the Bohemian Citizens in Chicago,Illinois.

    The coming elections - National, State and County are highly important for every citizen, but especially for immigrants.

    The most important questions, which will be decided by the electorate in November are as follows:

    1. The Civil Service Reform.

    2. The protection of the citizens of this country on the other side of the boundary.

    3. The personal liberty.

    Everybody should take notice of these elections and here is the reason why:

    1. We know that at present this country is governed with incredible speed. We know that millions of dollars, extorted from the people, will be mostly used for the purpose of enriching the capitalists.

    2

    We know that hundreds of millions of acres of the best territories and soil were given up to the extorting companies.

    We know that the legislature is shameless and corrupted.

    We know that the untouchable electoral box was opened and interfered with to the advantage of the party, which was in power.

    We know that the biggest frauds committed on the people were unpunished, therefore we wish to have changes!

    2. Everybody know that many citizens of this great Republic are moaning incessantly because they are being jailed by others in power.

    We know also that the Republican Administration, while Blaine was Secretary, never resisted the foreign powers, except for small political tricks with countries not worth mentioning.

    3

    In dealing with major foreign powers he never moved a finger to the advantage of one threatened.

    We know exactly that the Democratic party has always protected and splendidly defended the rights of the American citizens each time the agricultural question was at stake; it always has protected the complete equal rights among American born and immigrated citizens.

    Whereas: We wish a change!

    A change to the Democratic principles of today and a liberal law of liberty for every citizen.

    3. We are convinced that the efforts of the Republican party are concentrated on the limiting of the personal liberty of the citizens.

    4

    We are convinced that the Republican party is taking pains, with every effort, to yoke us under tyrannic laws, originated by the fanatic Puritans a century ago, whereas we protest as strongly as possible against the jurisdiction of such social laws for free and educated people and we demand the changes!

    We ourselves denounce with fullest determination any law that limits personal liberty and is in direct opposition to the knowledge and idea of the Constitution of this country. We express our acknowledgment to the country, which fully defends and protects our interests and the interests of the people.

    Knowing that the Democratic party and its candidates, Cleveland and Hendricks, are worthy of confidence in the matter of reforms, and being convinced that the Democratic party always has protected the personal liberty and honor of American citizens, we consider it our duty to organize ourselves to insure victory in the election of honest men to office.

    Based on this principle we appeal to all the Bohemian Democrats, especially 5to those who are enthusiastic about personal liberty and social honor, to take part in the general advisory meeting, Friday, September 19, at 8 P. M. in the hall of the "Sokol Society" gymnasium on Taylor Street. The purpose of the meeting is to found a "Bohemian club," that will support Cleveland, Hendricks and Harrison.

    As sponsors we have the signatures of nineteen prominent Bohemian business men.......(Names omitted)

    The coming elections - National, State and County are highly important for every citizen, but especially for immigrants. The most important questions, which will be decided by the electorate in ...

    Bohemian
    I F 3, I D 1 a, I F 6, I H, I L
  • Denní Hlasatel -- January 09, 1902
    [Immigrants Charged with Lower Wages]

    American employees and employers alike, charge immigrants are guilty of lowering wages and creating competition through cheap labor. We must admit that this accusation is partly true. The immigrant upon his arrival in this land is ignorant of local conditions and easily becomes the instrument of conscienceless profiteers, almost always Americans. Various henchmen work to deliver the immigrant into sweatshops, where he is forced to labor to exhaustion for such low wages that this promised land becomes a hell on earth for him, and he the unwilling tool that hurts the interests of all other workingmen. It is the duty of American Bohemians to so conduct themselves that such an accusation can not be made against our countrymen. We should take care of this, both individually and collectively. In this matter we must again point to the Germans, who have immigration offices in all the larger cities, where the immigrant is given information and help, and in some instances, a job is procured for him.

    Bohemian labor organizations and societies ought to take this matter under consideration, and endeavor to put our immigrant brothers on the right road, so that they may not become the victims of bad people through their own unfamiliarity with local conditions.

    American employees and employers alike, charge immigrants are guilty of lowering wages and creating competition through cheap labor. We must admit that this accusation is partly true. The immigrant upon ...

    Bohemian
    III G, III A, I H, I C
  • Denní Hlasatel -- June 28, 1905
    Abolish the Death Penalty!

    P.4--In no other part of the world is so much said or so much printed about executions, as in this country of ours, which we flatter ourselves by calling the most progressive and the best civilized on earth. Our newspapers print daily reports of executions. If the accused be a colored man, and the crime an ordinary murder, only brief mention is made of the occurence.

    If, however, the condemned man belongs to that class of criminals whose misdeeds create a sensation on account of peculiar circumstances, whole columns are devoted to the story for the "education" of the public. Readers must be informed about the details of crime, about the trial, about the startling points in the testimony, and about all the practical and unpractical juristic motions made by the defense to save the defendant's life. No one believes that such reading elevates the morals or promotes the perfection of mankind.

    All this would be different if our law did not cling to an ancient medieval rule: "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life."

    2

    Science has so far tried in vain to demonstrate to legislators by pointing out the congenital defects of the human mind and the influence of environment and circumstance how little man is responsible for what he is and does. Capital punishment, in most of our States, is apparently here to stay. In some States, truly enough, it has been abolished; for example, in the neighboring State of Wisconsin. But the States where the rule of Moses, "An eye for an eye" does not prevail are still very few.

    But there are other considerations, not of a scientific nature, which ought to be taken into account. We have read an article in a certain paper printed in English the gist of which we wish to communicate to our readers.

    "One of the consequences of the legalization of the death penalty, says this article, is the excitement created by the publication of details which might better be kept from the public. Even people with mature minds do not derive any benefit from such reports of the struggle for existence, whereas persons of hysterical tendencies and those who are afflicted with a morbid predilection for sensational stories are weakened thereby both morally and mentally.

    3

    "In the States which have abolished the death penalty those who read the accounts of murder trials are not wrought to so high a pitch of excitement. When the trial is over, and the verdict has been found, the interest ceases. Whatever is undertaken thereafter to obtain a new trial, an appeal, or a pardon fails to attract the attention of either the public or the press. The contention that capital punishment has a deterrent effect upon people who would otherwise be tempted to commit murder was refuted years ago by criminologists of the first rank. There have been times in which the ax, the rope, fire, or the sword was used to mete out punishment for crimes much less grave than murder; it was supposed that men would be deterred by the fear of punishment from committing such crimes.

    In our day the most progressive of our States have discarded medieval criminal laws and abolished capital punishment."

    P.4--In no other part of the world is so much said or so much printed about executions, as in this country of ours, which we flatter ourselves by calling the ...

    Bohemian
    I C, III B 1, II E 3, I H
  • Denní Hlasatel -- June 29, 1905
    Editor Deprecates Cost of Appeal

    P.4--When all is said and done, it is still interesting to meditate on our system of justice. Some things seem to have been ordered in a strange way. Take, for instance, the case of this man Hoch, condemned to die on the gallows. Hoch pleaded not guilty. Let us suppose that the is innocent. He has the right to appeal to the highest court, which he intends to do, asserting that his innocence will be proved, and that he will regain his liberty. The Governor has granted him a stay of sentence to file his appeal. This sounds like very good news for him; but he lacks the funds required for filing an appeal, and if he cannot produce the money, he will be hanged, as the prosecution states, even though he is innocent. For whom, then, does this Supreme Court really exist?

    P.4--When all is said and done, it is still interesting to meditate on our system of justice. Some things seem to have been ordered in a strange way. Take, for ...

    Bohemian
    I H, I E
  • Denní Hlasatel -- February 02, 1910
    Editcr Assails Hcarding of Foodstuffs (Editorial)

    P.4--Even he who does not feel the high cost of living is interested in the agitation carried on in various quarters and in the methods used by the agitators, as well as in the investigations promoted by various authorities. An overwhelming majority of the population is hit by the high cost of foodstuffs, and people are seeking to find the causes of it and to provide means for the stabilization of prices.

    Cold-storage warehouses are now being accused as the main contributors to rising costs. These investigations are directed by a Chicago alderman has contributed his bit by an ordinance to prohibit the storage of foodstuffs for more than sixty days, after which period they must be destroyed.

    In order to understand the opposition to storage warehouses, let us consider their real purpose and examine the actual practices of the owners of these 2establishments.

    In one respect cold-storage warehouses have a beneficial effect, for they preserve the surplus food produced in times of abundance; they are legal commercial establishments and necessary elements in our present economic structure. Capitalists, however, eager to utilize them for gain, are abusing to the utmost the opportunity offered by the storage of food. The owners of the warehouses are accused of keeping foodstuffs from the market in order to boost their prices. That such charges are perfectly well justified is obvious from statistics based upon detailed information, according to which fourteen million pieces of beef, six million pieces of veal, twenty-five million pieces of mutton, and fifty million pieces of pork are being hoarded, so that every inhabitant of the United States has one piece of meat which is being kept in storage for him, and besides this an extra pieces of meat is in storage for every family.

    But other foodstuffs also are stored in incredible quantities. For example, twenty-five million fishes are kept in storage for a full year before they reach the market. Add to this 1800 million eggs, 130 million pounds of 3poultry, and fruit valued at fifty million dollars. Finally, there are immense quantities of potatoes, onions, preserves, butter, and cheese; the value of these latter foodstuffs is estimated at a hundred million dollars. There are in the U. S. about 558 large storage warehouses, containing, according to surveys, foodstuffs worth three billion dollars.

    If this quantity of food were in the hands of the people or of a people's government, or if there were any laws for the protection of the interests of the people, cold storage would be of great benefit to the community in times of scarcity; but the manner in which it is now being abused is nothing less than a crime against the public.

    P.4--Even he who does not feel the high cost of living is interested in the agitation carried on in various quarters and in the methods used by the agitators, as ...

    Bohemian
    I H, I F 3, I E
  • Denní Hlasatel -- February 03, 1910
    Governor and Editor Differ on Diet

    P.4--Some good advice on how to defeat the high cost of living comes to us from Governor Hadley of Missouri. That gentleman suggests raising cows and chickens, as he himself is doing, to eliminate the necessity of buying meat.

    While we dutifully acknowledge the suggestion given by this official, we offer for the sake of completeness an additional idea. We believe that to keep body and soul together a diet of Bohemian pheasant, Strassburg pates de foies gras, and Russian caviar would suffice.

    P.4--Some good advice on how to defeat the high cost of living comes to us from Governor Hadley of Missouri. That gentleman suggests raising cows and chickens, as he himself ...

    Bohemian
    I C, I L, I H
  • Denní Hlasatel -- February 08, 1910
    Editor Exposes Pries-Fixing

    P.4--The high cost of living is now being investigated by Congress and will probably be studied in the State legislature and the city hall. How much value can be assigned to all this work remains a question. Researches into the matter of high prices have been conducted by newspapers in more thorough fashion than by official bodies. Neither one of these groups has had much success in discovering the real causes of the phenomenon and in fixing the responsibility therefore on the right persons. Every one of the witnesses called on the stand by Congress denies and connection with the price-controlling element and winds up with the halo of innocence around his head.

    It is, by the way, rather easy to establish the truth. Most of the dealers in victuals are not engaged in other activities. Their income is derived solely from the sale of food-stuffs. Consequently one has only to observe the increase in their wealth to get at the bottom of the whole matter. In other words, it is a case of keeping still and watching, it grow.

    Certain "economists, people who write books but know nothing about real life, assign the blame for rising prices to the huge amount of gold produced. 2The more gold there is, say these people, the less the value of money is. This kind of reasoning is preposterous. Deflation would cause everything to rise in price, including human labor. The working-man's wages, however, hover constantly below a certain variable minimum. Other groups of people, notably those who write for our American newspapers, accuse the public, charging them with wastefulness and prodigality. People are too fastidious, they say; they want only the most expensive articles and throw away half the things which they buy, whereas if they were thrifty, prices would go down. Against this theory we can set the fact, that high prices prevail in other countries as well as in America, in countries where waste is out of the question; for example, in Germany, where people eat horse-meat and dog-meat, or in France and England, where the populace has had to lower its standard of living, and also in Bohemia, from which many complaints are reaching us daily.

    The conclusion reached by the newspapers appears to be incorrect for another reason, namely, that the rise in prices has been very rapid, especially in the last few years, and it is hardly possible that all the people have become Sybarites and epicures within that short time.

    3

    The meat-barons and the kings of the corn exchange have tried recently to shift the burden of responsibility to the shoulders of the farmers "who grow fat on the rising prices." It is therefore only proper to hear the farmers' opinion. One of them gives a detailed account of the cost of raising an animal up to the time, when it becomes marketable and proves that the prices are raised the moment it gets into the stockyards. All the cattle in the markets of St. Louis, Fort Worth, Kansas City, Omaha, Sioux City, and Chicago are bought by four big packing concerns, who within a few years have each accumulated property worth from thirty million to a hundred million dollars. These data speak for themselves. The rich men are the packers, not the farmers; among farmers there is only one millionaire and that is David Rankin of Tarkin, Missouri, who became wealthy by speculating in real estate.

    P.4--The high cost of living is now being investigated by Congress and will probably be studied in the State legislature and the city hall. How much value can be assigned ...

    Bohemian
    I H, I D 1 a, I D 1 b
  • Denní Hlasatel -- February 09, 1910
    Too Rich for the Bohemian Stomach.

    p. 4. -Mr. Dodge, the federal food inspector, has given his views on the quality of meat before the congressional committee, referring to ex-President Theodore Roosevelt as authority.

    Old meat, says Dodge, is not nearly so bad as many people think; on the contrary, it is edible and even palatable.

    The household of the former President of the United States, has the custom, according to Mr. Dodge, of buying a whole side of beef and hanging it in the cellar to ripen till it acquires the odor which some call "game," "wild," or "high."

    When the goose hangs high, the President is ready to eat it. He enjoys no meat unless it has that flavor of maturity.

    2

    In taking the ex-President's taste as an example, Mr. Dodge means to imply that what is good enough for an ex-President should be good enough for us, and that we should not grumble or be critical if the packers hand us a chunk of odorous meat once in a while. But Mr. Dodge is oblivious of the fact that human stomachs vary, and that Roosevelt's stomach has probably not its equal on this globe in its capacity for taking punishment. Our people believe in getting fresh meat when they pay for it.

    p. 4. -Mr. Dodge, the federal food inspector, has given his views on the quality of meat before the congressional committee, referring to ex-President Theodore Roosevelt as authority. Old meat, ...

    Bohemian
    I M, I D 1 a, I H
  • Denní Hlasatel -- February 10, 1910
    Editor Urges Action on Pension Law

    P.4--In April last year the Illinois legislature passed a resolution requesting Congress to support a motion made by Congressman Lubin for the enactment of a law similar to the old-age-pension laws in operation in several European countries. The measure provided that the Speaker of the House should name a committee of seven member whose task should be to study the diverse European systems, select elements from them, and formulate a proposition for the law best suited to our conditions. This committee was then to submit its findings to Congress not later than January, 1911.

    Lubin's motion was referred to the committee on commerce, but after that no trace of it could be found, although it is nigh time for the United States to step in line with other civilized countries and satisfy an urgent need. Although the idea of an old-age-pension law is almost entirely new in the United States, other countries have long overcome the initial difficulties naturally encountered in establishing such an institution.

    2

    The first country to try this experiment, which is worthy of emulation, was Germany, where in the year 1889 a law was enacted which established the pension system. The system was put on a broader basis by laws enacted in 1891 and 1899 These German old-age-pension laws affect twenty-five per cent of the population and require the state, the employers, and the employees to contribute to the pension fund. All working-men ever seventy years old and working-men unable for certain reasons to earn their livelihood are entitled to receive pensions.

    The next country to enact a pension law was Denmark, which allows a pension to men who have reached the age of sixty. New Zealand's law, enacted in 1897, directs that a pension of $2.50 shall be paid weekly to a man over sixty-five years old who has led a law-abiding life for the last twenty-five years. Many other countries have followed these examples. Belgium enacted a pension law in 1900 making the extent of the benefit dependent on the age of the recipient, the amount of duet which he has paid, and his actual need. Similarly, Austria, France, and Italy have absorbed the idea, improving their respective laws year by year. England in establishing its old-age pension granted to all men over seventy years old, according to 3circumstances, twenty-five cents to $1.25 per week. Canada passed its law in 1908, and Sweden and Norway are about to follow. Australia experimented till 1909, when it joined the other countries in establishing an old-age pension, with excellent results, as attested by American consuls.

    Why, then, should the United States lag behind others? We are proud of the pension which we allot to soldiers whether they need it or not, but we have no regard for the working-man, who is as necessary as the soldier for the common welfare, and who, like the soldier, jeopardizes his life in the performance of his duty.

    The objection raised on account of the easy way in which immigrants can obtain American citizenship does not appear to be well grounded. Nobody demands that every newcomer shall be entitled to draw a pension immediately after he has become a citizen nor at the moment when he has attained the required ago. It is not necessary that the benefit shall involve the question of citizenship at all; it should depend on the time which the immigrant has spent in the United States as a wage-earner or an otherwise usefully active member of the community. The requisite number of years of 4activity in the United States ought to be fixed first, and a clause should be included stating that only men with a clean past shall be eligible. This limitation would be bound to bear fruit in compelling many a man of mischievous tendencies to take thought and turn over a new leaf. Thus a contemplated decrease in crime would be another reason for the enactment of a pension law.

    P.4--In April last year the Illinois legislature passed a resolution requesting Congress to support a motion made by Congressman Lubin for the enactment of a law similar to the old-age-pension ...

    Bohemian
    I H, II E 3