The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Svornost -- March 31, 1879
    Before the Battle.

    We stand today on the threshold of an important decision, whether our evil city government is to be continued; are we again to be surrendered to pillage by rapacious officeseekers and their numerous henchman or will we place in office honest responsible men, men of action, men, enthusiastic for the general welfare?

    Citizens there are four parties with full lists of candidates and you have plenty of material to choose from for the various offices. Republicans, Democrats, Socialists and Greenbackers come before you with their candidates asking for your support, promising more or less important things. Let us see however what happens to these preelection promises. Are they fulfilled? We answer, so far as the main issues are concerned, never. Did not the Republicans and Democrats promise you before each election, mountains and dales, did not they have mouths full of reform, did not they promise you, workingmen, that they would look after your needs, your interests? How did it turn out after election? It is needless to dwell upon for every child knows they kept none of their promises. They were concerned only with their own 2interests and those of the rich city plundering public utility companies. Many may object that a Socialist once elected may work otherwise, but previous experience and the sound elements from which the Socialist Labor Party is formed absolutely expel this thought.

    Our representatives in the State Legislature work in the interests of the working class and failing to achieve any apparent success, who is to blame for this- if not these Republicans and Democrats? In the city council we have so far only one representative of the Socialist Party, Citizen Fr. Stauber, and this representative of ours enjoys the confidence of all honorable citizens of Chicago. It was he that fought for the establishment of new schools, reading-rooms, public baths, and sewers in those districts of the city inhabited by the poorer classes of our citizens. He fought for the lighting and cleaning of streets in the neighborhoods peopled by working men. He endeavored to bring to the poor people, the same privileges which the rich tax dodgers enjoyed. Citizen Stauber worked sincerely and honorably and if he failed to enact our rightful demands, who again is to blame if not the 3Republicans and Democrats, these people who before election promised us endless reforms; then those, who believing the promises of these sharpers, elected them instead of honest socialists who are in sympathy with us. If we said nothing in behalf of our representative there would still remain one circumstance which assures him the grateful remembrance of all honorable taxpayers, and that is the conservation of over-payments in the amount of $300,000 on which the city accountant was drawing interest.

    Our officials have shown themselves to be honorable and would to God they remain so. Partly responsible for this is the fact that our candidates must agree to resign from office if the electorate desires it. Any one who wishes the reforms as shown in our principles should vote the Socialist ticket. He who wishes to support dishonesty, destructiveness and thievery should vote for the old parties, but should not moan afterward that he is being robbed.

    Our Ballot

    For Mayor--Ernest Schmidt; for City Treasurer--Fr. A. Stauber; for City Attorney--Harry Rubens: for City Clerk--Benjamin Sibley; For Aldermen--1st Ward-Nicolai H. Jorgensen; 2nd Ward--George A. Schilling; 3rd Ward-- H. L. Hull; 4th Ward--Louis Huth; 5th Ward--T. J. Morgan;


    6th Ward--J. J. Altpeter; 7th Ward--Frank Bielefeldt; 8th Ward--Henry Stahl; 9th Ward S. R. Rratt; 10th Ward--Robert Beck; 11th Ward--Harry Johnson; 12th Ward--Maz Zelle; 13th Ward--George Braun; 14th Ward--Reinhold Lorenz; 15th Ward-John Feltes: 16th Ward-Christian Meier; 17th Ward--James Lynn; 18th Ward--D. Van Devanter.

    North Town Officers.

    Assessor--J. C. Warner; Collector--Theo A. Schwennesen; Clerk--John Soller; Supervisor P. Mc Fadden;

    South Town Officers

    Assessor--John Paulsen; Collector--Henry Schmidt; Clerk-- T. P. S. Dusey; Supervisor Tom Ryan.

    West Town Officers.

    Assessor--O; A. Bishop; Collector--Daniel Sullivan; Clerk--Jacob Dilg; Supervisor--Martin Baumrucker.

    We stand today on the threshold of an important decision, whether our evil city government is to be continued; are we again to be surrendered to pillage by rapacious officeseekers ...

    I F 6, I D 1 a, I F 1, I F 3, I E
  • Svornost -- April 21, 1879
    [The Sophistry of Politicians]

    To be a politican is with every citizen who understands politics a serious business. It creates respect, dignity and character; in general it makes the man.

    It is flattering and pleasant to sit among the leaders in political meetings, to be able to speak before others, to be welcomed with eagerness and expectation, to be the leader of the thought of those other non-political dullards or indifferent citizens, to whom there can be occasionally made when elections require it, nice speeches, in which the opposition is roundly berated and the favored candidates greatly praised, and some trumps played to flatter the poor foolish people, several thrusts can be made against the powerful and the wealthy, so it will appear we are in a free country and no one will make anything of it, thus we have a politician and that which he does is called politics, yes high politics. What are the purposes and principles of this kind of politics? Not one of these politicians asks or cares about that. He is simply a politician, he works for some candidate of his party. Does he receive any pay? No, he even helps pay the expenses of the election in the expectation of some other kind of reward or favor. From force of habit he 2will berate the opposition party according to what he has learned from his party literature and no more. To inquire further as to the principles of such politics, what they lead to, and whether they are for the benefit of the people; does not enter such a politician's mind.

    Let us examine a little more closely these politicians and their brand of politics. We shall learn how much despised is the citizen, who blindly goes along with his party, from force of habit, who allows himself to be threatened by the politicians as though his redemption depended upon that particular party. Just what is this American system of politics, either Republican or Democratic, other than the defense and upholding of the interests of the ruling classes, the capitalistic groups and their methods for the oppression of all who are dependent on them? We have in the United States a ruling class and a laboring class. The politics of both the major political parties tends only to preserve and protect the interests of the oppressive ruling classes. Nowhere, not even in Congress or the various State Legislatures nor in the City Councils is anything done by which the interests of the laboring classes would be protected. It seems as though this class, has no rights, needs no consideration, has no needs and no desires.- 3even so a just government should strive to benefit and satisfy the majority of its citizens. Both of the national parties make use of shameful hypocrisy for the accomplishment of their aims, namely, that all their laws and efforts pretend always to be for the protection of freedom and rights of the masses but ordinarily all their laws for the preservation of this freedom prove to be the opposite thereof, and if by any chance this law should happen to be good then they disregard it and let it become a dead letter. Therefore the people again have nothing by which they may benefit. That is politics and to that end the politicians labor. Both the political parties of the country set up platforms made up of the old worn out empty phrases, absolutely meaningless, promising nothing, in fact accomplishing nothing. They decorate them with nice flattering rhetoric for their own party and abuse and reproach for the other party. Then they add a promise of good times to come as soon as the party and its candidates are elected. This then is called politics. The politician who knows how to picture it, knows how to be non-committal, knows how to 4pass out a great deal of nonsense, both national and political, is then in a position to be among the leaders and may seek some office to repay him for the many years of loyal service he gave to his party. The citizens then accept these same platforms as though they were some kind of valuable jewels, entitled to respect and veneration like some holy writ; they dont realize that by means of these smooth artifices they are led by these same political leaders, to vote for them, thereby helping them to attain some office which they have probably sought for years. This is politics as played by politicians. It is politics, to endeavor to hold an independent people in spiritual dependence and submission to the high political leaders. All of which, called humbug in America, is the privilege of politicians.

    What are the politics of the laboring class against these conditions? Their politics are not primarily to seek personal profit and benefit or election to some office, but to endeavor first of all to bring about that equality and justice for all who are now being ground down by oppression under the present system. Labors politics must refrain from all political humbug and underhandedness and must endeavor 5toward, education and enlightenment, the emancipation from subjection, the spiritual awakening of independent thought on political matters in order to recognize the causes of unrest and dissatisfaction among the people and to work for the accomplishment of means to bring about the equality and justice so necessary to the peace and satisfaction of all the people.

    Labor politics consider all previous major political parties as a drawback to progress. Therefore it must not lower itself to the same trickery and machination which they used to carry out their principles.

    To join with them would be to lower and destroy the principles of justice and equality. Labor's politics must overcome all that is evil and unjust no matter where it is found and support all things that are just and for the benefit of all . For these reasons any sensible man may support the labor party for the interests of this party are the interests of all honest people whether they be laborers, mechanica, businessmen or farmers.

    To be a politican is with every citizen who understands politics a serious business. It creates respect, dignity and character; in general it makes the man. It is flattering and ...

    I F 3, I F 6, I E
  • Svornost -- October 28, 1882
    Political Meeting of the Bohemian Citizens in Chicago.

    Three prominent Chicago citizens, Mr. V. Kaspar, Adolph Kraus, and August Geringer called a political meeting of the Chicago Bohemians last night.

    The meeting was held on their special invitation in the Houdkov Hall, corner Bunker and Desplaines Sts. and its purpose was to enlighten the Chicago Bohemians and induce them to promote political adherence and representation. The meeting was represented by the most prominent Bohemian citizens, without discrimination as to which party they belonged. There were Republicans, Democrats and workingmen and it is stated with pleasure that yesterday's meeting was marked with complete attention and patience, something that seldom happens in a Bohemian meeting in which two or three parties are represented.

    The meeting was opened by V. Kaspar who explained its purpose and expressed the hope that this meeting would be distinguished by the fullest attention to the speakers.

    The first speech was made by A. Kraus, who pointed out that we have two big 2parties and while the Bohemians worked for both of them, what benefit have they had from it? None, as long as not a single Bohemian was placed on the district electoral ticket of one of the parties. Until now we have elected on other tickets, Mr. Kakuska, Constable on the Republican ticket: Mr. Chladek as Clerk on the Democratic ticket and Mr. Meilbek to the Legislature on the workingmen's ticket.

    We should expect and demand a representative.

    No one from the present audience is demanding employment for himself, although there are among the Bohemians many capable of filling some of the positions. - Should we act, as we did until now, we will arrive nowhere, we must show our power to the parties, we should not dare to be afraid of the party nor let our conscientiousness rule us. Every one's duty is to support the other party in case of necessity.

    It is easy to prove that we have the decisive power in our hands. After ripe deliberation we should elect, today, from both electoral tickets the best man and create in this way our own ticket. -


    It is not reasonable, that in the pre-electoral conventions the people are paying much attention if the candidate is an Irishman, German or Scandinavian. We are Americans, and should equally take into consideration our nationality, as the others do.

    We must show to the parties, that they do not have us in their power; let us elect our candidates from both parties, and in case they should pass the election, we will gain their respect. Let us show the parties that we have teeth, that we know how to bite, and then they will fear us.

    Second speaker Frank Fucik: "With regard to politics, I have a bitter conviction and my experience is dreadful. It was stated correctly that we first should learn politics, and in case we should achieve something that we first must learn to regard ourselves with mutual reverence. As long as we insult each other we will not go far. The political conditions among the Bohemians were deplorable, the majority always oppressed the minority.


    We were not able to lead politics in an honest way. The general opinion prevailed, that politics and thievery must go together. We should prove that it is not so. I, myself, was once accused of corruption, but I will not excuse myself because my conscience is clear. I have no idea, how we can select the candidates of both parties without dispersing the votes, but I think it is compulsory for us to take part in politics, decently, and honestly, and not to blame each other.

    Our work for any good cause must be harmonious and our first Bohemian ticket can not be instantly overturned and in consequence our work killed.

    Then K. Lusk, a Bohemian lawyer, declared himself as a one hundred percent Bohemian and that many knew him from his articles published in Svornost.

    The Bohemians have not shown, until now, any real political activity, although their desire always has been to have a leader in one of the parties.

    We control about 3,000 votes and we now have an opportunity to appear independently.


    He suggested, for our future benefit, to organize Bohemian political clubs, to open new clubs in all districts of the city, and to develop a wide propaganda for the Bohemians to take out their citizenship papers and to take a vital interest in political activities. The Bohemians should take an example from other nationalities.

    Mr. Hudek, candidate for Senator, states that the Bohemians have power and are receiving more and more recognition.

    His candidacy was proposed by the workingmen of other nationalities and approved by many Republican clubs. - Today's meeting made an "impression" on him as called by professional politicians. Mr. Kraus answered that this meeting was called by a Republican, Kaspar, a Democrat, Kraus, and an Independent, Geringer, and that he is very much surprised, that Mr. Hudek expressed his suspicion in this direction. The originators of today's meeting are not professional politicians at all. The position of District Commissioner was proposed to Mr. Kaspar, but he refused.


    "Personally I am not willing to accept even a big political position, because my business occupies all my time and everybody knows very well, that Mr. Geringer does not care for any position. Everybody knows us and our good intentions, that's why I cannot understand how Mr. Hudek can throw such calumnies."...

    After a few unimportant speeches the meeting was closed. The lawyer, Mr. Lusk, immediately requested the audience to wait a while and he read the following resolution, which was unanimously accepted:

    Whereas, a meeting of prominent Bohemian men was called with the purpose of mutual deliberation and the formation of political union, and

    Whereas, there existed some suspicions that this meeting was called to the advantage of individuals; be it

    Resolved, that said meeting was called for respectable, honest purposes and that between Bohemians there exists complete harmony.

    Three prominent Chicago citizens, Mr. V. Kaspar, Adolph Kraus, and August Geringer called a political meeting of the Chicago Bohemians last night. The meeting was held on their special invitation ...

    I F 1, I F 3, I C, IV
  • Svornost -- March 19, 1883
    Bohemian Justice of the Peace Yesterday's Meeting of the Bohemian Citizens and Accepted Resolutions

    Notwithstanding the cold weather the enlightened Bohemians from Chicago, and even from suburbs, attended in large masses yesterday's meeting, called for the purpose of enforcing the nomination of a Bohemian justice of peace. One could see distinctly the interest paid by everybody to the cause, so dear and important to the Bohemian citizens. There were present the most prominent old Bohemian settlers of Chicago and the meeting, with a few exceptions of expressed sarcasm, could be seen as a really exemplary meeting.

    The meeting was held in the Sokol's Hall and opened by Joseph F. Kohout. L. W. Kadlec was called to the presidential chair and started as follows: "Gentlemen, you are all conscious of the fact that the Cook County judges, in spite of the general demand of the Bohemians in Chicago to recommend our countryman to the bench of justice of peace, did the opposite. We are assembled, today, not with the purpose of condemning the judges of Cook County for their disregard of our nationality, nor to slander them, but in case there should be some changes in the candidates, to recommend for the vacancy of the justice 2of peace - to take into consideration today's resolutions, and to grant us again a Bohemian justice of peace and show that favor to the large Bohemian population of Chicago."

    Then Mr. Pragler took the speaker's platform and said that it was our own fault, that our candidate was omitted from the list. We are not active enough in politics and that this predicted a bad future. The German journal, Illinois Staats Zeitung, wrote again and badly, about us Bohemians. It commended as a very praiseworthy idea that Mr. Fisher was not recommended for the justice of peace. Why? Only because he is a Bohemian. This Bohemian-hating newspaper is intruding everywhere without being invited. Judge Fisher is an equally good juror and perhaps better than the new candidate in his place.

    After a few insignificant speeches, Em. Legro announced that the resolutions were already elaborated and ready to be read to the audience.


    Accepted in the general meeting of the Bohemian people in Sokol Hall, March 18, 1883.


    Whereas, there are about 60,000 Slavs, the majority of whom neither speak nor understand English, and

    Whereas, in the last years there has been an attempt to persuade the circuit judges of the necessity to have on the West Side a Slav-speaking and understanding justice of peace, and

    Whereas, the judges accepted this proposition and recommended, last year, to Gov. Cullom, E. A. Fisher, a prominent lawyer and a member of the Bar Association, as a worthy jurist to replace the deceased judge, Ammund Miller, and

    Whereas, that Judge Fisher performed his duties honestly, conforming not only with the limits of the jurisdiction of the justice of peace, but taking into consideration the ideals of humanity and proving, at every point, his ability and competence to stay in the same office, and

    Whereas, we have proved to the judges in every possible way, by our own efforts and with the help of our honest and kind friends of other nationalities, that the benefit obtained from the continuance in office of the same justice of peace cannot be over-rated and, taking into consideration that Judge Fisher 4had sacrificed his own growing and large practice as a lawyer - that he should be nominated to this office for the next whole term, after the unfinished term of the deceased Judge Miller, and other candidates should not be taken into consideration, and

    Whereas, it is known to everybody that nothing substantial can be shown against his reappointment, but, that in spite of the approval of all elements which he represented, the circuit judges have found it good and justifiable to leave out his name from the list of the proposed justices of peace for the West Side, and they did it on account of the causes known only to them and to nobody else, and

    Whereas, this elimination of the candidacy of Judge Fisher not only is depriving us of many benefits and of due representation, but is casting an undeserved suspicion on our present just of peace and beloved countryman - this could have the undesirable consequence that in present conditions his profession is likely to be injured. On the other side our interests in the eyes of publicity can be damaged.


    Therefore It Is Resolved, that we American citizens of Bohemian extraction in Chicago, present at the national meeting, express our deep sorrow on account of the decision of the judges, acknowledged by them as right and good; and hereby we appeal to those gentlemen that they take their decision relation to this matter under full consideration and pronounce a new decision, favorable and advantageous to us. That means to reappoint our present judge, E. A. Fisher, in the same office for the next term.

    Independently of this it is resolved that the copies of this resolution be delivered to every judge.

    Signed by the Committee: E. A. Legross, J. F. Kohout, F. Fucik, K. Drabek.

    The resolution was unanimously accepted.

    P. Hudek proposed to appoint few delegates, which would seek an audience with the senators here in Chicago or in Springfield; would deliver and explain to them the resolutions of today. The motion was accepted; seven delegates, prominent Bohemians, were elected and authorized to visit the state senators and circuit judges.


    After this the meeting adjourned.

    Right after the meeting the elected seven delegates had a private conference. They had already fulfilled the commission yesterday. The senators promised complete cooperation in the reappointment of a Bohemian justice of peace. It left nothing more than to wait for the decision of the senate in this matter.

    Notwithstanding the cold weather the enlightened Bohemians from Chicago, and even from suburbs, attended in large masses yesterday's meeting, called for the purpose of enforcing the nomination of a Bohemian ...

    I F 3, I F 1
  • Svornost -- March 26, 1883
    For Harrison (Editorial)

    The general Bohemian meeting declared itself for Harrison and recommended Mr. Soukup for the office of appraiser.

    The general Bohemian political meeting called for yesterday afternoon in Sokol Hall was not attended as well as was expected. The cause was probably the holiday of Whit Sunday.

    Nevertheless at the meeting were present the representatives of all the wards, citizens estimable, and influential with the Bohemians and the other nationalities. The meeting had Democrats and Republicans in about equal numbers. The discussion was not long and culminated in a unanimous resolution, that we Bohemians without consideration of different political creeds, should request that Mayor Carter H. Harrison might be renominated for the candidacy of this office (Mayoralty) and should accept the renomination when offered, even by the Democratic party.


    The second resolution was made on behalf of the City Appraiser for the West Side, for which office we approve the candidacy of Mr. Soukup. We recommend his election and we will support the same to the limit.

    The main speaker was Adam Kraus, who finished the speech with the motion that all Bohemians vote the Democratic ticket. How there should be elected a committee to elaborate the necessary resolutions. - The motion was accepted and five members of the Resolution Committee elected: Messrs. A. Kraus, Dr. G. Fischer, V. Kaspar, J. Nikodem and J. F. Kohout.

    After a little while the Resolution Committee declared that the Resolution was formulated and V. Kaspar read it to the audience:

    "Whereas; the spring-election is nearing and we, as citizens and Bohemian taxpayers, are taking interest in it to obtain a considerable government for the future, as we have had for the last four years, because we acknowledge that Carter H. Harrison is an intrepid and capable magistrate, we assert, that it is the duty of every citizen to serve his community when he is called on, 3Therefore be it Resolved: that we Bohemian citizens of Chicago ask Mayor Harrison to accept the mayoral candidacy even in case it will be offered by the Democratic party. We, all Bohemians, assembled in the general National meeting, regardless of political creed, will cordially support his election."

    The Resolution was accepted unanimously. V. Kaspar asked the favor to propose one more resolution. He read it as follows:

    "Whereas; the Appraiser's office on the West Side of the City of Chicago is very important, because it demands a just and suitable estimation of real estate and

    Whereas; our countryman, Joseph Soukup, has occupied this office twice already, each time with dignity and to the full satisfaction of the community,

    Therefore it is Resolved; that we, Chicago's Bohemians proclaim and approve Joseph Soukup as candidate for said office and, at the same time, we promise to support his candidacy in the coming election unconditionally and extensively."


    This resolution was accepted unanimously, too.

    A. Kraus made a motion to elect a committee of five members to communicate these resolutions to Mayor Harrison and Mr. Soukup. The motion was accepted and the elected committee will accomplish its mission this afternoon. The meeting was adjourned.

    The general Bohemian meeting declared itself for Harrison and recommended Mr. Soukup for the office of appraiser. The general Bohemian political meeting called for yesterday afternoon in Sokol Hall was ...

    I F 1, I F 3, IV
  • Svornost -- March 04, 1884
    Meeting of the Bohemian Citizens in the 8th Ward; V. Kaspar Accepts the Proposed Candidacy for Alderman

    Yesterday a meeting was held in the hall of the Bohemian-American Sokol. The meeting was called by the Bohemian Independent Club and had an exceptionally large attendance. About sixty Bohemian citizens were present and the majority of them joined the club. The meeting was opened by the chairman, Mr. Patera, who expressed his satisfaction at the large attendance and encouraged persistence. "We must open our eyes and look forward before we will vote for a German or an Irishman."

    Mr. Valis said, "This is the only way to organize if we are to support and elect a Bohemian. I don't trust the Germans and unless we unite ourselves firmly, our Bohemian candidate will be ashamed of the number of our votes."


    Mr. Patera approved of this idea but was of the opinion that in case the club members decided that it would be impossible to elect a Bohemian candidate, the support of a German would be more prudent than the support of an Irishman.

    Mr. Mracek agreed with the idea and said that the Irishmen are insolent and selfish, supporting only themselves and absolutely indifferent to the needs of other nationalities, that's why every Bohemian citizen should agitate among his friends and neighbors to vote for a Bohemian candidate.

    Mr. Novak reminded us how convenient it is when we can use our mother language in public office and it would be really a shame should the Bohemians show their indifference in the coming election.

    Mr. Benes stated that many of the present citizens are not acquainted 3with our relation to the German electors. He explained all important relations we ever had with the Germans and concluded his speech with the statement that since the Germans are willing to support us, why should we antagonize them.

    Mr. Valis expressed his confidence in the Bohemians. "They should understand that they must be victorious," he said. "We have a Bohemian on the Board of Education and in the Public Library, both chairmen, respectively. Why should we not have a Bohemian alderman?"

    Mr. Chladek spoke next, "It is important to elect a Bohemian alderman who would be honest and take the greatest care of the interests of his ward." He mentioned that he had information that the Germans are not thinking so favorably of us, that the Germans intended to cooperate with us only temporarily, and that they have organized themselves only for our interests. Four of their committees will support someone named Nagel, an Irishman, and the Bohemians will be persuaded to vote for him. The speaker said 4that such a German program would give us no privileges at all. He supposed that the Germans would keep faith with us but he was in doubt about it. The Bohemian committee should act very carefully, because some of the Germans will vote for Nagel and others for Feldman, consequently it would be wise for Bohemians to have a candidate of their own, one that possesses the fullest confidence of the people. Such a one is Vaclav Kaspar.

    Mr. Vaclav Kaspar then took the floor and said, "I am elected as a candidate for alderman in the 8th ward, but it is not so easy to win the election as it looks. We have very many Irishmen in our ward. It is possible that in this part of the ward a Bohemian could be elected, but in the west part of the ward the Irish majority is considerable, and as the Irish voters remain united, everything does not look so promising. What relates to me , my family and my business, does not permit me to accept the nomination, because I would be forced to neglect my business."

    Mr. Geringer then spoke: "Today's meeting was called for the purpose of 5finding out if we Bohemians are sufficiently strong in voting power."

    His advice was not to undertake the forcing of our candidate, but to delay in this for the future, and to support this time anybody rather than Lawler. Our first attention should be directed to the removal of Lawler from office, and this could be achieved only by setting against him a very strong candidate, worthy of general confidence. It may be a Bohemian or a German. Bohemian or German we don't want him to lose to an Irishman.

    It would be even more advisable to elect this time a good, honest Irishman if only to defeat Lawler, who is running on the Independent ticket. The question before us should be, should we elect a Bohemian candidate at this meeting or support the German candidate?

    Mr. Chladek could be very useful in helping us to decide this question by telling us, approximately, the number of voters in our ward that are 6Bohemians, Germans, and Irish respectively. Ad. Chladek answered: "In the west part of the ward there are many Americans and only a few Irishmen and they would unite against the Irish candidate, because they dislike the Irish methods of administration. The total number of voters in our ward is about 3,000. Should all the Americans, the better class of Irishmen, the Bohemians and the Germans, unite in our ward, there would be about 1,300 votes for the Bohemian or German candidate. This number of votes would enable the Bohemian or German candidate to win because there would be more candidates in the field and none of them would be able to poll this number of votes. The Bohemian votes amount to about 300."

    Frant Kaspar insisted that the members should not retreat from putting a candidate in the field, but should appoint him at once and at the meeting that was then going on.

    Mr. Patera again asked whether it would be absolutely impossible for Vaclav Kaspar to accept the nomination.


    Mr. Chladek brought out the fact of the jealousy that exists between the Irishmen. "There is no doubt," said Mr. Chladek, "that the Irish will have two, three or maybe four candidates in the field. Consequently, we should be able to win with our candidate. This is possible, but it demands hard work. We should canvass from house to house, talk to the voters and persuade them to go to the polls and vote for our Bohemian candidate." Mr. Chladek further contended that Bohemian votes could not be bought for money and that there were no Bohemians of bad character that could be diverted from the Bohemian candidate.

    J. Kralovec said that the committee had done everything that could be done according to its promise and that all Bohemians would be very pleased if their candidate would accept the nomination. The committee was advised to turn its attention to the fact that the whole procedure of election and 8nomination should not be made public before the suitable time. We have considered Vaclav Kaspar as the only person among us Bohemians to be worthy of representing us honorably in the City Council, and to be supported not only by Bohemians but by other nationalities.

    Vaclav Kaspar took the floor and said: "The committee fulfilled its duty in visiting me. At that time my answer was that it would be impossible for me to accept the nomination. However, since then my countrymen have insisted that I do their will, and since their will is law for me I accept the candidacy. (Stormy and long applause.) I demand, however, that the committee takes care to see that we have numerous and better attended meetings and to find means by which a more serious interest in future election may be instilled in our Bohemian citizens."

    Mr. Geringer pointed out that the Germans were divided into two factions and some of their votes would undoubtedly pass to us, which would make our problem easier. He was of the opinion, however, that it would be 9a question as to whether we are supported by others.

    Mr. Kostner then said: "We will make a big step forward when we elect today our candidate, even in case he should be defeated. There are very many voters among the different parties and nationalities who would vote for anybody, so long as it was not Lawler. We have gained very much since Vac. Kaspar accepted the candidacy, because he is known as an exceptionally honest man, not only among the Bohemians, but among the Germans and the Irish.

    Mr. Kaspar will gain many German and Irish votes, consequently he has the best chance to be elected."

    Mr. Kralovec paid attention to the fact that we can expect victory if there will be seven candidates on the ticket. He warned the audience that this coming Thursday there would be a joint meeting with the Germans and we must be represented very strongly if we wish our candidate to defeat 10the German candidate. Everyone should be present. There are always around one hundred Germans at their meeting, and our maximum today is sixty members.

    Mr. Novak was given the floor and said: "We don't need thieves and men of leisure in the City Council. V. Kaspar could have been a member of the Council long ago, but he hesitated to accept the nomination because he is an honest man." (The speaker was reprimanded by some of the members many times because of his discouraging remarks against the candidate.)

    Mr. Svojze then said, "Why should we not nominate a candidate? There is no reason for it. Should our candidate win, it will be all right; should he be defeated, it will be all right too. Win or lose we will gain experience that will be of benefit to us in the future."

    Mr. Suesland thought it was a hard problem to get a candidate. A motion 11was then passed that on the morrow (Wednesday) a meeting should be held again. Tomorrow's meeting would be a day before the general meeting of Bohemians and Germans. The purpose of the meeting of tomorrow was to gain new members and to be more strongly represented at the joint Bohemian-German meeting.

    The meeting adjourned.

    Yesterday a meeting was held in the hall of the Bohemian-American Sokol. The meeting was called by the Bohemian Independent Club and had an exceptionally large attendance. About sixty Bohemian ...

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  • Svornost -- March 06, 1884
    The Bohemian Citizens of the 8th Ward Are in Array; Their Platform

    Yesterday's Bohemian meeting held in the Gymnasium of Sokol Association was attended by eighty or ninety citizens. This is very consoling proof that the Bohemian citizens have begun to understand their duties. The meeting was opened by the chairman, Mr. Patera, and the minutes of yesterday's meeting were read and adopted. Sixty new members were enrolled and one hundred and twenty-five is the total number of members of the Bohemian Independent Club.

    Mr. Kralovec gave a detailed report of the meeting of the joint committees, which elected Mr. Lussem as chairman, and Mr. Chlader as secretary. We are publishing this a little ahead of time and we must add that the chairman of the meeting, Mr. Lussem, came to the conclusion that Vaclav 2Kaspar would be the best candidate. He has known him since before the Big Fire in Chicago. The reason that this was published ahead of time was explained as indispensable because, as Mr. Lussem states, some of the German members of the joint committee intended to wait two weeks longer. Mr. Lussem was against this idea. The motion for immediate voting was passed and Vaclav Kaspar was elected candidate by a vote of nine to five. This report was accepted and the speaker proposed a reading of the platform, which was done by the secretary.

    "The Platform of the Independent Club of the 8th Ward. Whereas, the citizens of the 8th Ward know and have seen for years that our representatives in the City Council do not care for the welfare of the citizens, therefore, it is resolved, that in the future only those candidates will be supported who will direct their activities strictly in accord with the platform, set up by the citizens of said ward.


    I. Every case of corruption committed by the City Council shall be immediately revealed to the public.

    II. All improvements like building of new bridges, sewers, paving of streets, shall be properly constructed under strict supervision.

    III. To watch and enforce with all power the regulation that only workers of good reputation shall be hired for city constructions, not lazy and idle men patronized by the ward politicians as has been practiced heretofore.

    IV. To see to it that personal liberty shall not depend on the individual opinion of hot-headed fanatics.

    V. To strive with earnest zeal towards the refusal of further concessions to the present monopolists."


    This platform was adopted by the committee and by the candidate.

    Mr. Kralovec proposed at this meeting to nominate the speakers for tomorrow's joint meeting. Ad. Chladek and J. Benes were proposed. Both accepted.

    T. Kralovec suggested Mr. Lussem as chairman of tomorrow's joint meeting, because Mr. Lussem always acted with dignity and was always very friendly towards the Bohemians. Mr. Lussem accepted.

    Mr. Chladek referred to the disagreements occurring ordinarily on election day, and all kinds of disorder during the counting of the votes. We are in need of dependable people who will watch that the counting is honest, because it is the only way we can win, and we know well that the police officers are against us Bohemians and all are working for Irishmen.


    A long and effective speech by Ad. Chladek pleased everybody. The following additional speakers were elected for tomorrow's joint Bohemian-German meeting; Dr. Kohout, J. Kralovec and Jiri Nikodem.

    Concluding this meeting, there was an appeal to the Bohemian citizens of the 8th ward to appear at tomorrow's meeting in Houdrov Hall in large numbers and not to be confounded by the Germans. Strive to gain the respect of other nationalities is what was recommended.

    Tomorrow's meeting is the most important one and it should be demonstrated to the Germans and to the other nationalities, with whom we will fight, that we know how to handle our affairs and that it would be unwise for them to scorn our Bohemian power in the 8th ward.

    Yesterday's Bohemian meeting held in the Gymnasium of Sokol Association was attended by eighty or ninety citizens. This is very consoling proof that the Bohemian citizens have begun to understand ...

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  • Svornost -- September 17, 1884
    Proclamation of the Bohemian Citizens in Chicago,Illinois.

    The coming elections - National, State and County are highly important for every citizen, but especially for immigrants.

    The most important questions, which will be decided by the electorate in November are as follows:

    1. The Civil Service Reform.

    2. The protection of the citizens of this country on the other side of the boundary.

    3. The personal liberty.

    Everybody should take notice of these elections and here is the reason why:

    1. We know that at present this country is governed with incredible speed. We know that millions of dollars, extorted from the people, will be mostly used for the purpose of enriching the capitalists.


    We know that hundreds of millions of acres of the best territories and soil were given up to the extorting companies.

    We know that the legislature is shameless and corrupted.

    We know that the untouchable electoral box was opened and interfered with to the advantage of the party, which was in power.

    We know that the biggest frauds committed on the people were unpunished, therefore we wish to have changes!

    2. Everybody know that many citizens of this great Republic are moaning incessantly because they are being jailed by others in power.

    We know also that the Republican Administration, while Blaine was Secretary, never resisted the foreign powers, except for small political tricks with countries not worth mentioning.


    In dealing with major foreign powers he never moved a finger to the advantage of one threatened.

    We know exactly that the Democratic party has always protected and splendidly defended the rights of the American citizens each time the agricultural question was at stake; it always has protected the complete equal rights among American born and immigrated citizens.

    Whereas: We wish a change!

    A change to the Democratic principles of today and a liberal law of liberty for every citizen.

    3. We are convinced that the efforts of the Republican party are concentrated on the limiting of the personal liberty of the citizens.


    We are convinced that the Republican party is taking pains, with every effort, to yoke us under tyrannic laws, originated by the fanatic Puritans a century ago, whereas we protest as strongly as possible against the jurisdiction of such social laws for free and educated people and we demand the changes!

    We ourselves denounce with fullest determination any law that limits personal liberty and is in direct opposition to the knowledge and idea of the Constitution of this country. We express our acknowledgment to the country, which fully defends and protects our interests and the interests of the people.

    Knowing that the Democratic party and its candidates, Cleveland and Hendricks, are worthy of confidence in the matter of reforms, and being convinced that the Democratic party always has protected the personal liberty and honor of American citizens, we consider it our duty to organize ourselves to insure victory in the election of honest men to office.

    Based on this principle we appeal to all the Bohemian Democrats, especially 5to those who are enthusiastic about personal liberty and social honor, to take part in the general advisory meeting, Friday, September 19, at 8 P. M. in the hall of the "Sokol Society" gymnasium on Taylor Street. The purpose of the meeting is to found a "Bohemian club," that will support Cleveland, Hendricks and Harrison.

    As sponsors we have the signatures of nineteen prominent Bohemian business men.......(Names omitted)

    The coming elections - National, State and County are highly important for every citizen, but especially for immigrants. The most important questions, which will be decided by the electorate in ...

    I F 3, I D 1 a, I F 6, I H, I L
  • Svornost -- April 02, 1898
    [Demand Candidates Oppose the Fifty Franchise]

    A few sincere words to Bohemian voters of Chicago: The coming period of the new elections to the City Council moves me to address to the voters of our own nationality a few sincere words - not as a partisan, but as an honorably minded citizen who sees with sorrow how all morals decline among us in regard to politics.

    I have watched closely, until the present time, how the various candidates seek the confidence and votes of their constituents, but I have not found one who would touch on the main subjects which are being contested at this coming election or would make a positive declaration about them.

    In the last legislature the so-called Allen Law was passed, which empowers the City of Chicago to give privileges to street railways and other concerns; not, as previously, from one to twenty years, but from one to fifty years. As is known, the honest and sincere elements of the local citizenry have worked hard, with Mayor Harrison as leader, to defeat this proposition, so that it would be impossible for future City Councils to lengthen such privileges. But the influence of the corporations concerned was able to overcome the 2endeavors of our mayor and this dangerous proposition became a law.

    What is more natural than that the corrupt elements, who were able by dis-honorable methods to make the legislature do their bidding, should now concentrate all their efforts to have a more favorable majority elected to the City Council and enable this abominable Allen Law to have unobstructed passage? They have the law - it certainly cost them an enormous sum, therefore, they are now trying to have the bribed majority of the City Council put this law into practice; that is at the earliest opportunity - to turn over our streets not for a new ten or twenty year period but immediately for the entire fifty years and thereby enslave our city for the entire fifty years to their despotic extortion.

    Would you Bohemian fellow citizens want to allow this to happen by voting into the City Council people who are probably nominated for just such a purpose? I believe and hope that such is not the wish of any one of us and therefore I propose that safeguards be provided at this time as follows:

    Have each of the candidates from whichever ward who are presented to you for 3election, give you an oral or written declaration that, on his honor, he will not vote for any proposition which in any manner would make this ruinous Allen Law effective in Chicago; that, in fact, he will never vote in our City Council for giving street privileges to anybody under whatever pretext, for more than twenty or twenty-five years at the most.

    Let us have as a watch word at this year's election the following: No one shall receive our vote who does not fulfill these requirements, and anyone of the elected who betrays this trust will be covered with shame and be rejected in the future by his constituents.

    A few sincere words to Bohemian voters of Chicago: The coming period of the new elections to the City Council moves me to address to the voters of our own ...

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  • Svornost -- December 16, 1898
    Bohemian Socialistic Faction.

    This is the name of a new organization, founded this November the 20th. The main purpose of this organization is to unite all different factions in one strong body and to organize a large and strong labor party, which would then be able to demand the improvement of existence of all working people through the ballot. The power of the oppressed can be reached only by uniting them. Thus their party will solve the main problem to provide better for the working classes, to avoid in the future starving individuals on one side and millionaires on the other.

    The last meeting on last Sunday was abundantly visited by members and guests, whom all are well informed about the purposes of the party.

    Completing the internal business part of the organization, we will start at once to agitate among our countrymen and to open similar sections in other Bohemian populated districts of Chicago, and later on, outside of our city. The membership is open for every workingman whose desire is to end thehardship of the working Bohemian population.


    Next meeting will be held the coming Sunday at 2 P. M. in the hall of Mr.H.Relski, corner 18th St. and Laflin. On this day we will introduce to the audience the well known and beloved local agitator Joseph Stybr; he will give a talk about "Our Activity."

    Guests are welcome, but disturbing elements will have no admittance.

    The Agitations Committee.

    This is the name of a new organization, founded this November the 20th. The main purpose of this organization is to unite all different factions in one strong body and ...

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