The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Svornost -- May 10, 1881
    A Proclamation to All Bohemian Owners of Bakery Shops

    Bohemian bakery shop employees, at a meeting held Saturday afternoon, in the Hall of "Tel. Jed. Sokol" (Gymnastic Union Sokol), for the purpose of deciding the best method to secure the betterment of working conditions, accepted the following resolutions unanimously:

    (1) Publicly by means of the newspapers to notify all proprietors of bakery shops to install a twelve hour day and give a wage increase of ten per cent.

    (2) For every hour of work performed after 12 o'clock midnight, the worker is to be paid fifteen cents.

    (3) Those employees who are boarded by the employer, are to enjoy such food and quarters as are befitting a working man.

    (4) All those who work without board and room are to receive three dollars more weekly pay.

    (5) All proprietors of bakery shops are called upon to decide these points before Saturday, May 14 and announce their decisions to the Chairman of the Bohemian Bakers Union under the address of Hynek Kopp, 161 Bunker St.

    Bohemian bakery shop employees, at a meeting held Saturday afternoon, in the Hall of "Tel. Jed. Sokol" (Gymnastic Union Sokol), for the purpose of deciding the best method to secure ...

    Bohemian
    I D 2 a 3, I D 1 b, III A
  • Chicago Tribune -- March 07, 1886
    Manners and Customs of the Bohemian Portion of the City's Population. They Are Industrious, Thrifty and Generally of a Most Peaceable Disposition. a Community That Is Rapidly Growing Rich by the Efforts of its Individuals.

    There is probably no more interesting and progressive section of Chicago's foreign population than that inhabited by the Bohemians. Some years ago there was a decided prejudice against them on the part of American workingmen and capitalists. They took a very active part in the strikes and riots here some eight years ago, and they established a Socialistic propaganda which was far from being popular. They so far succeeded in carrying their ideas into effect that they were the ringleaders of the strikes, and they elected four of their nominees - not all of them Bohemians, however, to the Chicago Common Council. One of the most active among them at the time was Belohradsky, who is now living in Texas. Another so-called leader was Leo Meilbeck, Alderman and 2legislator, who afterwards committed suicide while acting as Public Library attendant. Frank Stauber and J. J. Altpeter were also elected to the council as representatives of the German and Bohemian Socialistic elements, as was Christian Meier. It is only fair to say, however, about Stauber and Altpeter that there have been few more conscientious councilmen than they. But as before stated, the Bohemians lost caste about the time alluded to on account of their Socialistic tendencies and "striking" propensities. When they first came to America they were willing to work for almost anything. They would underbid the Irish and German and American workingmen, and naturally evoked considerable hostility against themselves as a result. They were to suffer for this, and were, in fact, looked down on as outcaste, and not entitled to much sympathy. When they took to striking and communism they were cursed up hill and down dale by employers and employees. Latterly all this has changed, and in the lumber and furniture manufacturing regions, where they are now employed, they are looked upon as some of the thriftiest members of the community, useful citizens, capable and efficient workingmen and large contributors to the wealth and growth of Chicago.

    3

    The first Bohemian Immigrants.

    The first Bohemian immigration to Chicago began about the year 1848 - "the year of revolution". The Czechs rose in rebellion against the Austrian authorities, with whom they have never been on good terms, but were speedily suppressed by the Emperor and his army. Those who were prominent in the rebellion had to flee the country. Most of them came to America, some of them settling in Montreal, where they engaged largely in the cigar-making business. The Bohemian emigration was at first about the rate of 6,000 per year. In 1878, 1879 and 1880 it reached probably 10,000 per annum. It has fallen off again to 6,000. Most of those who came here were farmers, farm laborers, workers in wood, or weavers - usually carpet and cotton weavers. Those of them who located in Chicago settled down in the lumber region of the Sixth and Eighth wards. Some settled in the hardwood region of the Fourteenth Ward. F. B. Zdrubek, editor of the Bohemian daily paper the Svornost, estimates the Bohemian population of Chicago now at 40,000 at least. He estimates the entire Bohemians of America at 20,000. Outside of this city 4they are located in Nebraska, Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin on farms. Of the 40,000 in Chicago 26,000 are in the Sixth Ward, 9,000 in the Seventh and Eighth Wards, along Canal Street and Blue Island avenue principally, and about 5,000 are in the Fourteenth Ward.

    Lumber Workers and Furniture Men.

    They readily find employment in the lumber yards and furniture factories. The lumber merchants say they are steady, faithful workingmen. They are constant, but they do not rush matters. The ordinary pay is about 15 cents per hour, though they get as high as 20 cents. They have practically driven out Irish and German lumbermen. The latter will not work by the hour. They work by the piece - by contract - and are not satisfied unless they make from 40 to 50 cents per hour. At Harvey's, where the foreman, John Kallal, is a Bohemian, very few of the Bohemians are employed. The same is true of Hatch and Keith's. At Beidler's Germans seem to have preference. But as a rule the Bohemians have the call. Many of them are excellent cabinetmakers and upholsterers. They make from 535 to 40 cents per hour at this trade. They are nearly always at work - always driving at something. Their wives and the members of their families are also employed washing for families, tailoring, etc. Any person who goes into the Bohemian district will encounter some Bohemian man or woman in every block loaded down with bundles of pantaloons or vests on the way to some down-town clothing house. The housewife usually employs four or five girls at this work. The girls make from $5, to $6. per week, and their employers make a handsome profit. The practice which prevailed in Bohemian regions some time ago, of sending the women around to pick up shavings and kindling wood is fast dying out. The women's time is more valuable now-a-days and begging is unknown among them. The Italians appear to have a monopoly of that. The "dagos" can be even encountered in the Bohemian quarter plying their vocation.

    Getting Rich.

    People so hard working and so thrifty as the Bohemians cannot but prosper. The Bohemian quarter in the Sixth Ward is certainly a credit to their industry and zeal. There is not a more cleanly or better built workingmen's section in 6Chicago. The district west of Halsted to Lawndale, south of Sixteenth to Twenty-second Street, is built up with comfortable three-story brick dwellings and stores, nearly all of them owned by the Bohemians. The buildings occupy nearly the entire length of the lot. They are all neat and substantial, although there is some degree of sameness in the plan of building. Portions of some are frame structures pushed back on the lot and built up in front. All are neatly painted and have a wholesome and healthy appearance. Along Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-first, Centre Avenue, Throop Street, Ashland Avenue, Blue Island, Wood Street, Hoyne Avenue, the structures are very fine; the stores are especially substantially built and commodious, and would reflect credit on any part of Chicago. From a sanitary point they are all right too, though perhaps there is too much crowding. Nearly every floor has three families. This is not always conducive to morality, it is claimed. The Bohemians, as is well known, are very fond of soups. The odor from that article of food is not always the most pleasant. But, on the whole, there is little cause of complaint nowadays. Being so very frugal they do not buy the best cuts of meat, but they buy good cuts. Mr. Curran of Curran and Delany, who do an extensive trade with the Czechs, 7says they always buy good but not the best meats, and they are excellent at paying. They always come to time with their bills. They are good customers and not in the least clannish. Very many of them are in the butcher line themselves, and though there are some in the saloon line, there are not many. The editors of the Svornost say there are only about fifty in the "Cesky vinopalna line" (Bohemian distillery). There are almost as many in the drug store business. Quite a number are also in the carpet-weaving and clothing trades. Nearly all of them are making money. It is estimated that at least 60 per cent of the Bohemians are property owners. They have twelve building societies, with an average membership to each society of 700, and Mr. Cermak, one of the editors of the Svornost says that the weekly receipts from each society varies from $600 to $900. Besides, there are a number of men who are not members of those societies who are large property owners; William Kaspar is reported to be worth $100,000. John Kallal is a member of the firm of T. W. Harvey and Company. Dr. Kadlec of the Public Library Board; Frank Fucik, the West Town Clerk; John Matuska of Matuaka and Craig, the furniture dealers; and several others well-to-do. The editor of Svornost publishes besides the daily, two weekly papers, the Amerikan Mondays and the Prilcha Duchu Casu Sundays. Besides, he publishes quite a number of books and 8pamphlets, and his establishment on South Canal Street is well stocked. He employs about fifteen typesetters. Nearly all of the Bohemians can read and write their own language. Their public school system in the old country is conducted almost entirely by the priests. In this country the priests try to control the education, but the liberal thinkers' society - the C. S. P. S. (Czecho-slovak Benevolent Society) - which has a membership of 2,000 in this city, stoutly opposes. The C. S. P. S. by the way, has a magnificent hall and school in the Eighteenth Street. The organization is condemned by the church, but it flourishes. The editor of the Svornost seems to be the leading spirit in it. Liberal thought has been a phase of Bohemian public life since the time of John Huss. The attendance at the Catholic schools - there are three of them - is quite large. They are taught by the sisters. The children in attendance are all neatly and comfortably clad. They seem to run to bright colors. Every one wears a bright red hood, strong, thick-soled shoes, and a comfortable calico dress with abundance of petticoats. The Bohemian attendance at the public schools is also quite large, especially at the Throop, Longfellow and Garfield 9schools. Few, however, remain to complete the Grammar School course. The young women nearly all marry early. There is a disposition among the boys to be somewhat wild. This is especially the case with those of them who get to have a contempt for their parents and their parents' country. There are three Bohemian Catholic churches, one in the Fifth Ward, one in the Sixth Ward and one in the Eighth. Nearly all the women attend church while not more than half the men do so. John Kallal, already alluded to, is the leading Catholic layman. There are three theatres and about a dozen Bohemian halls. There is usually theatrical entertainment every night, and there is sure to be a dance every Saturday. At these dances some of the young Bohemians are apt to be boisterous, but as a rule they are well conducted, and there is little trouble.

    Habits and Mode of Life.

    There is an impression abroad that the Bohemians are slovenly in their habits. This is not the case. On the contrary they are clean and tidy as a rule. The 10women especially are very cleanly. They get on very well with their neighbors. Since Sadowa there has been some feeling between them and the Germans, but it is dying out. They take very kindly to the Poles. The Irish do not play them fair in politics, they say, and there is a tendency among them to be more self assertive. They like Cullerton because he attends to ward improvements, but they are down on Lawler for many reasons, though Frank appointed a leading Bohemian sub-Postmaster of the Southwest district. The leaders among them say that they will demand a better representation among the political parties in the future. They have a sort of natural penchant for politics. They manage to secure representation in all the principal offices in town. They claim from 6,000 to 7,000 votes, though this is probably an exaggerated estimate. They claim a population of but 40,00 altogether, and as they have abnormally large families, and, as many of them neglect to take out naturalization papers, 6,000 or 7,000 is too high an estimate. They have very nearly a majority, however, in the Sixth Ward. Hitherto they have acted with the Democrats, but the leading ones among them, with the exception of Kallal, Schlessinger and Nikodeun, say they are tired of the Democratic party, particularly of the Harrisonian branch 11of it. They assert that they have been victimized by the contractors in street-paving jobs, and, rightly or wrongly, they hold administration responsible therefor. They also complain of the espionage of the police. As a usual thing the Bohemians are orderly and law-abiding - they are, as stated before, a little boisterous at their society meetings when they indulge too freely in beer, which they too often do, and the policemen are too apt to use their clubs on them. There is a general impression, too, that the women are so desirous of getting rich that they do not know the difference between "mine and thine" very frequently. This is pronounced a gross slander, however, by the Bohemians themselves, who complain that the police treat them harshly, spread false reports about them and allow young toughs to break into their amusement halls, where the aforesaid toughs insult the women. This is especially the case at the Bohemian Hall on Taylor Street, near Canal, and frequent fights result as a consequence. In the Sixth Ward places of entertainment the Bohemians are amply able to take care of themselves.

    12

    The Loafers Among Them.

    It is very noticeable that they do not loaf about saloons to any great extent. The present is a very dull time in the lumber region, and many hundred men are idle there, but in the Bohemian saloons in the vicinity very few men are to be found. They devote much of their time now-a-days to improving their buildings, constructing sidewalks, and clearing away rubbish or assisting their industrious wives. They are seldom found idle. Two young men met on Twenty-second Street last Thursday were asked why they were not at work. "No work to do", they replied. No house - no work now". They went on to explain as best they could that they had been in search of work.

    Besides the religious, anti-religious and building societies, the Bohemians have also several gymnastic societies. They practice nearly every night. They are very athletic fellows although they are not quick. For persons who are such skilled tailors they display very poor taste in dressing. The men's clothing is generally speaking, coarse and badly fitting, the pantaloons bag at the knees 13and are many inches too short, while the shoes are coarse and heavy. They are a healthy race, though there is considerable mortality among the children in summer, very likely due to overcrowding and the neglect of other sanitary regulations. Though they have prospered in Chicago there is a general tendency among those who have ready cash or who can dispose of their property, to leave here and go to live on farms. Their papers here are filled with advertisements of farms for sale in Nebraska, Dakota, Texas, and parts of Wisconsin, and there are a couple of farm agencies here doing a big business. For this and other reasons it is not likely that the Bohemian population of Chicago will increase to any great extent in the future, though they are a prolific race, and many of those who go to farming return in a few years. The Bohemian quarter of the Sixth Ward is now nearly built up. The Scandinavians are crowding in on them west of Ashland Avenue, in what is called the Stockholm region. The lumber business there is not expanding. Much of it is likely to go to South Chicago, and the furniture factories are already crowded. As small traders they do not make much headway, their trade being confined mostly to people of their own nationality. The extension of the tracks of the West Division Railway Company 14on West Nineteenth Street, will open up some new territory, but not a great amount. The building societies of the region have practically done their work. Very few dwellings are going up now. Nearly all are three and four story store buildings of a very substantial character. The Bohemian are not the only buildings, however. The Germans and the Hebrews are doing more than their share.

    Religious Opinion

    It is curious that, though there are very many Bohemian Jews in this city the relation between them and the Bohemian Christians appear to be far from cordial; and the Catholic Bohemians and the liberal thinkers appear to cordially hate each other. The liberal thinkers seem to be the most prosperous, and also to be the better educated. They seem to have a decided preference for Voltaire, Huxley, Darwin and two or three of their own writers. Their literature is not extensive. The women have two or three societies of their own, and, strange as it may seem in women, the societies are not of a religious character. It is a mistake though, to suppose that the Bohemians as a whole are not religious people. Of the 40,000 15who live here more than two-thirds attend church some time or other. The average Sunday attendance at the church at the corner of Allport Avenue and Eighteenth Street is about 6,000. Twice that number of different persons attend during the year. The attendance at the DeKoven church numbers about 4,000 on the average, and the attendance at the Portland Avenue Church in the Fifth Ward is about 2,500. The Bohemians of the Fourteenth Ward attend the Polish church. The pastors pay great attention to the societies belonging to the church, and devote their entire energies to keeping them intact. Among no foreign nationality is there such pronounced hostility to formal religion, and it requires all the zeal of the clergymen to combat this.

    Mr. Frank Fucik, a well-known Bohemian of the Seventh Ward, said yesterday, in relation to the building societies and other matters: "The district between Halsted Street and Ashland Avenue is now almost built up, and the Bohemians are beginning to build in the district between Ashland and Western Avenues. The Scandinavians are also building in there, but west of the lime kiln on Hoyne Avenue and thereabouts the Bohemians seem to have it all to themselves.

    16

    Value of Their Property

    "What is the value of their property? I heard it estimated at $20,000,000, but that is an exaggeration, perhaps. They own at least $16,000,000 worth of property in Chicago. They seldom send money to the old country, except for the purpose of assisting relatives to come out. What they earn they keep here. It is a mistake to think that the Bohemians are only common laborers and wood-shovers. They are blacksmiths, watchmakers, and wood-turners, etc. Those along Canal Street, Canalport Avenue and Blue Island Avenue work at various mechanical trades. They work at the manufacture of American cutlery to a very large extent, and they are all steady, sober, active men. They have frequently been slandered because they have not been understood."

    "To whom do the house-owners rent"? "To people of all nationalities - generally to their own countrymen though. They usually get $7 or $8 for three rooms. A good proportion of the rent goes for a time to pay interest. The death rate is as low in the Bohemian quarter as in any other portion of the city.

    17

    Their homes look as neat and as clean. They appear clean themselves, and I dont think there is the least ground for prejudice against them now."

    Mr. Chatfield of the firm of Street, Chatfield and Keep, lumber dealers, who traveled through Bohemia, said that in their native country the Bohemians appear to be industrious, frugal, hard-working people. Like the Irish they did not like their form of government. There have been frequent uprisings. They seemed to be of considerable political and intellectual force in their native country. He considered them a very valuable portion of the population. He had heard few things derogatory to them.

    A three days' sojourn in their midst was convincing as to their thrift, their industry, their cleanly habits, their generally high moral character, their saving habits and their intellectual advancement. They usually make good citizens; they have aided more than any other class of the population in building up the best portion of the southwestern district of the city; they have done their part by their labor in adding to the material prosperity of the 18city in adding to its taxable value. They are excellent members of society, and they and their children have done and will no doubt continue to do their full duty towards the great city which they have chosen for their future home.

    There is probably no more interesting and progressive section of Chicago's foreign population than that inhabited by the Bohemians. Some years ago there was a decided prejudice against them on ...

    Bohemian
    I D 1 b, II A 2, IV, II D 1, III C, I C, I F 1, I K
  • Denní Hlasatel -- October 14, 1902
    From Bohemian California.

    The Ladies, who arranged the ball, as well as the public which attended it, enjoyed themselves very much.

    The hall, was held in Kounovsky's hall, corner 23rd street and Sawyer avenue, for the benefit of the striking coal-miners. The Committee should be fully satisfied with the results, as the net profit of the ball was quite large, amounting to $125 which was turned over to the administration of this proper place. The success of the affair is all the more gratifying because none of the so called elite Bohemian society attended and all the money was donated by the calloused hands of working people and small businessmen.

    The Ladies, who arranged the ball, as well as the public which attended it, enjoyed themselves very much. The hall, was held in Kounovsky's hall, corner 23rd street and Sawyer ...

    Bohemian
    I D 2 a 4, II D 10, I D 1 b
  • Denní Hlasatel -- March 13, 1903
    [Small Shops Crowded Out by Big Business]

    P.4 - The large tailoring establishments in the down-town section want to swallow all smaller employers. These must think of means whereby they can save themselves what would they say to the suggestion, that they should themselves organize big business and big factories, which would compete with the Jews who up to now have profited on an now want to ruin our tailors. We must have a little enterprise and courage if we wish to keep up with others here in America. If Jews can become millionaires through the clothing industry, why could not Bohemians at least make a decent living therefrom, since for the most part it is Bohemian labor, through which the Jews become wealthy. If an individual is insufficient to accomplish this why don't several join together, or a whole group? As has already been said, our tailors very existence is involved and they must act. Bohemian workingmen and businessmen surely would support them in their struggle for existence and no doubt many customers would be found among other nationalities for the expert workmanship of Bohemians.

    Why should we Bohemians continuously work only for others, why not work for ourselves sometimes?

    P.4 - The large tailoring establishments in the down-town section want to swallow all smaller employers. These must think of means whereby they can save themselves what would they say ...

    Bohemian
    I C, I D 1 a, I D 1 b, III A, II A 2
  • Denní Hlasatel -- August 08, 1904
    Bohemian Enterprise.

    It is a general rule, that the nation which has agricultural lands, manufacturing and commercial enterprises can make claims to a vital existence in the present, and for the future. Without these, though powerful numerically, persistent and tenacious, a nation or perhaps only a part of a nation is, and always will be, a plaything in the whirlpool of a stormy existence. Everyone must arrive at this conclusion after careful consideration. Germans in their snobbishness always boast that they are the civilizers of the Czech people.

    Actually, to this day, mining, smelting, manufacturing and chiefly the wholesale business of Bohemia for the greater part is in the hands of Germans, and Jews claiming to be Germans. This condition applies as well to local Bohemians and their enterprises, in all respects.

    2

    Take real-estate as a measure and according to it's value, to figure the justification for existance of local Bohemians, would require the services of an expert and he would need several weeks time, yes indeed, if not months. It is necessary therefore to arrive at some figure through superficial appraisal. It is understood that we must necessarily add to the value of the real estate, the value of the buildings located on it. So that there may be no error in the estimate, it becomes necessary to enter and deduct existing debts against the buildings. If we proceed to an actual superficial appraisal, the probable value of the property belonging to Bohemians, particularly those of Pilsen and California, can be set at approximately three million dollars. If the mortgage indebtedness is equal to a full one-third, then the property of local Bohemians can be appraised at two million dollars.

    3

    This valuation is hardly excessive. The property along the main streets of both quarters is occupied by buildings worth from $10,000 to $30,000 or even $40,000.

    To be sure, local Bohemians may be congratulated for all this development, from practically nothing, in the course of the past twenty-five years. This is evidence of enterprise and perseverance.

    When attention is turned to Bohemian enterprise in industry and business, our countrymen do not remain behind in any respect. They have adjusted themselves to the American method of life; they have adopted American enterprise.

    In the first instance, it is necessary to state that recently a company was organized for the purpose of mining gold in central Mexico.

    4

    The company, which is composed of well to do Bohemians, put $300,000 into the enterprise, for the purchase of the necessary drilling and excavating machinery and is working with all it's power to achieve the desired results as quickly as possible. Perhaps they will not be denied this success.

    Several days ago Hlasatel published a report regarding about the organization of an all-Bohemian company for the production of Zinc. This company is now operating and will in a short time open mines in the State of Illinois, not far from Chicago.

    Thus can Bohemian enterprise in mining and smelting be noted, in two instances.

    Among the larger concerns, owned solely by Bohemian shareholders, the Pilsen Lumber Company should be given first place.

    5

    When we consider the manufacturing industry, we should mention four or more factories for the manufacture of doors, frames, windows and shutters. These factories are all operating successfully and the workmen, like the owners, are all Bohemians.

    Much of their prosperity and success is due to the uninterrupted building construction. Orders in most cases being placed with Bohemian firms. This is a praiseworthy standpoint and deserves recognition.

    Stone-cutting is performed in several shops, where building stone is manufactured or prepared. While we are referring to the stone-cutting industry, we should call attention to sculpturing shops, in which, gorgeously beautiful monuments of great artistic value are made. There are two such shops to be found here, one at each cemetary. Both are working busily.

    6

    The manufacturing branch of industry is further represented by a shop for the manufacture of cornices and gables for buildings.

    Contemporaneously noted should be a factory for the production of iron girders.

    In addition to the factories mentioned, note should be made of Bohemian factories for the production of sash and mouldings. There are several of these owned by Bohemians and they have been in successful operation for several years. Some of them have passed from the original owners into the possession of joint-companies.

    There is also a factory for the artistic embossing and bending of wood used in decorating buildings and in the manufacture of furniture.

    7

    The third brewery had hardly been completed before a company was organized to build a fourth. This time more attention will be given to its construction. It will be more ornate, and more spacious, figuring on a brilliant future.

    It is impossible to do other than praise these enterprises.

    Effervescent soda-water is manufactured in three factories, and the production barely keeps up with the demand. A fourth factory is being built. It is apparent that our country men drink other beverages besides liquor and beer.

    Cigar-makers also belong among the manufacturers, although the shops of Bohemian cigar-makers are not operated on such a large scale. Nevertheless they do manufacture and should be included in the list.

    There are two or three shops in which slippers are manufactured.

    8

    There are many custom tailors who devote themselves exclusively to the manufacture of mens clothing. The same applies to the ladies custom tailors. However they all operate on a small scale and employ only a small, number of people.

    In manufacturing we have quite a satisfactory representation, which will continue to grow, because new enterprises are being founded continually. Confidence in industry is settled.

    To be sure, the capital invested in Bohemian industry is not large. Everything is undertaken on a small scale, but that suffices because every enterprising- judicious- industrialist endeavors to enlarge and develop his business.

    9

    Into the artistic branch of industry, it is necessary to place the shops of photographers. There are many of these and they are all kept busily at work.

    Having exhausted the list of industrial enterprises we now proceed to summorize business.

    As in industry, so in business, large individual capital is not represented. However it is possible to list many businesses with considerable capital.

    In the forefront of all business a Bohemian bank is found, around which all financial transactions revolve. Great success has been achieved by the well known Bohemian bank, which was organized a few years ago and since then managed to the satisfaction of it's constantly increasing number of customers.

    10

    Several smaller financial institutions also exist. However there are no large transactions undertaken by them.

    A large group of real-estate dealers are active and successful. During the last few years this business has proven to be exceptionally lucrative, and many of these dealers have become wealthy in a short period of time.

    Among those businesses enterprises in which larger amounts of money has been invested can be mentioned the woolen-goods establishments. In addition to the smaller houses are several large establishments carrying woolen goods, two of which are in "Pilsen" and one in California.

    Following the woolen-goods business and in certain instances equal to it insofar as invested capital is concerned are the mens clothing houses. Indeed it seems as if one house was endeavoring to surpass the other and so it becomes possible to list several large clothing-houses.

    11

    Next in importance may be placed the millinery shops, to satisfy the capricious tastes of our ladies, even if a new style were introduced every day. Large and small shops and stores are to be found in Pilsen and California in uncounted numbers.

    Thus the outfitting of the ladies as well as the men is well provided for.

    Bohemian business is duly represented in this field and enjoys a progressive and successful development.

    In dealing with big business it is necessary to mention large coal yards. Several companies with considerable capital have been organized in the past to operate coal-yards. Some of these companies are composed of only a few members. There ranks were increased a short time ago by the organization of a stock-company.

    Bakeries must also be added to the list. Several of these are considered as wholesalers.

    12

    There are also a large number of furniture stores and wholesale houses. The furniture stores are combined with the stove business and require much larger quarters.

    The uninterupted growth in these lines is indicative of their continued success.

    Several Bohemian musical instrument stores do a good business. This is not surprising because the Bohemian people are known as music lovers and consequently there is a good demand for musical instruments of all kinds.

    A still greater growth is enjoyed by Bohemian jewelry stores, which are especially profitable, many of which do a large business.

    13

    Perhaps some branch of business has been overlooked but not intentionally, for this article is intended to serve all branches of endeavor.

    With special pride the growth of Bohemian drug stores is mentioned.

    No longer is it necessary for anyone to seek aid in a foreign store, because in every neighborhood inhabited by Bohemians, a Bohemian pharmacy exists and Bohemian doctor's are recognized in their field. In their ranks are to be found opticians and surgeons whose skill is taken for granted. Some of them have discovered exceptional curatives.

    Bohemian butchers achieve great success and many of them have amassed considerable wealth in the course of time.

    Less fortunate are the grocers, but their business standing is satisfactory.

    14

    These statements prove that the local Bohemian branch understands stands full well the mission of the nation making actual claims for existence.

    The wealth of the nation is the strongest guarantee of its future. Everybody can not become wealthy but desire, as evidenced by enterprise in business and industry, is a guarantee of good will; and when good will is accompanied by patience then success must be attained.

    Work in this sense is ennobling and elevating.

    Therefore if everyone dedicates himself to a meritorious line of work, with patience and determination, success shoud award his efforts.

    It is a general rule, that the nation which has agricultural lands, manufacturing and commercial enterprises can make claims to a vital existence in the present, and for the future. ...

    Bohemian
    II A 2, III H, I C, I D 1 b, I D 1 a, II A 3 c, III A, II A 1
  • Denní Hlasatel -- September 04, 1904
    Town of Lake To the Bohemian Public and the Bohemian Businessmen Particularly

    Knowing well the unhappy condition of many Bohemian families in Tow of Lake, the providers of which are now found in a battle for their just demands against capital, the Association of Bohemian Businessmen in the town of Lake has resolved to appeal to everyone who can contribute, no matter how little, because in many families misery, a cruel guest, is beginning to appear.

    It is an unequal fight between capital and labor and if the packing-house barons win then that labor which is dependent upon the packing-houses for employment will not do very well.

    Many countrymen are to be found in their ranks and it is to these exclusively, that this relief will be distributed. The Association of Bohemian Businessmen of the Town of Lake elected committees, which are entrusted with collection sheets 2and we hope that every countryman will contribute his donation according to his means and that the committee will not be refused by anyone.

    For the Bohemian Businessmen's Association of the Town of Lake.

    Karel V. Janovsky, 1717 W. 47th St. Ant. Dubsky, 4714 S. Ashland Ave. F. B. Brom, 5002 S. Hermitage Ave.

    Knowing well the unhappy condition of many Bohemian families in Tow of Lake, the providers of which are now found in a battle for their just demands against capital, the ...

    Bohemian
    I D 2 a 4, I D 1 b, II A 2, IV
  • Denní Hlasatel -- January 31, 1907
    Banquet Given by Bohemian Tavern Keepers.

    p. 1--The banquet which was served last evening in the Pilsen Sokol Hall was very successful.

    Mr. J. Cervenka, a very prominent Bohemian, the chairman of the Tavern Owners' Association, was in charge of the banquet.

    The attendance was large and consisted of the better class of people. Many prominent Bohemian businessmen and professional men attended.

    The dancing was enjoyed by all, for an excellent orchestra furnished the music.

    A delicious supper was served, it had been prepared by several excellent Bohemian cooks, ladies who know how to cook in the real Bohemian style which is famous the world over.

    2

    After the supper the people were entertained by several professional comedians and actors.

    The remainder of the evening was spent in dancing.

    p. 1--The banquet which was served last evening in the Pilsen Sokol Hall was very successful. Mr. J. Cervenka, a very prominent Bohemian, the chairman of the Tavern Owners' Association, ...

    Bohemian
    III B 2, I D 1 b, IV
  • Denní Hlasatel -- May 24, 1908
    Celebration at Cream City Park.

    p. 1, col. 5.. A celebration was held today at the reopening of the second season of the Cream City Amusement Park in Riverside, Illinois. This enterprise is strictly a Bohemian one, managed by Bohemians, investments by Bohemians and only Bohemians can have concessions, therefore this being strictly Bohemiam, the association wants every one to feel perfectly at home; whatever differences may have arisen in the past should not be brought up again so as not to create ill feelings, but to make this season a success. There are so many concessions that every one will derive some benefit out of them.

    A special added inducement is given for the opening of the amusement park in that the admission ticket entitles one to dance free of additional charge at the newly remodeled dancing pavilion. The same band of musicians that played at the celebration will play many musical numbers for the dancers so that every one is assured a good time.

    The street car fare is but five cents and there should be no reason why our Bohemians should not turn out in large numbers. Let us then make this season a success so that this may be a permanent amusement park and a credit to our Bohemians.

    p. 1, col. 5.. A celebration was held today at the reopening of the second season of the Cream City Amusement Park in Riverside, Illinois. This enterprise is strictly a ...

    Bohemian
    II A 2, I D 1 b
  • Denní Hlasatel -- September 16, 1908
    Lawndale Businessmen's Association

    For some time in the past an association has been formed for the progress of businessmen in Ceska Californie, Bohemian California, Lawndale Section.

    It is the Lawndale Business Men's Association. The purpose of forming such an association is not only to foster friendship among the Bohemian businessmen but also for the benefit of the entire Lawndale section. Only active businessmen can be members of this association. At the last meeting held on the 9th day of September of this year a resolution was made and agreed upon. The programs or circulars will not accept any advertisements from clubs or lodges but will adhere, strictly to businessmen's advertisements.

    At this same meeting a standing committee was elected. Its tasks will be to see that the streets are decently paved and kept in repair, and that sufficient street lights and good sidewalks are provided. This will benefit not only the landlords, but also the tenants dwelling in the Lawndale district. A special committee will be formed whose duties will be in the line of advertising. The elected officers for the ensuing year are: James Jelinek, president; F. G. Hajicek, vice-president; Joseph J. Salat, treasurer, and Frank J. Karlovsky.

    2

    The board of directors elected consists of the following persons: Messrs, F. G. Hajicek, James Jelinek, A. M. Jindra, James J. Kapsa, Frank J. Karlovsky, Edward F. Kounovsky, F. S. Prince, Joseph J. Salat and Frank Sebek. Thus far there are 45 members who belong to their association, all of which are businessmen. They are all Bohemians who reside from 22nd to 26th Streets.

    The membership applications are coming in steadily and are investigated as to the qualifications for membership of the applicants. The association adopted certain rules to which an applicant must agree to conform before he may be admitted into this association. An applicant must also come well recommended by one who is a member of the Lawndale Businessmen's Association. His business must be a legitimate one, otherwise such applicant is barred for membership. A much needed organization such as this should have been started a long time ago. We owe a debt of gratitude to the active Bohemian businessmen who took such interest in our section.

    For some time in the past an association has been formed for the progress of businessmen in Ceska Californie, Bohemian California, Lawndale Section. It is the Lawndale Business Men's Association. ...

    Bohemian
    II A 2, I D 1 b, IV
  • Denní Hlasatel -- February 03, 1909
    Bohemian-American Capital in Jeopardy

    "If we cannot have on hand at least $10,000 by Friday evening, our business will be ruined," proclaimed the chairman of the Bohemian corporation known as the Hudson Coal Company last night. The concern owns coal mines in Indiana. This portentous message was, however, no news, as rumors to that effect had been current for a week and had been discussed at a meeting of the concern held in the Bohemian-American Hall, on West Eighteenth Street.

    Another meeting is called for Friday in which the stockholders of the Hudson Coal Co. are to decide whether to produce the $10,000 in question, since they had on former occasions deposited about $125,000 for the enterprise, or to leave the business to its fate; and there is little doubt that the concern will perish if the money is not raised. This would mean a terrible blow for the stockholders, who number one hundred and forty, and some of whom have risked their entire savings, ranging from five hundred to sixteen hundred dollars.

    We do not want to write of this matter in any other way than that in which it 2was treated at the meeting of the directors. We are merely pointing to the severe setback that Bohemian-American enterprise shall suffer, if the worst is to happen, and to the concomitant misfortunes for so many families.

    At the first meeting called Friday last week, Mr. Vrba after the necessary explanatory remarks, ceded the floor to Mr. Winternitz, the secretary, for the report on the financial condition of the Hudson Coal Co. According to this report the assets are valued at $151,000, including stock as yet unsold to the amount of $45,000. The mines had been purchased for $125,000 two years ago; debts accrued were backed by first mortgage collaterals for $40,000; $10,000 on the mortgage was paid, leaving a mortgage of $30,000, owned by J. W. Rooth of Terre Haute, Indiana, on the property.

    There is a host of creditors whose claims demand immediate satisfaction; for instance, miners with unpaid wages to the amount of $5,000; rentals for twenty small houses; taxes and other items, such as $2,000 for powder. The mines are not in operation now as the miners have not been paid for fourteen days and conforming with previous agreements have ceased to work.

    3

    Commenting on these conditions Mr. Winternitz said: "The main reason for our predicament is to be found in the manner in which we started, that is, without money, which also caused the downfall of other Bohemian ventures into the realm of business. We are paying $6,000 in interest, which not only takes away the profit but is also steadily eating up our capital. It seems that fate is against us.

    "First our property was damaged by fire, then we went thru a costly period of strikes and finally we had to buy our own money. Thus, for instance, we sold coal to a firm on a sixty-day basis; as in the meantime we lacked the money for wages, we had to grant heavy discounts to induce the firm to pay before due time. On another occasion we sold our claims to professional collectors at a commission of two percent of our earnings per month, amounting to twenty-four per cent per year. This is the price we paid for our own money. Time also had worked against us. We were producing from five to seven hundred tons of coal per day; than mild weather continually forced us to sell at a loss."

    4

    Mr. Zahrobnik stated that the company had been in the hands of dishonest managers until the arrival of Mr. Vrba.

    The only final decision reached was to send $400 in order to forestall the loss of utensils. The meeting which has been called for Friday next will have fateful results.

    "If we cannot have on hand at least $10,000 by Friday evening, our business will be ruined," proclaimed the chairman of the Bohemian corporation known as the Hudson Coal Company ...

    Bohemian
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