The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Svornost -- March 27, 1879
    [Socialist Labor Candidates Recommended]

    We urgently beg all of our countrymen who wish to have an honest administration in our city to work with utmost diligence to secure the election of the Socialist-Labor Party Candidates for office, at the coming elections. Do not remain away from the polling places. Induce those who would stay away to go and perform their duty as citizens. Particular attention should be directed toward the election of Aldermen in order that we may be able to announce the selection of at least four new Socialist Aldermen in the city council on Wednesday.

    All the candidates on the Socialist Labor Party Ticket are honest, experienced workers who will ardently support and work for the class from which they originate. Our countrymen, especially those living in the fifth ward are cautioned to let nothing mislead them but to unanimously vote for the nominated candidate T. J. Morgan. Mr. Morgan is deserving of the gratitude of the workingclasses of Chicago for his untiring efforts in helping them to organize. He is truly an honorable, educated man and an excellent speaker and most important of all, he is not a friend of the Gas Companies and other profiteering public utility companies.

    2

    The nominees of the other strongly Bohemian wards, namely the 6th, 7th, 8th and 14th are people who will bring honor to us in the city's Council Chambers and will serve us well. Attention is called to the fact that we will have specimen ballots for your guidance and we request you to examine and compare with our specimen ballot the ballot which you receive at the polling place.

    The Republicans and Democrats are expected to resort to strategic craftiness. They will have printed in addition to their own Socialist Ballots with the names of candidates either mispelled or disfigured. Failing to have you vote their ticket they may attempt to hand you one of these spoiled Socialist ballots so that your vote will be thrown out. So please be cautious.

    We urgently beg all of our countrymen who wish to have an honest administration in our city to work with utmost diligence to secure the election of the Socialist-Labor Party ...

    Bohemian
    I F 1, I D 1 a, I E
  • Svornost -- March 31, 1879
    Before the Battle.

    We stand today on the threshold of an important decision, whether our evil city government is to be continued; are we again to be surrendered to pillage by rapacious officeseekers and their numerous henchman or will we place in office honest responsible men, men of action, men, enthusiastic for the general welfare?

    Citizens there are four parties with full lists of candidates and you have plenty of material to choose from for the various offices. Republicans, Democrats, Socialists and Greenbackers come before you with their candidates asking for your support, promising more or less important things. Let us see however what happens to these preelection promises. Are they fulfilled? We answer, so far as the main issues are concerned, never. Did not the Republicans and Democrats promise you before each election, mountains and dales, did not they have mouths full of reform, did not they promise you, workingmen, that they would look after your needs, your interests? How did it turn out after election? It is needless to dwell upon for every child knows they kept none of their promises. They were concerned only with their own 2interests and those of the rich city plundering public utility companies. Many may object that a Socialist once elected may work otherwise, but previous experience and the sound elements from which the Socialist Labor Party is formed absolutely expel this thought.

    Our representatives in the State Legislature work in the interests of the working class and failing to achieve any apparent success, who is to blame for this- if not these Republicans and Democrats? In the city council we have so far only one representative of the Socialist Party, Citizen Fr. Stauber, and this representative of ours enjoys the confidence of all honorable citizens of Chicago. It was he that fought for the establishment of new schools, reading-rooms, public baths, and sewers in those districts of the city inhabited by the poorer classes of our citizens. He fought for the lighting and cleaning of streets in the neighborhoods peopled by working men. He endeavored to bring to the poor people, the same privileges which the rich tax dodgers enjoyed. Citizen Stauber worked sincerely and honorably and if he failed to enact our rightful demands, who again is to blame if not the 3Republicans and Democrats, these people who before election promised us endless reforms; then those, who believing the promises of these sharpers, elected them instead of honest socialists who are in sympathy with us. If we said nothing in behalf of our representative there would still remain one circumstance which assures him the grateful remembrance of all honorable taxpayers, and that is the conservation of over-payments in the amount of $300,000 on which the city accountant was drawing interest.

    Our officials have shown themselves to be honorable and would to God they remain so. Partly responsible for this is the fact that our candidates must agree to resign from office if the electorate desires it. Any one who wishes the reforms as shown in our principles should vote the Socialist ticket. He who wishes to support dishonesty, destructiveness and thievery should vote for the old parties, but should not moan afterward that he is being robbed.

    Our Ballot

    For Mayor--Ernest Schmidt; for City Treasurer--Fr. A. Stauber; for City Attorney--Harry Rubens: for City Clerk--Benjamin Sibley; For Aldermen--1st Ward-Nicolai H. Jorgensen; 2nd Ward--George A. Schilling; 3rd Ward-- H. L. Hull; 4th Ward--Louis Huth; 5th Ward--T. J. Morgan;

    4

    6th Ward--J. J. Altpeter; 7th Ward--Frank Bielefeldt; 8th Ward--Henry Stahl; 9th Ward S. R. Rratt; 10th Ward--Robert Beck; 11th Ward--Harry Johnson; 12th Ward--Maz Zelle; 13th Ward--George Braun; 14th Ward--Reinhold Lorenz; 15th Ward-John Feltes: 16th Ward-Christian Meier; 17th Ward--James Lynn; 18th Ward--D. Van Devanter.

    North Town Officers.

    Assessor--J. C. Warner; Collector--Theo A. Schwennesen; Clerk--John Soller; Supervisor P. Mc Fadden;

    South Town Officers

    Assessor--John Paulsen; Collector--Henry Schmidt; Clerk-- T. P. S. Dusey; Supervisor Tom Ryan.

    West Town Officers.

    Assessor--O; A. Bishop; Collector--Daniel Sullivan; Clerk--Jacob Dilg; Supervisor--Martin Baumrucker.

    We stand today on the threshold of an important decision, whether our evil city government is to be continued; are we again to be surrendered to pillage by rapacious officeseekers ...

    Bohemian
    I F 6, I D 1 a, I F 1, I F 3, I E
  • Svornost -- September 17, 1884
    Proclamation of the Bohemian Citizens in Chicago,Illinois.

    The coming elections - National, State and County are highly important for every citizen, but especially for immigrants.

    The most important questions, which will be decided by the electorate in November are as follows:

    1. The Civil Service Reform.

    2. The protection of the citizens of this country on the other side of the boundary.

    3. The personal liberty.

    Everybody should take notice of these elections and here is the reason why:

    1. We know that at present this country is governed with incredible speed. We know that millions of dollars, extorted from the people, will be mostly used for the purpose of enriching the capitalists.

    2

    We know that hundreds of millions of acres of the best territories and soil were given up to the extorting companies.

    We know that the legislature is shameless and corrupted.

    We know that the untouchable electoral box was opened and interfered with to the advantage of the party, which was in power.

    We know that the biggest frauds committed on the people were unpunished, therefore we wish to have changes!

    2. Everybody know that many citizens of this great Republic are moaning incessantly because they are being jailed by others in power.

    We know also that the Republican Administration, while Blaine was Secretary, never resisted the foreign powers, except for small political tricks with countries not worth mentioning.

    3

    In dealing with major foreign powers he never moved a finger to the advantage of one threatened.

    We know exactly that the Democratic party has always protected and splendidly defended the rights of the American citizens each time the agricultural question was at stake; it always has protected the complete equal rights among American born and immigrated citizens.

    Whereas: We wish a change!

    A change to the Democratic principles of today and a liberal law of liberty for every citizen.

    3. We are convinced that the efforts of the Republican party are concentrated on the limiting of the personal liberty of the citizens.

    4

    We are convinced that the Republican party is taking pains, with every effort, to yoke us under tyrannic laws, originated by the fanatic Puritans a century ago, whereas we protest as strongly as possible against the jurisdiction of such social laws for free and educated people and we demand the changes!

    We ourselves denounce with fullest determination any law that limits personal liberty and is in direct opposition to the knowledge and idea of the Constitution of this country. We express our acknowledgment to the country, which fully defends and protects our interests and the interests of the people.

    Knowing that the Democratic party and its candidates, Cleveland and Hendricks, are worthy of confidence in the matter of reforms, and being convinced that the Democratic party always has protected the personal liberty and honor of American citizens, we consider it our duty to organize ourselves to insure victory in the election of honest men to office.

    Based on this principle we appeal to all the Bohemian Democrats, especially 5to those who are enthusiastic about personal liberty and social honor, to take part in the general advisory meeting, Friday, September 19, at 8 P. M. in the hall of the "Sokol Society" gymnasium on Taylor Street. The purpose of the meeting is to found a "Bohemian club," that will support Cleveland, Hendricks and Harrison.

    As sponsors we have the signatures of nineteen prominent Bohemian business men.......(Names omitted)

    The coming elections - National, State and County are highly important for every citizen, but especially for immigrants. The most important questions, which will be decided by the electorate in ...

    Bohemian
    I F 3, I D 1 a, I F 6, I H, I L
  • Svornost -- July 18, 1892
    National Hall Meeting

    Bohemian Workers in protest against "Pinkertons' Bohemian Workers Educational Club" called a mass meeting yesterday afternoon, in "National Hall", for the purpose of protesting the use of "Pinkerton Murderers" against the workingman of Homestead, Pa., and at the same time to offer their warmest sympathies for the locked out steel mill workers of Pennsylvania.

    Is it justice, when a capitalist is allowed to defend his supposed interests with the aid of a gun, while a worker is denied the right to even raise his voice in protest, lest he be labeled an anarchist, or villain, of the biggest sort? Is that any kind of freedom, when every rich cut-throat can have us shot whenever he takes a notion to do so?

    Resolved, that we Bohemian Workingmen gathered here in National Hall in Chicago, protest in the name of all Bohemian Workers of Chicago against the legality of the hiring of murderers by the capitalist, for use against their workingmen, whenever they see fit. Further, we protest 2against the support of the capitalist by the Government of Pennsylvania. The laboring men there are being oppressed and driven to deeds of desperation in order that the workers may be accused of all unrest. Finally, it is resolved to express our full sympathy with the strikers, and to encourage further opposition against the superior force of capitalist, who are making every effort to destroy all trade unions and to secure the ruling power.

    We condemn all such forms of procedure, and call on all organized labor in America to raise its voice in behalf of the oppressed workers of Homestead, Pa.

    This resolution was unanimously adopted and the meeting was then adjourned.

    Bohemian Workers in protest against "Pinkertons' Bohemian Workers Educational Club" called a mass meeting yesterday afternoon, in "National Hall", for the purpose of protesting the use of "Pinkerton Murderers" against ...

    Bohemian
    I D 2 a 4, I D 2 a 1, I D 1 a
  • Svornost -- April 02, 1898
    [Demand Candidates Oppose the Fifty Franchise]

    A few sincere words to Bohemian voters of Chicago: The coming period of the new elections to the City Council moves me to address to the voters of our own nationality a few sincere words - not as a partisan, but as an honorably minded citizen who sees with sorrow how all morals decline among us in regard to politics.

    I have watched closely, until the present time, how the various candidates seek the confidence and votes of their constituents, but I have not found one who would touch on the main subjects which are being contested at this coming election or would make a positive declaration about them.

    In the last legislature the so-called Allen Law was passed, which empowers the City of Chicago to give privileges to street railways and other concerns; not, as previously, from one to twenty years, but from one to fifty years. As is known, the honest and sincere elements of the local citizenry have worked hard, with Mayor Harrison as leader, to defeat this proposition, so that it would be impossible for future City Councils to lengthen such privileges. But the influence of the corporations concerned was able to overcome the 2endeavors of our mayor and this dangerous proposition became a law.

    What is more natural than that the corrupt elements, who were able by dis-honorable methods to make the legislature do their bidding, should now concentrate all their efforts to have a more favorable majority elected to the City Council and enable this abominable Allen Law to have unobstructed passage? They have the law - it certainly cost them an enormous sum, therefore, they are now trying to have the bribed majority of the City Council put this law into practice; that is at the earliest opportunity - to turn over our streets not for a new ten or twenty year period but immediately for the entire fifty years and thereby enslave our city for the entire fifty years to their despotic extortion.

    Would you Bohemian fellow citizens want to allow this to happen by voting into the City Council people who are probably nominated for just such a purpose? I believe and hope that such is not the wish of any one of us and therefore I propose that safeguards be provided at this time as follows:

    Have each of the candidates from whichever ward who are presented to you for 3election, give you an oral or written declaration that, on his honor, he will not vote for any proposition which in any manner would make this ruinous Allen Law effective in Chicago; that, in fact, he will never vote in our City Council for giving street privileges to anybody under whatever pretext, for more than twenty or twenty-five years at the most.

    Let us have as a watch word at this year's election the following: No one shall receive our vote who does not fulfill these requirements, and anyone of the elected who betrays this trust will be covered with shame and be rejected in the future by his constituents.

    A few sincere words to Bohemian voters of Chicago: The coming period of the new elections to the City Council moves me to address to the voters of our own ...

    Bohemian
    I F 6, I F 3, I D 1 a
  • Denní Hlasatel -- February 16, 1902
    Meeting of Bohemian Molders

    The Cesko-Slovanska Unie Slevaska (Czecho-Slovak Molders Union) held its third agitational meeting Sunday, Feb. 9, in Comrade Fr. Pitry's Hall, 1279 W. 20th St., between Morgan and Fisk Sts.

    It again met with good results and several new members were gained. By this, it is being shown that the Slavonic Molders really want to help in the effort to form an independent union, where business will be transacted in their mother tongue. However, it is regretable that so few of them are applying for membership. The duty of all molders is to assist in such a worthy purpose, as is being offered them now.

    Never before have you had such an opportunity to become members of that great organization, The International Molders Union of North America. Other nationalities have cared nothing about us and only left us in obscurity. We will show that we are alive and that we always support worthy things. Only in that manner can our present labor killing conditions be remedied. Let us take notice how capital is united against us in the form of trusts, and governs us. We will show by our strength that we don't need it and that we will overcome it.

    2

    Therefore, let everyone of you come to the meeting which is to be held Sunday, Feb. 16th at 2 P.M. in Pitry's Hall, where further explanation will be made.

    This invitation is respectfully extended by the

    Committee.

    The Cesko-Slovanska Unie Slevaska (Czecho-Slovak Molders Union) held its third agitational meeting Sunday, Feb. 9, in Comrade Fr. Pitry's Hall, 1279 W. 20th St., between Morgan and Fisk Sts. It ...

    Bohemian
    I D 2 a 2, I D 1 a
  • Denní Hlasatel -- October 03, 1902
    Striking Coal Miners Supported by Bohemian Labor.

    p.4- Bohemian workingmen will do their duty. Welfare activity on behalf of the striking coal-miners has been started in the larger communities, and it is expected that it will have the support of the majority of our public.

    Bohemian California, in this respect, is progressing far ahead of all other Bohemian communities. Bohemian women of Bohemian, California are arranging a ball for Saturday evening, Oct. 11th, from which the net proceeds will be donated to the needy coal-miners.

    On Sunday, following this affair there will be held a grand party by union workingmen for the same purpose. We feel certain that both of these undertakings will meet with great success. Bohemians, without exception, sympathize with the lockedout coal-miners and, with all their heart, wish for them a victory over the pot-bellied capitalists. In order to help the coal-miners to gain their victory Bohemians will contribute their dollars.

    The Bohemian-California community is so large and so well informed, that both entertainments will be able to boast a large attendance.

    p.4- Bohemian workingmen will do their duty. Welfare activity on behalf of the striking coal-miners has been started in the larger communities, and it is expected that it will have ...

    Bohemian
    II D 10, I D 2 a 4, I D 1 a
  • Denní Hlasatel -- October 14, 1902
    The Collection for the Striking Coal Miners Is Assuming Unexpected Proportions.

    p.1 - We were not mistaken in our people. We knew that they would not deny their support to working men oppressed by powerful capital and that they would provide effective aid to countrymen in dire need. As soon as the coal miners plea for aid appeared in our paper, contributions began to pour in, and the longer it lasts, the more satisfactory the collection becomes. Collections are being made everywhere at entertainments, during lodge meetings, in factories; the unfortunates who undertook the battle against the trusts are being remembered everywhere.

    This fight will probably be ended soon now. Pot-bellied capital has been frightened by the harmonious agreement of the people; politicians and the government have been forced to step in and the coal-barons have expressed their willingness to arbitrate, a process they didn't want to hear a thing about a few days ago. In this victory our Bohemian people has a dignified share. They stood as one on the side of right and justice and did not begrudge any material generosity.

    2

    Yesterday we received another confirmation from Mr. Hnevkovsky, to whom we have been forwarding contributions. The communication was dated Oct. 10th and acknowledged $47.50. Mr. Hnevkovsky again assured us that he would send a detailed report of the distribution of the contributions and sends his heartfelt thanks to all donors. Further contributions were deposited at our office by the following : - - -

    Total received to date $659.70.

    p.1 - We were not mistaken in our people. We knew that they would not deny their support to working men oppressed by powerful capital and that they would provide ...

    Bohemian
    I D 2 a 4, II D 10, I D 1 a
  • Denní Hlasatel -- March 13, 1903
    [Small Shops Crowded Out by Big Business]

    P.4 - The large tailoring establishments in the down-town section want to swallow all smaller employers. These must think of means whereby they can save themselves what would they say to the suggestion, that they should themselves organize big business and big factories, which would compete with the Jews who up to now have profited on an now want to ruin our tailors. We must have a little enterprise and courage if we wish to keep up with others here in America. If Jews can become millionaires through the clothing industry, why could not Bohemians at least make a decent living therefrom, since for the most part it is Bohemian labor, through which the Jews become wealthy. If an individual is insufficient to accomplish this why don't several join together, or a whole group? As has already been said, our tailors very existence is involved and they must act. Bohemian workingmen and businessmen surely would support them in their struggle for existence and no doubt many customers would be found among other nationalities for the expert workmanship of Bohemians.

    Why should we Bohemians continuously work only for others, why not work for ourselves sometimes?

    P.4 - The large tailoring establishments in the down-town section want to swallow all smaller employers. These must think of means whereby they can save themselves what would they say ...

    Bohemian
    I C, I D 1 a, I D 1 b, III A, II A 2
  • Denní Hlasatel -- August 08, 1904
    Bohemian Enterprise.

    It is a general rule, that the nation which has agricultural lands, manufacturing and commercial enterprises can make claims to a vital existence in the present, and for the future. Without these, though powerful numerically, persistent and tenacious, a nation or perhaps only a part of a nation is, and always will be, a plaything in the whirlpool of a stormy existence. Everyone must arrive at this conclusion after careful consideration. Germans in their snobbishness always boast that they are the civilizers of the Czech people.

    Actually, to this day, mining, smelting, manufacturing and chiefly the wholesale business of Bohemia for the greater part is in the hands of Germans, and Jews claiming to be Germans. This condition applies as well to local Bohemians and their enterprises, in all respects.

    2

    Take real-estate as a measure and according to it's value, to figure the justification for existance of local Bohemians, would require the services of an expert and he would need several weeks time, yes indeed, if not months. It is necessary therefore to arrive at some figure through superficial appraisal. It is understood that we must necessarily add to the value of the real estate, the value of the buildings located on it. So that there may be no error in the estimate, it becomes necessary to enter and deduct existing debts against the buildings. If we proceed to an actual superficial appraisal, the probable value of the property belonging to Bohemians, particularly those of Pilsen and California, can be set at approximately three million dollars. If the mortgage indebtedness is equal to a full one-third, then the property of local Bohemians can be appraised at two million dollars.

    3

    This valuation is hardly excessive. The property along the main streets of both quarters is occupied by buildings worth from $10,000 to $30,000 or even $40,000.

    To be sure, local Bohemians may be congratulated for all this development, from practically nothing, in the course of the past twenty-five years. This is evidence of enterprise and perseverance.

    When attention is turned to Bohemian enterprise in industry and business, our countrymen do not remain behind in any respect. They have adjusted themselves to the American method of life; they have adopted American enterprise.

    In the first instance, it is necessary to state that recently a company was organized for the purpose of mining gold in central Mexico.

    4

    The company, which is composed of well to do Bohemians, put $300,000 into the enterprise, for the purchase of the necessary drilling and excavating machinery and is working with all it's power to achieve the desired results as quickly as possible. Perhaps they will not be denied this success.

    Several days ago Hlasatel published a report regarding about the organization of an all-Bohemian company for the production of Zinc. This company is now operating and will in a short time open mines in the State of Illinois, not far from Chicago.

    Thus can Bohemian enterprise in mining and smelting be noted, in two instances.

    Among the larger concerns, owned solely by Bohemian shareholders, the Pilsen Lumber Company should be given first place.

    5

    When we consider the manufacturing industry, we should mention four or more factories for the manufacture of doors, frames, windows and shutters. These factories are all operating successfully and the workmen, like the owners, are all Bohemians.

    Much of their prosperity and success is due to the uninterrupted building construction. Orders in most cases being placed with Bohemian firms. This is a praiseworthy standpoint and deserves recognition.

    Stone-cutting is performed in several shops, where building stone is manufactured or prepared. While we are referring to the stone-cutting industry, we should call attention to sculpturing shops, in which, gorgeously beautiful monuments of great artistic value are made. There are two such shops to be found here, one at each cemetary. Both are working busily.

    6

    The manufacturing branch of industry is further represented by a shop for the manufacture of cornices and gables for buildings.

    Contemporaneously noted should be a factory for the production of iron girders.

    In addition to the factories mentioned, note should be made of Bohemian factories for the production of sash and mouldings. There are several of these owned by Bohemians and they have been in successful operation for several years. Some of them have passed from the original owners into the possession of joint-companies.

    There is also a factory for the artistic embossing and bending of wood used in decorating buildings and in the manufacture of furniture.

    7

    The third brewery had hardly been completed before a company was organized to build a fourth. This time more attention will be given to its construction. It will be more ornate, and more spacious, figuring on a brilliant future.

    It is impossible to do other than praise these enterprises.

    Effervescent soda-water is manufactured in three factories, and the production barely keeps up with the demand. A fourth factory is being built. It is apparent that our country men drink other beverages besides liquor and beer.

    Cigar-makers also belong among the manufacturers, although the shops of Bohemian cigar-makers are not operated on such a large scale. Nevertheless they do manufacture and should be included in the list.

    There are two or three shops in which slippers are manufactured.

    8

    There are many custom tailors who devote themselves exclusively to the manufacture of mens clothing. The same applies to the ladies custom tailors. However they all operate on a small scale and employ only a small, number of people.

    In manufacturing we have quite a satisfactory representation, which will continue to grow, because new enterprises are being founded continually. Confidence in industry is settled.

    To be sure, the capital invested in Bohemian industry is not large. Everything is undertaken on a small scale, but that suffices because every enterprising- judicious- industrialist endeavors to enlarge and develop his business.

    9

    Into the artistic branch of industry, it is necessary to place the shops of photographers. There are many of these and they are all kept busily at work.

    Having exhausted the list of industrial enterprises we now proceed to summorize business.

    As in industry, so in business, large individual capital is not represented. However it is possible to list many businesses with considerable capital.

    In the forefront of all business a Bohemian bank is found, around which all financial transactions revolve. Great success has been achieved by the well known Bohemian bank, which was organized a few years ago and since then managed to the satisfaction of it's constantly increasing number of customers.

    10

    Several smaller financial institutions also exist. However there are no large transactions undertaken by them.

    A large group of real-estate dealers are active and successful. During the last few years this business has proven to be exceptionally lucrative, and many of these dealers have become wealthy in a short period of time.

    Among those businesses enterprises in which larger amounts of money has been invested can be mentioned the woolen-goods establishments. In addition to the smaller houses are several large establishments carrying woolen goods, two of which are in "Pilsen" and one in California.

    Following the woolen-goods business and in certain instances equal to it insofar as invested capital is concerned are the mens clothing houses. Indeed it seems as if one house was endeavoring to surpass the other and so it becomes possible to list several large clothing-houses.

    11

    Next in importance may be placed the millinery shops, to satisfy the capricious tastes of our ladies, even if a new style were introduced every day. Large and small shops and stores are to be found in Pilsen and California in uncounted numbers.

    Thus the outfitting of the ladies as well as the men is well provided for.

    Bohemian business is duly represented in this field and enjoys a progressive and successful development.

    In dealing with big business it is necessary to mention large coal yards. Several companies with considerable capital have been organized in the past to operate coal-yards. Some of these companies are composed of only a few members. There ranks were increased a short time ago by the organization of a stock-company.

    Bakeries must also be added to the list. Several of these are considered as wholesalers.

    12

    There are also a large number of furniture stores and wholesale houses. The furniture stores are combined with the stove business and require much larger quarters.

    The uninterupted growth in these lines is indicative of their continued success.

    Several Bohemian musical instrument stores do a good business. This is not surprising because the Bohemian people are known as music lovers and consequently there is a good demand for musical instruments of all kinds.

    A still greater growth is enjoyed by Bohemian jewelry stores, which are especially profitable, many of which do a large business.

    13

    Perhaps some branch of business has been overlooked but not intentionally, for this article is intended to serve all branches of endeavor.

    With special pride the growth of Bohemian drug stores is mentioned.

    No longer is it necessary for anyone to seek aid in a foreign store, because in every neighborhood inhabited by Bohemians, a Bohemian pharmacy exists and Bohemian doctor's are recognized in their field. In their ranks are to be found opticians and surgeons whose skill is taken for granted. Some of them have discovered exceptional curatives.

    Bohemian butchers achieve great success and many of them have amassed considerable wealth in the course of time.

    Less fortunate are the grocers, but their business standing is satisfactory.

    14

    These statements prove that the local Bohemian branch understands stands full well the mission of the nation making actual claims for existence.

    The wealth of the nation is the strongest guarantee of its future. Everybody can not become wealthy but desire, as evidenced by enterprise in business and industry, is a guarantee of good will; and when good will is accompanied by patience then success must be attained.

    Work in this sense is ennobling and elevating.

    Therefore if everyone dedicates himself to a meritorious line of work, with patience and determination, success shoud award his efforts.

    It is a general rule, that the nation which has agricultural lands, manufacturing and commercial enterprises can make claims to a vital existence in the present, and for the future. ...

    Bohemian
    II A 2, III H, I C, I D 1 b, I D 1 a, II A 3 c, III A, II A 1