The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Chicago Tribune -- January 11, 1890
    The Hebrew Charity Ball

    The approaching annual Hebrew Charity Ball, January 21, will undoubtedly eclipse all former similar events. Everything connected with this important social event is on a grander and more magnificent scale than ever, and the care and attention bestowed upon the details for the comfort and entertainment of the participants have resulted in a much larger advance sale than ever before.

    Over 1,000 tickets at $10 each have been reported sold and numerous committees have not reported. The entire Auditorium will be utilized for dancing and supper will be served by the Auditorium Hotel Company in the gentlemen's parlors, cafe, main corridors, and bar of the hotel proper. The Chicago Orchestra of fifty pieces will provide the dance music and the Second Regiment Band of thirty pieces will provide the promenade music.

    The auction sale of boxes will take place next Tuesday afternoon at 3 o'clock in the main Auditorium, Mr. Bernard Kahn officiating as auctioneer.

    Arrangements have been perfected with Leroy Payne for sending guests home after the ball, and private carriages will not be permitted in line to return occupants home.

    The approaching annual Hebrew Charity Ball, January 21, will undoubtedly eclipse all former similar events. Everything connected with this important social event is on a grander and more magnificent scale ...

    Jewish
    II D 1, V A 2
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 28, 1890
    The Germans Are the Most Frugal

    An official of one of the local savings banks submitted some interesting statistical figures, several days ago, which are herewith appended. Savings banks have been founded for the purpose of giving the poorer classes of the population an opportunity to obtain a safe depository for their funds. Of all the nationalities which comprise our regular customers, the Germans are represented by the largest number. Young Germans, who have only a small income, know how to save and bring these small sums consistently to our banks. Aside from this, they excel other nationalities by the fact, that almost all who have business relations with us, are able to read and write. There are German servant girls here, who often save $2,000 and more from their meager wages; they accomplish this in a few years.

    2

    The Germans also make the largest deposits. A young German brings not less than $20 or $25 to the bank but if he is in business, then his deposits are $200 at the least and they are very often much larger. Next to the Germans, I would consider the descendants of the Irish, hence, the Irish-Americans, as very frugal.....The average age, when men form the saving habit, is the 25th year, but especially amongst the Germans, this inclination very often manifests itself when they are much younger.

    An official of one of the local savings banks submitted some interesting statistical figures, several days ago, which are herewith appended. Savings banks have been founded for the purpose of ...

    German
    V A 2, I B 3 c, I C
  • Abendpost -- December 19, 1890
    [German Influence on the American National Character]

    The German immigrants are preserving, even in their new surroundings and changed living conditions, their characteristics, which have been inherited and intensified through the slow flow of a stabilized economic system in their old country. They carry this element of stability into the hasty flow of American developments, which otherwise would block safe progress. Furthermore, German honesty cannot be underestimated as a powerful counterweight in American politics, which have spoiled more or less our present generation in this country.

    Finally, the achievements of German science, art and education, brought over through German immigration, are representing a valuable contribution towards the intellectual life of this nation.

    The German immigrants are preserving, even in their new surroundings and changed living conditions, their characteristics, which have been inherited and intensified through the slow flow of a stabilized economic ...

    German
    III A, V A 2, I F 4
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1891
    The Speech of Rev. F. Szukalski in Chicago, May 3, 1891 at the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Polish Constitution

    Father F. Szukalski, pastor of the Polish Church at Beaver Dam, Wis. delivered the following speech at a large Polish hall in Chicago on May 3, 1891.

    "Every Pole believes it an honor to love his fatherland. Love of fatherland-that glorious phrase which thrills the heart of every Pole. It awakens all from the slumber of indifference, it revivifies every one who retains a spark of life.

    "In our history, love of fatherland in written into the blood of our noblest countrymen. Our ancestors spared no sacrifice--they forsook their homes, renounced the pleasures of family life, property, friends, freedom, even life 2itself, to endure the hardships of war; they did this because in their hearts burned the holy flame of love for the fatherland.

    "If every native Pole cherishes such love for the fatherland, how much more should we, the exiles, who have lost our beloved fatherland through separation. In the words of our immortal poet Adam Mickiewicz:

    'Oh Lithuania, my country, like life thou art;

    How dear art thou to one's heart

    May be realized only by one

    Who lost thee, and thy beauty.

    I see and desire to sing, for I long for thee.

    "No enemy has ever designed a method of persecution, no tyrant has ever invented a system of torture, no murderer of our brothers has ever conceived of an agony so profound that it could tear out the love of fatherland from 3the heart of a true Pole.

    "Russian deputies separated our families, imprisoned and tortured our countrymen, exiled them to distant Siberia but could not extinguish the spark of patriotism.

    "Countrymen! Love of fatherland is a sacred love which God has implanted in the hearts of men, and which no human power can destroy.

    "No matter how sacred, or holy, or noble a thing may be--a corrupt individual can distort it in order to pursue his own evil designs.

    "Unfortunately, this expression, love for the fatherland was so misused.

    "Let us recall our history previous to May 3, 1791, since we are celebrating today the one hundredth anniversary of that historic day. We remember that those who waited impatiently to tear Poland apart, those who sought to 4betray our fatherland for revenge, those who for profit and for protection of their own interests, delivered Poland into the hands of her oppressors, did so under the guise of patriotism; all of them proclaimed their loyalty to the fatherland. Hugo Kollataj, a Polish political writer of that period, says that they fought for priority in infamy; one tried to outdo the other in the sale of the fatherland.

    "Poninski, Branicki, Karr, Frederik II, Catherine III, Empress of Russia, all posed as patriots--and all of them were plotting the partition of Poland.

    "Today as we commemorate the significant moment when our nation recognizing its weakness, made desperate efforts to purge itself, despite insuperable obstacles, in order to regain the road which might lead to power and national glory, we should remember the reasons for our country's dismemberment-- our fatherland, once powerful enough to decide the fate of Europe, and of 5Christianity. We should consider and analyze the pretexts employed by the enemies of our country for its destruction.

    "I cannot present a complete picture of all the causes and all the means employed, because it is beyond my power and the amount of time at my disposal. I will point out only the most important facts, that we may learn our lesson from them.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 5, 1891.

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKASKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "General knowledge of ancient history, especially of one's native country, has always served as a guide to nations in times of uncertainty.

    6

    "J. Lelewel, a Polish historian, advises all of us to study the history of our country in order to avoid the pitfalls of our ancestors, as well as to profit from the deeds of our illustrious countrymen through knowledge of their achievements.

    "Let us familiarize ourselves with our history, above all with the reasons for our downfall that we may avoid a repetition. Let us know the perfidy of our traitors that we may abhor their infamy and never similarly debase ourselves. Let us acquaint ourselves with the machinations of Poland's enemies and the pretexts used to disguise their evil designs that we may not fall prey to their insidious strategy. We should know also the glorious deeds of our true patriots, who worked always for the betterment of our fatherland, and who spared no sacrifice, that we, encouraged and enlightened by their example, may equally serve our oppressed fatherland. That Poland was once a powerful country, capable of ejecting invading armies, and protecting her people, is an historic fact. That Poland in the course of time lost her power, became weak, 7and was finally enslaved by neighboring powers is also a fact written in the annals of European history.

    "What caused this change? What factors contributed to the stripping of Poland's defenses and placing her in bondage?

    "The causes are many and detailed. Some of them, however, are basic, out of which all others proceed quite naturally.

    "Our famous orator and patriot, Father Skarga, says: 'As our bodies die of internal and external diseases, so do kingdoms fall through domestic disturbance. They too have external enemies who seek to destroy them through wars and invasion.

    Poland also, had internal weaknesses and external enemies.'

    "The internal weaknesses crept into the vital organism of the country and 8undermined it while hostile powers contributed to its downfall, not by conquest, but by assisting the spread of the internal disorder, not by superior force, but by preventing the cure of the destructive disease.

    "What do you think was the basic domestic reason for the fall of Poland? Was it internal unrest? This factor is surely responsible for many of the misfortunes of our fatherland, but it did not undermine the very foundation of its life. Was it the oppression of the people by the nobles? This oppression weakened the country, but it could not dry up the streams from which the life of our nation flowed. Was it the egotism of the Polish magnates? This hindered our national development, but it did not deliver a mortal blow to our fatherland.

    "Discord, oppression of the people and egotism of the magnates contributed to the weakening of our fatherland, but they are not the basic cause of its fall.

    9

    "What then is the real cause? It is unnecessary to name it for every Pole knows it well.

    "The downfall of our fatherland was caused primarily by the apathy towards the Holy Catholic Faith and disregard of its teachings.

    "I am convinced that broadminded and unprejudiced people who know the history of our country recognize that the downfall of our nation was caused principally by the decline of the Holy Faith.

    "Some individuals might say that the decline of faith in Poland is a secondary issue having little connection with its downfall. To these people, faith is always a secondary issue, a thing without special value or significance. I am afraid that they may accuse me of using this solemn moment for religious propaganda. I wish to say to them that my purpose today is to present historic facts.

    10

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKALSKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "Let no one think that this is my personal opinion. Our silver-tongued orator and great Polish patriot, Father Skarga, who took an active part in public life, who know the weaknesses of the Polish government and realized the dangers threatening it, expressed the same opinion. He can hardly be accused of partiality or prejudice since he lived almost three hundred years ago. Here is his opinion expressed at the opening of the Fourth Polish Congress.

    'This Polish Kingdom is founded on the principles of the Holy Roman Catholic Church. It has stood for six hundred years upon this foundation. Thus, it worshipped Christ and believed in His Gospel; thus it respected its spiritual advisers, was obedient to them and to the Holy Teachings; thus, it grew into a great country allying itself with many nations; thus it resisted 11its enemies, and became known to the neighboring powers. This old oak grow in this manner, became strong and no wind could uproot it, because its root is Jesus Christ and His priests. If you undermine this foundation--the old religion and priesthood--the whole structure of the country will be weakened, and downfall will follow.'

    In another place Skarga says:

    'If this kingdom will serve the Church of Christ, He will elevate it and deliver it from any danger, but if it abandons the Church and its service, it will perish.'

    "To those who say that these convictions are obsolete, I reply: glance at the history of our nation, observe it through many centuries and notice when this nation was powerful and when it was weak, when it stood at the peak of its glory and when it was on the decline. You will see that at the time when Father Kordecki, armed with the crucifix, stood at the head of 12Christians defending the fortress of Czestochowa, Poland arose victorious just at the time when her doom seemed imminent, for powerful Christ delivered it from danger. You will see that when Jagiello led his countrymen into the Church of Christ, Polish boundary lines were expanded and the nation grew stronger. You will see that after Sobieski had led his army into the temple of God and together with his men humbled himself before the Lord and had strengthened himself with the bread of life, he attacked the Turkish forces, defeated them, saved Vienna and Christianity from a horrible fate and made Poland famous throughout the world.

    "On the other hand you will see that when heresy and apostasy visited our fatherland, when heterodox men denied Christ, created new gods and idols, presented them to the nation as symbols to be worshipped and defended, when heretics began to scoff at the teachings of the Catholic Church and blaspheme against God, then began the downfall of the nation. You will be convinced 13that when these heterodox men, who formerly had betrayed God and their conscience, began to demand confidence, respect, and official positions in the Polish kingdom, discard and rebellion began; the country could not resist the invaders and its boundary lines shrank. When dissenters, after betraying God, treacherously applied for protection to Poland's enemies and opened her doors to invasion, Poland, weakened by the internal dissension, could not resist, and groaning with pain fell into bondage. The Polish nation became an object of laughter and ridicule.

    "The history of our country indicates that our nation rose to greatness and power when her people served God by respecting and observing the Holy Catholic Faith, that when the people began to abuse the Holy Faith, repudiate the church, and allow heresy to grow, the happiness of the nation dwindled and the strength of our fatherland decreased--finally Poland was crushed and obliterated from the map of Europe.

    14

    "I will speak briefly about the Polish dissenters. Those who betrayed the Holy Catholic Faith in Poland by joining the Protestant Church were called dissenters. The Poles, seeing these people abandon the vows made at the holy baptism, lost confidence in them and removed the from public office. The people had another reason for distrusting them. Morawski, whom no one can of prejudice, says the following: 'Polish dissenters must admit that they earned their dismissal from public offices by their own conduct--by allying themselves with the enemies of the country.' Whoever wishes to sympathize with the dissenters must realize that Poland was a Catholic country, and that the dissenters were newcomers to it. As such they should have contented themselves with that which the government was willing to give. What is more, it is apparent that no one ever persecuted dissenters in Poland. They held their religious services and no one tried to force them 15to adopt the Catholic faith. In other words, Polish dissenters fared better in Poland then in other Catholic countries, and incomparably better than Catholics in non-Catholic countries.

    "The dissenters were not satisfied with fair treatment, they wanted power. In the pattern of King Frederick of Prussia and Catherine, Empress of Russia, they wanted to persecute Christians of Catholic faith. When their plan was frustrated they applied for help to Poland's worst enemies betraying our fatherland by furnishing Frederick and Catherine with an excuse for intervention in Poland.

    "The method of electing monarchs and the policy of 'Liberum Veto' constituted another seed of dissension which contributed to Poland's downfall. Because of the system of eligibility, the death of a Polish king was a signal for all kinds of disturbances. Every magnate had his favorite candidate for the throne whom he tried to elect by fair means or foul. Consequently the country was divided into factions which fought each other. This created discord 16and disorder--brought injustice to the country and weakness.

    "The question of a king's eligibility created dissension not only among the Poles but among neighboring powers. When a king died, neighboring countries sent representatives who supported their own favorite. These representatives gave more than more verbal support. They used bribery, encouraged drunkenness among the electors, affiliated with one or another faction and went so far as to call for military intervention.

    "Thus regal eligibility divided the country into factions and permitted the entrance of foreign troops who persecuted the people. It gave neighboring powers too much influence; quite often a Polish king cared more for the country which supported him than for indigenous Polish interests.

    "The evil caused by this system of monarchial election was continued further by the policy of 'Liberum Veto,' a privilege granted to every member of the Polish Diet. This privilege gave him the right to break up a parliamentary 17session by saying 'Liberum Veto,' I object, thereby destroying all constructive measures passed by that legislature. 'Liberum Veto' placed the entire country at the mercy of one man.

    "Neighboring countries realizing that they needed only one disruptor at the Polish Parliament in order to obstruct legislation, did not hesitate to employ these means to the detriment of Poland. They used to bribe members of the Diet and thus gain influence. Such contemptible wretches were Poninski, Rzewuski and others. There was no order in Poland, and the Diet was helpless despite the aid given by the noble patriots since the paid agents of Prussia or Russia could always defeat them.

    "The third internal cause of Poland's downfall was the lack of education among the nobles and the lower classes. This lack of education became a weapon in the hands of those who desired to destroy Poland. Ignorant masses were easily misled, and the voters unaware of their country's real interests sold it out to those who paid more for their votes. The nobility, whether 18they cared for their country's welfare or were merely protecting their own interests, obeyed their masters' orders. Thus Poland was divided into as many quarreling elements as there were magnates and wealthy nobles.

    "These weaknesses created an unhealthy situation in Poland; however they were not as bad as conditions prevailing in other countries at that time. The support given by the majority of the people, and the heroism of the patriots more than made up for the weakness in the governmental structure.

    "The nation, from sad experience, realized that foreign governments had overpowering influence in its own government; it knew also that the germs of destruction must be removed or the country would be annihilated. And so the nation began to strengthen its governmental structure. Honest patriots sought to remove the system of regal eligibility, to abolish the 'Liberum Veto,' and to educate the people.

    19

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKALSKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "The Polish nation recognized its weaknesses, realized the dangers threatening it, and wanted to rectify the situation. It had men of great ability; Kollataj, Malachowski, Potocki. It had ardent patriots; Rejtan, Korsak and Bochuszewicz. Such a nation could have regenerated itself and would undoubtedly have done so.

    "But to mankind's eternal disgrace and the damnation of all Europe, this regeneration was prevented by the three monarchs who at that time disgraced the thrones of Europe. Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia, and Maria Theresa of Austria.

    'These three constituted a Satanic trinity, opposing the Holy Trinity, a mockery of all that is sacred.

    20

    'Frederick, whose name signifies a "friend of peace," was Satanic in his constant pursuit of war, although he had the audacity to mock Christ by calling himself the "King of Peace." Frederick tried to make the old order of knighthood an object of derision by creating an evil fraternity called the "Order of the Black Eagle." He gave this order, a Latin motte "Suum Cuique," literally, to each his own. The members of this order were Frederick's servants who robbed and plundered.

    'Catherine, whose name means "purity" in Greek, was a most impure woman, although like shameless Venus, she called herself a virgin, Catherine called a legislative council apparently to make a mockery of it, since she corrupted the laws and destroyed the rights of the people.

    'Thus Catharine announced that she was protecting freedom of conscience while at the same time she forced millions of people to change their religion.

    21

    'As if to mock at humility and holiness, Maria Theresa, who bore the name of the most meek and immaculate Mother of our Savior, was a proud she-devil who carried on a war for the purpose of conquering a foreign country. She was ungodly, although she prayed and went to confession because she enslaved millions of people.

    'The names of these three, Frederick, Catherine and Maria Theresa, are three blasphemies; their lives-- a series of criminal acts.'

    "These three saw Poland's weakness and decided to enrich their countries by robbery. When they saw that Poland was overcoming her weakness, they sought to prevent it. When that plan failed, they contrived to partition the country into three parts, for thus it would be easier to keep her in bondage.

    "What means were used to destroy Poland? Did they attack her by force? No, they could not do that for the Poles would see the danger, cease their internal strife, and unite to repel the enemy. Our enemies decided to avoid 22this. They devised a plan by which the Poles themselves would effect Poland's destruction.

    "During the absence of a monarch and before the election of King Stanislaus August, there were, the usual disturbances in Poland. This was a splendid opportunity for the Russian Czarina and the Prussian King who already plotted the partition of Poland. Whoever knows anything about this intrigue must admit that such infamy cannot be duplicated in the history of the world.

    "The Poles were divided into factions; hostile neighbors hired agents to encourage discord and insurrection, or at the very least to ensure the election of a candidate sympathetic to the interests of a foreign country at the expense of Poland.

    "Stanislaus August, a favorite of Catherine, Empress of Russia was elected as king. As was expected, Russian influence became stronger every day.

    23

    A conference was held at which bribed members of the Polish Diet granted Catherine the right to protect Poland. Under the threat of bayonets, the dissenters were given equal rights. Those members of the Diet who opposed these measures were seized and exiled to Russia by the Czarina.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 11, 1891.

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKALSKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "The Czarina had been looking for a pretext which would allow her to dominate Poland. She meddled in Poland during the election but that ended with the coronation of the king. She tried to promote an insurrection in Ukrainia which would justify the entrance of Russian troops into Poland, but the plan failed. Hark, whom she had sent to Ukrainia for insurrectionary purposes, 24could not accomplish anything.

    "But now she had a pretext which would last until Poland was partitioned--the alleged disorders in Poland. Accordingly, the Czarina sent Repnin to Poland to establish order, or rather disorder in Poland. He had a hundred thousand Russian soldiers in Warsaw and he knew how to handle the situation. For some he had Rubles, honor and distinction--for others violence, bayonets and knouts. Those who opposed Russian rule, were dealt with in the fashion of the Cossacks; those who tried to reform the government or improve the conditions were either exiled or discredited in the eyes of the ignorant nobility. If anyone advocated the abolition of 'Liberum Veto,' he was accused by Russian hirelings of trying to establish an autocracy and eliminate the privileges of the nobility. The ignorant people believed these agents. Whoever proposed a hereditary throne for Poland was decried by Muscovites as a traitor trying to deliver a free kingdom into the hands of a tyrant, as a betrayer seeking the enslavement of free citizens, and so on.

    25

    "But Catharine was supposed to be the personification of all that was essential for the welfare of Poland. 'On demand of the Poles' she accepted the difficult task of Poland's protectress and announced that she would not tolerate any one who opposed liberty in Poland. She defended the system of Polish monarchial eligibility which opened the way to the throne to every noble, and permitted every magnate to support his candidate. The Czarina defended the policy of "Liberum Veto,' since it gave every member of the Diet an opportunity to accept graft.

    "The duped Poles believed these slanders and lies, and through insurrection helped their enemies to destroy the fatherland.

    "The behavior of these enemies of Poland was a complete fraud. Proclaiming their pride at having become the "protectors" of Polish independence, they plotted its overthrow. Declaring firm patriotism, the traitors secretly bargained with the enemies of Poland to obtain a large reward for their perfidy. Frederick and Catherine who persecuted Catholics in their own 26countries, posed in Poland as the protectors of dissenters.

    "When the Russian soldiers in Poland began to exceed themselves, the Poles awakened to the treachery of Catherine and Frederick. A conference was held for the purpose of adopting a plan to save Poland, but it was too late. The enemy was too powerful. The country was surrounded by enemy forces, and the nation could not unite itself for action. There was no leader, and dissension reigned throughout the country.

    "Furthermore the Russians had succeeded in stirring up an insurrection in Ukrainia and Wolyn, and then attacked Poland with a great army. About a hundred thousand Poles fell at that time; the nation was horror-stricken.

    "Such were the blessings brought by Frederick and Catherine to Poland. They would have destroyed Poland completely but Russia's war with Turkey intervened.

    27

    "Thanks to the Russo-Turkish war, the Polish nation again raised its standard of fidelity to God, of liberty and equality for which it endures exile and imprisonment.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 12, 1891.

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKALSKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "Now the question arises, What did the history of our nation teach us? What did the treachery of our enemies teach us? The misfortunes caused by the system of the eligibility of kings and the policy of 'Liberum Veto' will certainly be of value some time in the future when Poland is reborn.

    "Our history furnishes other valuable lessons. It reveals the fact that the decline of faith was the basic cause of Poland's downfall. Early in 28its history Poland was protected from the German invasions by the Roman Catholic Church, and from that time on our nation was closely identified with that Church. Our enemies destroyed Poland under the pretext of protecting those who had repudiated the Roman Catholic Church. The Catholic faith is so woven into the Polish nation that whoever attempts to separate nationality from faith will distort his ideas of nationality, and lose his faith.

    "Our history shows that the lack of education among the people was one of the names employed by our enemies to destroy Poland. Unenlightened masses could not distinguish between a patriot and a hypocrite. Citizens should know their duty towards their country. Only when our nation returns to the Church and brings forth great men will there be a regeneration of Polish nationalism and a resurrection of Poland."

    Father F. Szukalski, pastor of the Polish Church at Beaver Dam, Wis. delivered the following speech at a large Polish hall in Chicago on May 3, 1891. "Every Pole believes ...

    Polish
    III H, III B 3 a, V A 1, V A 2, III A, III C
  • Chicago Tribune -- July 19, 1891
    Our Russian Exiles.

    On the West Side, in a district bounded by Sixteenth Street on the south and Polk Street on the North and the Chicago River and Halsted Street on the East and West one can walk the streets for blocks and see none but Semitic features and hear nothing but the Hebrew patois of Russian Poland.

    In this restricted boundary, in narrow streets, unventilated tenements, and rickety cottages there is a population of from 15,000 to 16,000 Russian Jews. The Jews of Russia on their removal to this country follow precisely the habits of their forefathers in Warsaw; the habit of living together in cities and that of trading as in Warsaw; for instance, the proportion of common laborers and menials is very small, hardly eight percent.

    Every Jew in this quarter who can speak a word of English is engaged in business of some sort. The favorite occupation, probably on account of the small capital required, is fruit and vegetable peddling. Here also, is the home of the Jewish street merchant, the rag and junk peddler, and the "glass puddin" man. The big rag warehouses and scrap iron yards are here supplied by the decrepit old rag pickers and the noisy owner of the "old rags and iron" wagon.

    2

    The principal streets in the quarter are lined with stores of every description, all of them kept by Jews and nearly all with a sign in Hebrew hung out that the trade catered to is not to Gentiles. The streets given up to domiciles are very narrow, hardly wider than alleys, and lined on both sides with one story cottages and garbage boxes.

    In tenement houses glimpses are had of whole families in hot crowded rooms at work with sewing machine and needle putting together the "indestructible overall" and in a stifling little closet of a room a cobbler is at work on rough, heavy boots.

    Trades, with which Jews are not usually associated, such as saloonkeeping, shaving, and haircutting and blacksmithing, have their representatives and Hebrew signs. The butcher and his satellite, the man who goes to the abbatoir and slaughters animals and who slits the gullet of the Sabbath chicken or the holiday duck, both have their signs, which to the uninitiated look much like a bar of music without the staff.

    In a narrow street a private school is in full blast. In the front basement 3room of a small cottage forty small boys all with hats on sit crowded into a space 10 x 10 feet in size, presided over by a stout middle aged man with a long curling matted beard, who also retains his hat, a battered, rusty derby of ancient style. All the old or middle aged men in the quarter affect the peculiar headgear, and one would imagine, that they had all been manufactured at one time from the same block and had withstood the same vicissitudes of time and weather.

    The men are all bearded - that is those who are old enough to have beards - and they are all of the type one sees in pictures of Jewish Siberian exiles. The hair is also worn long, with little curls, which hang before the ears. A middle aged or old man without a long black coat is a rarity, and to the passing stranger these men all look very much alike.

    The younger generation of men are more progressive and having been born in this country, are patriotic and want to be known as Americans and not Russians.

    The women know only three stages of life. The young unmarried women are 4often very attractive, with keen dark oriental faces and large, dark eyes. They affect little coquetries of dress and are able assistants in the shops of their fathers and brothers. The married women soon show the effects of care and the troubles of motherhood. The younger ones still show traces of former beauty fast being lost in approaching obesity and attention to their household, maternal and shopping duties. The last stage, that of old age is passed in attendance on the younger children or doing light housework. The old women are usually very fat, with here and there a little, wizened, old great-grandmother who wanders about crooning to a fat baby while mother cooks the dinner.

    The streets literally swarm with children, who play about the gutters and are a dark skinned, tumble haired, noisy lot of youngsters. There are a number of dingy looking doorways, over which a sign proclaims that Russian baths may be taken within. There is also the usual sign in Hebrew. But the Russian bath houses have the appearance of neglect, which the condition of the inhabitants does not belie....

    The commercial life of this district seems to be uncommonly keen. Every one 5is looking for a bargain and every one has something to sell. The home life seems to be full of content and easy going unconcern for what the outside world thinks. During those hot nights the dwellers on Judd, Liberty and other residence streets bring out mattresses and blankets and camp under nature's roof on sidewalk and steps.

    On the West Side, in a district bounded by Sixteenth Street on the south and Polk Street on the North and the Chicago River and Halsted Street on the East ...

    Jewish
    III A, III G, I C, V A 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 14, 1891
    Audiatur Et Altera Pars (Editorial)

    In the last issue of Zgoda, [Organ of the Polish National Alliance in America], we read a reprint of an article which had appeared originally in Kuryer Lwowski (Lemberg Courier), and to which was attached the signature of a Lemberg attorney, Mr. Joseph Maczewski.

    The article was answered by a Polish priest from Chicago, whose communication we are publishing below. We are publishing their answer verbatim, although on a few minor points we do not exactly agree with our esteemed correspondent. These are, however, unimportant details which, in view of the importance and courage of the answer as a whole, we see no reason to discuss.

    From the nature of the letter which was attached to the answer, we sense a certain doubt as to whether the Lemberg attorney could actually have written 2such an article. We, however, have no doubts. That a journal like Kuryer Lwowski was pleased to publish such an article can be easily comprehended by every one who has read the Kuryer lately. That a Lembergian should write such an article is nothing unusual, if we take a certain circumstance probably connected with it into consideration. The entire article indicates very clearly that its author obtained his knowledge of our conditions from only one journal--Zgoda--to which he has probably subscribed for a number of years. All statements made in his article had previously appeared in Zgoda and have been refuted and disproven hundreds of times, in spite of which, however, they have never been withdrawn. The reader of this one journal must have formed a one-sided opinion, which he himself probably believes to be true.

    If, before writing the article in question, "Mr. Attorney" had been guided by the principle "audiatur et altera pars," if his attitude, in other words, had been that of a judge rather than that of a lawyer, and if he had read 3other journals besides Zgoda--especially Wiara I Ojczyzna, which explains these very matters--he certainly would have been more careful in writing articles on overseas conditions. As an attorney, Mr. Maczewski defends only one side and has gathered material necessary only for that side. In a short time a wise judge will undoubtedly be found among our countrymen in Poland who will give an impartial judgment on this matter.

    The answer sent by a Chicago priest reads as follows:

    "Our Quarrels: An Answer to Mr. J. Maczewski

    "According to Zgoda, No. 32, Mr. J. Maczewski, an attorney of Lemberg, Poland, has published in Kuryer Lwowski a lengthy article describing conditions in 'American Polonia,' as the Polish element in the United States is called. We will present the article as it is written.

    4

    "I. In the first place, Mr. Maczewski praises the emigrations which took place after the Polish insurrections in Russia in 1831 and 1863, and maintains that 'these insurrectional emigrations constitute a noble and very patriotic foundation for further Polish emigrations.' Our esteemed attorney even states that large Polish settlements are being established in Virginia, etc.

    "The foregoing statement is not true. No evidence of such settlements, large or small, or of any existing foundation of Polish insurrectional emigration, can be found in the United States. If there is such evidence, we would like to be informed as to the state, the county, the post office, the number of settlers, and the fruits of the ardent patriotism.

    "2. The esteemed attorney further maintains that Polish immigration in America, amounting to at least a million and a half souls, consists of common 5people, and that they emigrated for economic reasons and on account of religious and linguistic persecution in their native land.

    "If we look at the facts we will discover that there is some truth and much falsehood in this assertion. I know from experience that a very small number of common people crossed the ocean on account of religious persecution. This also applies to linguistic persecution. Polish emigrants, with the exception of Uniats (United Greeks), never suffered religious persecution, and if there was any linguistic persecution they never felt it.

    "The principal, and indeed the only factors stimulating emigration are poverty, a desire for material gain, a dislike of military service, and a fear of imprisonment for a political crime, this last being confined chiefly to the so-called intelligentsia. Visit the sections inhabited by the Poles in Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Cleveland; visit Polish farm settlements; contact every person, and make a statistical record of the causes of emigratiom. Then 6you can estimate the part played by religious or linguistic persecution.

    "Our esteemed attorney is also misinformed as to the number of Poles in America. I have at home Hoffman's Directory, which, among other things, gives the exact number of Polish parishes and priests in the United States. Finally, I know personally almost all the Polish priests in Chicago. I know more or less exactly the size of Polish settlements, and I maintain, leaving the exact figures to future investigation, that there are only half a million Poles in the United States. These half-million Poles will assimilate; they will remain in the United States forever. These half-million Poles do not live here for any sentimental reasons, but because they can gain a better livelihood. To this Mr. Attorney may say, 'They are lost in materialism.' I answer, 'No!'

    3. Although Polish-Americans are perhaps a little too much concerned with 7money, they have no lack of loyalty either to their religious faith or to their nationality. Though they have no desire to return to their fatherland, they decorate Polish settlements in America with Catholic churches and Polish schools, in order that these settlements may resemble their native land. This emphasis on religion and education, coupled with the fact that a proportionately small number of priests emigrated, accounts for the great shortage of Polish priests in America.

    "4. And now, a few words about priests. No one can expect that out of the Polish population in America, which amounts to half a million people and is made up of various and distinct elements, united only by language, there could arise an exemplary and perfectly disciplined clergy, especially when the clergy came from many parts of the world and was under the jurisdiction of many different bishops. Such a demand is beyond the power of human strength to fulfill. That there were intrigues among the Polish clergy, sometimes for good and sometimes for evil, is quite natural. Mr. Maczewski surely knows that a priest 8does not sin by trying to get a better parish. Finally, everyone, clergyman or layman, who is acquainted with our conditions, knows very well along what thorny road a priest must pass during the organization of a parish.

    Any assertions about the stunned peasant, frightened by fire and brimstone and horned devils, are fiction. Our peasant may properly be said to be afraid of the devil, in the sense that he fears God and believes in eternal reward and eternal damnation. The 'educated' people, however, ridicule the devil while they live, and only when their last hour comes do they call for the priest that he may save them from the devil's grasp by prayers, sacraments, and an aspergillum. I earnestly beg our attorney friend to prove by statistical records a single case in which a Polish parish priest in America has dishonestly squeezed money from a peasant, by threatening him with fire and brimstone, whether he wanted the money for the Church, for a school, or for himself. Our attorney friend should know that our people make contributions 9because they are convinced of the truthfulness of their faith and the necessity of their schools.

    "5. 'Woe!' said Jesus to those who set a bad example, but bad examples have always existed and always will exist; they will of necessity be found even among the Polish clergy in America. Where Mr. Attorney gets his information about the excesses which he describes, such as broken ribs, etc., is a mystery to me. It is possible, but I would rather be a Doubting Thomas and say: 'I will not believe till I put my finger on the broken ribs!'

    "The principal accusation of Mr. Maczewski is his allegation that an extreme greediness characterizes the Polish priests in America. To this I reply: (1) Many Polish priests in America live in great poverty, and all of them experience hardships when they are organizing a new parish. (2) Polish priests in America receive less for religious services then other priests, and also less than is prescribed by the Baltimore Council. If this statement is 10not true, please refute it statistically. All our priests receive a rigidly prescribed salary, and as far as other income is concerned, most of them carry unselfishness to an almost sinful extreme. Exceptions to this are very few.

    "6. Concerning the freethinkers, I wish to state that experts acquainted with our conditions confirm the fact that there are many freethinkers among the members of the Polish National Alliance, not defined as such by the fancy of a naughty priest but by the regulations of the Roman Catholic Church. If necessary, I can supply the name and the address of a lodge of the Polish National Alliance in which freethinkers are particularly prominent. To demand the silence of the priests on the activities of the Polish freethinkers among the faithful Catholic people would be equivalent to demanding a denial of the value of the Catholic faith.

    "The statement that a Catholic priest and the Catholic faith are one is true.

    11

    Faith cannot exist on earth without priests, and, although a priest is not an embodiment of faith, he is always its best defender and propagator. In the circles favorable to the Polish National Alliance it is permissible to treat the Catholic faith with great respect and at the same time blaspheme against the priests abominably.

    "7. I will not discuss the assertions made by our esteemed attorney regarding the good will of the Polish National Alliance towards Polish schools, etc., because these institutions are under the exclusive protection of the clergy. The priests organized Polish people into societies, religious, fraternal, educational, etc., before any lodge of the Polish National Alliance existed. The Polish Roman Catholic Union, under the protection of the [order of the] Sacred Heart of Jesus, is the outcome of these societies, and has, not four thousand, but seven thousand members. No one can say anything definite about the number of members of the Polish National Alliance,because a few weeks ago Zgoda itself, apparently for the purpose of covering up a theft committed 12by a certain Mr. Morgenstern, who was formerly in charge of the organization's funds, admitted that its previous statements as to the number of members had been fictitious.

    "Therefore, all nonsense about poor, ignorant people being oppressed by the priests, or about the ideal, angelic love for the fatherland and the Roman Catholic Church attributed to the members of the Polish National Alliance, is an insult to human intelligence. Has any one in Poland ever heard about the results produced by the work and sacrifice of the members of the Polish National Alliance for our fatherland? I beg the esteemed attorney to point out to me any beneficial effects, in the old country, of the activities of the Polish National Alliance.

    "The Polish National Alliance must base its claims to prestige on two facts: first, that some widows and widowers, most of whom had left the Church, have received a few hundred dollars toward their support; and second, that, when 13disorders have occurred in various parishes, the members of the Polish National Alliance and their journals have distinguished themselves by their hatred of the Roman Catholic Church."

    In the last issue of Zgoda, [Organ of the Polish National Alliance in America], we read a reprint of an article which had appeared originally in Kuryer Lwowski (Lemberg Courier), ...

    Polish
    III G, I A 2 a, III B 2, V A 2, III A, III C, III H, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 02, 1892
    Polish Shoemakers' Society Gives a Drama and Concert

    Last Tuesday the John Kilinski Polish Shoemakers' Society presented a drama and concert at Schoenhofens Hall. The drama, "Two Husbands," was written by Mr. Korzeniewski. After the play the song "Uncle's Song," by Foedoy, and other selections followed.

    The hall was filled to capacity, and both the play and the music were enjoyed by all.

    We have organized a society called "Filaretow," which is patterned after the original society of 1819, in Vilno, Poland. This society held its first public meeting here on December 28, 1891, and it will be fitting to tell about the birth of this organization.

    Research in Polish historical data revealed to us that this society was prevalent after the dominance of Poland in European affairs. Who were 2these people of olden days? They were composed of the younger generation attending the university of Vilno in 1819. This immediately brings out the character and ability of the members. It was a group of young people, in the prime of their lives, level-headed and light-hearted youths who had not as yet faced the grim realities of life or become hardened by its outcome. It was a youth that was interested in the field of education, not children struggling to earn a daily piece of bread. It was an organization of young people whose minds were constantly above the clouds, and whose feet seldom touched the ground. They were free from the toils of the day, enabling them to devote their time to the finer things of life. The fires of their ambitions contended with the cultural limitations of the world. Their lives were more polished and accustomed to good fortune, whereas, the others were brought up amidst slovenly conditions filled with poverty and hard labor.

    The epoch of the struggle of existence brings out the character of the Ideals of the people. Today, when life is composed mostly of daily 3humdrum occurrences, the working for daily sustenance, and the utilization of the few earned pence leaves very little time for anything else. Consequently, very few ever rise above this existence, very few have an opportunity for higher learning and, therefore, this prosaic condition seems to impregnate itself more into these people. Those who do go ahead are those generally of the younger generation - among the youth. The pursuit for a living takes on for them a different appearance. Not being familiar with this phase of life they try to find it out. They envision new regions of hope; - new horizons for opportunity. The stigma of these outlooks has taken affect. Perhaps this may be only the imagination of youth, or the dominance of a greater driving force, out of reach of the common horde. This is my humble opinion which was formulated through the views of my youthful eyes. This is the idea of the present age. It unfolds laboriously before the eyes of the many, only to quickly disappear again amidst its trifling origin from which it arose. Only a few grasp each meaning. Too few!

    4

    The era in which the young students lived, in the early part of the nineteenth century of subdued Poland, was entirely different. They existed in a world of pretentious freedom. This was a result of the forced military government of the despotic and strange rulers who took control of Poland. This subjugation of Poland brought about a yearning in the hearts of all Poles - a yearning for freedom.

    The reign of Napoleon brought renewed hopes to the people. Many of the younger generation participated in the call to arms by Napoleon; the hopes for freedom became greater, and the shackles of submission became a bit looser. As a result each day brought new uprisings followed by violences. Very few fought for their rights of liberty. They took whatever was offered to them in silence, yet they participated in whatever movement was current. At these popular movements they expressed their wants and desires, for they were constantly filled with new hopes of becoming free.

    5

    Napoleon's might and power, his visit to Lithuania and Poland, brought a golden glimpse of hope to Poland. This new hope became deeply rooted among the young and old and the cultured and illiterate, for upon this rested the liberation from the relentless Russians. Thousands of lives were lost in Napoleons support. Fathers, brothers, sons sacrificed their lives but in vain; the loss of hope followed. Finally under the reign of Alexander I, temporary resignation and the darkening of the hopes of liberty enveloped the Polish race.

    Such were the conditions under which the students organized, their goal being the restoration of the fight for liberty and the perpetration of their ideals. They wanted to renew and make deeper in the hearts of their people, the feeling of becoming a free nation.

    This body of young students was composed of scholars from the various parts of the country which was once Poland. Among these students existed 6a number who belonged to the former ruling class. They had no interest in the finer things. Pomp and frivolity filled their former lives and still had held its effect under present conditions. Others were brought up under the influence of the Tsars and were swayed by their policies. Finally there were those who were merely interested in play and very little in education. Yet, a large part of the student body was not dormant, they were familiar with the prevailing conditions. Out of this group arose Thomas Zan who organized the society of "Promienisci" (an organization that radiated hope for the Polish people).

    This order upon seeing the sad condition of the country began to take steps to uplift the general morale of the populace. They became more bold in their defense of rights and in their demands for freedom. Every opportunity that afforded itself was taken advantage.of and put into force, to further their cause. They spread over the entire country to preach their doctrines. The outlook was sad. Poverty was hand in 7hand with illiteracy throughout the rural sections. Industrial and commerical activity was at a standstill. Selfishness was everywhere evident and unity was sorely needed. Against these barriers this newly organized body pitted itself.

    This noble fraternity was granted permission to organize by the dean and curator of the University of Vilno. It represented six different districts, each being recognized by the colors of the rainbow, and each color represented a district. Each section had its district leader and assistant and other minor officers necessary to carry out the duties of the organization. This entire system was headed by nine men. At the head of this group was Mr. Zan. The origin of the name of this organization is not known, however, there are those the accept it as being the result of Zan's theories. He believed that beauty, tenderness, and innocence were the three outstanding virtues of man and which radiated from God's creation of him. This was the accepted theory of the entire brotherhood.

    8

    The central body supervised the operation of the organization, which was not only brotherly but national as well. The rich paid for the poor, the intelligent assisted their friends who were less apt in acquiring constructive learning. To this central group, a department of philology was added. Its aim was to preserve the native tongue, enrichen literary efforts, and preserve the art of typography.

    These pioneers, who took it upon themselves to bolster the spirit of their race, not only promoted its existence in the University proper, but spread out beyond its walls and enrolled private individuals. They all strived with difficulty and enthusiasm to uplift and preserve the ideals of their crumbling nation. They knew that by getting the people familiar with the appalling conditions through proper education, it would be possible to avert the present crisis. They were acquainted with the economical status of each populated province. Through were acquainted with the economical status of each populated province. Through these means they were in a better position to further their cause. Better programs could be easily adopted and put into force for better results.

    [To be continued in the next issue].

    Last Tuesday the John Kilinski Polish Shoemakers' Society presented a drama and concert at Schoenhofens Hall. The drama, "Two Husbands," was written by Mr. Korzeniewski. After the play the song ...

    Polish
    III B 2, I C, III E, V A 2
  • Chicago Tribune -- January 10, 1892
    [A German Smoker]

    Farragut club members and guests enjoyed a raucher last evening, which,following a custom of the German students of Hiedelberg, consisting of long pipes and smoke consumers at the chimney end, and a varied entertainment. Cal Wagner and Prof. R. G. Allen formed the professional talent, and the J. O. S. Mandolin and Guitar club furnished excellent music. The entertainment Committee Consisted of Eugene Flagg: Chas. F. Eiken, and C. N. Sherwood.

    Farragut club members and guests enjoyed a raucher last evening, which,following a custom of the German students of Hiedelberg, consisting of long pipes and smoke consumers at the chimney end, ...

    German
    V A 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 09, 1892
    A Picture of the Polish Press in America (Editorial)

    One of the oldest Polish periodicals in the United States is the Gazeta Katolicka (Catholic Gazette). This magazine has undergone many changes since its inception, but it has always been the symbol of Catholicism, and has contributed a great deal toward strengthening the faith among the immigrants.

    The publication originated in St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. It was organized by the Resurrection Fathers, who for many years managed the publication. Some time ago, Mr. W. Smulski was appointed editor, and at the present time still holds that office. Mr. Smulski has made many contributions toward keeping the Polish people together. For several years his weekly has printed many good articles.

    If the Gazeta Katolicka had a better literary staff, it would undoubtedly be 2one of the most outstanding Polish papers in America. Unfortunately, this literary power is lacking. From time to time, articles that have been sent in by the readers appear, but this is not enough to elevate the standing of the paper. Translations from other sources and copies of articles from the Polish journals abroad lose their power of conviction and interest. Reprinted stories always lack the punch of original material.

    It is realized that magius voluisse, sat est is a true saying. No one can deny the sincerity of Mr. Smulski's efforts. He has rendered an outstanding service to the immigrants and to the Polish people as a whole. His efforts merit continued support and more recognition by the Polish people.

    His Dzien Swiety (Holy Day), a Sunday supplement to the weekly Gazeta, is an interesting paper. The reading of this edition by the Polish people on Sunday and holy days brings many benefits to them and to the church. It offers the people a different type of reading material from that which appears 3in the daily papers. It contains a number of spiritual articles. The educational items tend to divert the mind of the reader into cultural channels. Again, through the medium of Dzien Swiety, W. Smulski offers the immigrant assistance in adjusting himself. Although some forces among the Polish people try to discredit his work, he remains a valuable servant.....

    Ever since the history of man has been recorded, we note that reform has been one of the problems of the people. Reforms have continually been taking place. Reformers have become a power in the scheme of mankind. They have been of two classes, the good and the bad. The former have expounded and introduced better and more practical ideas than the most sublime theories of the latter, but this class has been small.

    In Cracow, for example, in the development of reform, a paper entitled Reforma (Reform) made its appearance, with the intention of leading a revolution in the trend of thought. The publisher and chief editor of this newspaper was 4some kind of a hydropathic doctor, who specialized in giving cold bath treatments. He had some success in this direction, and soon enlarged his practice considerably. This doctor, at the same time, tried to gain clients through his editorials. He also tried to cure the mentally deficient by his cold water treatments. The venture proved a failure. The treatments made the patients worse, many times resulting in death. The mental cases of the city of Cracow and adjoining towns continued to increase.

    But this did not seem to slow up the reformers. New medical treatment was discovered for galloping consumption. A new system for the care of mental cases was also initiated. Under the leadership of several political groups, a new bloc was organized. It's paper was called the Nowa Reforma, (New Reform) a journal which until this day has tried to reform the people, but with little success. The purpose of the Nowa Reforma is to reform a conservative Catholic group in Galicia, break the power of Lemberg, and chase the Muscovites beyond the Balkans. It is hoped that they will succeed 5in their reforms.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Mar. 10, 1892.

    In the United States, we have had another type of reform paper. The first was under the editorship of a group that wanted to develop a new social order. But, as before, nothing was accomplished. This faction and its ideals soon died out. Out of its pyre, a second Reforma was born, a periodical under the management of Mr. Nagiel, former editor of a paper in Warsaw.

    Although it has been said that the present Reforma under the direction of Mr. Nagiel has not reformed anyone, yet it is unlike most reform papers, for it shows specific changes within its own ranks. This is a step forward, a step that most reforms do not undertake, because it is difficult to fulfill.

    This paper has undergone many changes. Its present platform is unlike the original one. The paper today has an American point of view. Its stand is 6considered one of the best. Mr. Nagiel's paper keeps within the bounds of decent journalism. If it is not purely a Catholic publication, it is far from being non-religious. It does not fall in the category of "Raeueber and Moerder Presse". The editor takes his own stand on certain important events and issues, a stand that is reserved and circumspect. Sensational and scandalous articles are never given any prominence, and seldom find place in print at all. No pessimistic ideas are ever presented to the reader. Other newspapers are never attacked. Antagonism is always avoided. The editorials are always light and to the point, never attacking anyone, or stirring up any trouble.

    The oldest Polish periodical in America is the Polska Gazeta (Polish Gazette). It is owned by W. Dyniewicz, a bookseller in Chicago. This weekly paper will soon mark its twenty-fifth anniversary.

    Mr. Dyniewicz is neither a literary figurehead nor a journalist, but he is a versatile, energetic, persevering, and practical individual, filled with 7American spirit and wit. During his early days, the immigrant was beginning to be a factor of importance. Realizing this, he prepared a publication to assist the ever-increasing Polish population. His aim was primarily to help the immigrant adjust himself to a new country and a new government. The name of the paper was fitting to its cause, Polska Gazeta.

    His early plans materialized because he was forbearing. The initial issues only dealt with the news in America and Europe. This pioneering Polish paper won a number of staunch supporters. Mr. Dyniewicz did not do any of the writing, but hired others to perform the work. Now and then, he would give the germ of an idea for an article to a staff member who would build it up. At times, the paper faced failure, but the determination of the organizer has always managed to keep it in circulation. Most of its early readers were of peasant stock, though a few of them were city-bred immigrants. The new Poles that came into the city were mostly uneducated. But the paper continued to be issued, despite the appearance of cloudy skies. The publisher knew that in the end his ideals would succeed. The 8Polska Gazeta continued to awaken the people to new horizons and frontiers. It helped to promote patriotism and preserve the Polish tongue.

    Our people, for the most part, are conservative. When one of them began reading the Polska Gazeta, he continued doing so for many years. Many times the children, after reaching maturity, have become subscribers. Most of the subscribers are from the ranks of farm folk and the rank and file of the city.

    When Mr. Dyniewicz undertook the printing of this paper, he realized the importance and the responsibility associated with the work. The people are the bulwark of the nation. The people of the nation follow in the footsteps of their fathers, and adhere to the old customs and language. Because of this, a newspaper must follow in the same line. It must support Because of this, a newspaper must follow in the same line. It must support the traditional ideals, evaluate them continually, and protect them against any perversion; in this case, it must protect the Polish immigrant from the 9many American contagions.

    Were the principles of Mr. Dyniewicz always carried out? Unfortunately, they were not. The fault does not rest upon him, but upon those whom he employed and trusted to carry out his aims. There were times when the Gazeta Polska, besides dealing with foreign news, dealt with offensive and tragic articles without any mercy. Immoral incidents in American life were treated with an unpleasant zest.

    Conservative writings have always found the support of the periodical. Its pages have always welcomed helpful and valuable suggestions. New movements, if meritorious, have been given backing. Unpleasant articles have always been weeded out, and their authors reprimanded for their creations.

    W. Dyniewicz has always tried to keep alive the Polish tradition in his paper, as well as in the books he has sold, both religious and national. He has served his cause without fault. The twenty-fifth anniversary of 10this paper on American soil will be an honorable and laudable occasion, not only for the publisher, but for Polish journalism as a whole. We have hope that Providence will permit Mr. Dyniewicz to see this day come.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Mar. 12, 1892.

    It is not with pride that we continue today our discussion of Polish journalism in the United States. We have not completed our treatise. Only the more important newspapers have been touched. Although this has been only the first step, the editorial department has been swamped with letters of criticism. Many of the complaining letters threaten the author of the articles. Some even say that they will get revenge. And for what? Is it because we have treated our articles on this matter objectively before the public eye? If we have erred, we are only human. Mistakes can be rectified or disregarded. But there is no reason why we should be besmeared with such malicious and insinuating assusations as, "we have been filled with 11slavishness", "we desire glittering gold", etc.

    One group of correspondents complain that they have not been praised, others interpret their praise and elevate it to great heights. Some become angry at the fact that others have been praised. Others fume and rage, and threaten us for our objective treatment of the Polish press. How is it possible for us to strike a happy medium?

    We have never tried to deprive anyone of a piece of bread. Thank God that we have our own bit in our hands. Our present stand, from which we have never turned, has won us great praise from the Polish ecclesiastical conference at South Bend. we will be glad to give up our present position to anyone who is better qualified and more expertly trained. Anyone who feels that he is more capable than we should call at our office.

    It is impossible to please everyone. There will always be critics. It is much easier to criticize than to write something creative. Our aim and 12ambition is to protect the interest of our religion, to assist our people into conservative channels, and to devote as much time as possible to public good. We have no desire for gold. Praise will probably not come our way, but we will find enough reward in our stand for justice, despite the many unpleasant accusations which are showered upon us.

    In 1891, an illustrated weekly entitled Niedziela (Sunday) made its first appearance in Detroit. It is sponsored by the Polish Seminary, and edited by Reverend W. Barabasz. The very name of the editor tells the story of the type of material to be found. The selection of material in this weekly is always light and interesting. The subject matter is well sifted and presented in a simple style, a style that fills the need of the masses. Yet it is wholesome and entertaining. Above all, it is easily understood by the readers. The illustrations show great promise. This is not surprising, for they appear under the guidance of a dilettante. He has a broad knowledge of things, and whatever he puts into his illustrations 13wins praise.

    The name of Reverend Barabasz is a valuable asset to the paper. He is a person trained not only in theology, but also in poetry, art, and human relations. His path is not filled with roses, but what writer in America, especially if he is Polish, walks on them? We feel certain that the reverend editor will succeed in his venture, because of his sincere effort to reach the minds of the uneducated and the learned alike.

    In Manitowoc, Wisconsin, there is a national religious publication edited by Father Luczycki. We have never seen a copy of the periodical, and it is therefore impossible for us to comment upon its contents. We have heard from a reliable source that the paper is doing a fairly good job.

    One of the oldest Polish periodicals in the United States is the Gazeta Katolicka (Catholic Gazette). This magazine has undergone many changes since its inception, but it has always been ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, II B 2 d 2, V A 2, III A, III C, III G, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 10, 1892
    [The Emigration Review on Polish Emigration to America] (Editorial)

    We have, at hand, the first two issues of the Emigration Review, published in Lwow since last July. Mention of the articles therein was made the other day; today we attempt to convey the contents of them.

    It is natural, of course, that our attention should be focused on those items pertaining to Polish emigration to the United States. There are a number of them and we must admit that all are interesting.

    The most interesting of all, is the one entitled, "Concerning the Polish Element in the United States of America." Despite his efforts, the author is somewhat prejudiced; he could not be otherwise since there is no source from which authentic information may be obtained. Because some of the 2conclusions are based on incomplete information, it is therefore the duty of every newspaper in America to rectify these details, if only from an individual standpoint. The editors of the Review are not to be reproached for their faults since they have no evidence to the contrary of their conclusions; for this reason, all rectifications should be forwarded to the Emigration Review, and thereby present to outsiders as honest and unbiased estimates of our conditions in America.

    It is difficult, if not impossible, for a person who has not spent some time here among us to form a genuine opinion on our state of affairs. Apart from a keen sense of observation, a wholly natural desire to make comparisons of our conditions of life and those of Europeans, as well as to make computations of the terms in which the life of the emigrants progresses, it is imperative to restrain bias and beliefs based on different ways of life if we wish to orientate ourselves properly in the conditions here, and judge our emigration fairly. The author would perhaps change his point of view, if he could read more of our newspapers, thereby becoming more familiar with the degree of our development and progress.

    In the first part of the article, the author outlines a general history of 3the emigration to the United States. He says justly that at the beginning there was a lack of intellectuals among the emigrants--that the emigrating throngs were essentially peasants and laborers. According to him, the priests were the first organizers among these people after they arrived in America; they were the propagators of culture and the founders of parishes, as well as of associations.

    In spite of a desire to be fair and the information at hand, he later omits an important point when he says, "Only recently, there has been some culture appearing among the masses of manual laborers, and more of the intellectuals are coming from Europe." He further states that "there was disagreement among the spiritual and secular intelligentsia," that the people "adhered and still adhere to the cassock of the clergy in excessive measure; alas, they have a rooted distrust of the gentry and the "Danowie frakowcy' [those who spread dissension], and therefore of the elite."

    4

    If the author were well aware of the types in the secular intelligentsia arriving here after the clerical intelligentsia had installed itself here, so to speak, he would not have made such a statement. In order to realize that this distrust on the part of the masses for the elite was inevitable--even a person who is not particularly interested but who has an ordinary sense of reasoning must come to this conclusion--we must take into consideration just what is meant in the old country by the word "elite". For many years--and even now, with but few exceptions--they could not leave Europe, because our true intelligentsia class consists of people who, having chosen a certain profession and having completed their academic studies in preparation for it, have in spite of a lack of opportunities privately attained their goal. They have, thereby, a right to consider themselves members of the intelligentsia. These include the clergy, doctors of medicine, teachers in higher educational institutions, and men of letters.

    In the early years, besides, the clergy and the doctors and the others had no reason to come to America, because they would have been unable to give full scope to their activities, and would have certainly perished in misery 5or else, have taken any manual labor job at which the ordinary common laborer could have excelled. Even priests and doctors emigrated in small numbers out of fear of the "wilderness"; if they did so, they usually settled in the more densely populated areas in order to accumulate wealth.

    Then another part of the so-called intelligentsia began to arrive in America. At first, these were adventurers, somewhat polished in a worldly way, with a gift of speech and the ability to write; then, there were those who, having completed about two Gymnasium classes and suffering from maladjustment, sustained themselves by any means available with their unfinished schooling, and upon landing here, strove to bluff their way impressively. Also, there were artisans, some commercial clerks, and others who had had a "lick" of schooling and pretended to be highly educated. Later on came postal officers, telegraph operators, and even army officers.

    Finally, the true academicians began to come to America, forced to leave 6Europe for some unknown reasons. These comprise the genuine intelligentsia. They were the first to begin the struggle between the spiritual and secular intelligentsia. In time we shall see the results of this dissension now that the real secular intelligentsia is appearing here.

    We have, at hand, the first two issues of the Emigration Review, published in Lwow since last July. Mention of the articles therein was made the other day; today we ...

    Polish
    III G, V A 2, III H, III A, III C, I C