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Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 31, 1879A "Hornberger Shooting Affair"
[Translator's note: "Hornberger shooting affair" is a proverbial expression used of activities involving much noise and effort, but meagre results.]
Under the heading, "Tavernkeepers! Danger Confronts Us!" President John Feldkamp appealed to his associates yesterday by publishing an announcement in the Westen, asking the saloonkeepers to appear at a general meeting at the North Side Turner Hall, at one o'clock in the afternoon. It is now disclosed that Mr. Feldkamp called the assembly at the insistence of ten members, and one may well assume that the latter were all friends of Harrison (we could not ascertain their names) who were desirous of circumventing a prior resolution stipulating that the Wirthsverein (Tavernkeepers Association) should not take sides in the mayoral issue in the impending election; clearly, the ten gentlemen endeavored to use the Club's influence in the interests of Harrison or Dr. [Ernst] Schmidt, mayoral candidates.2
The inference is also justified when one considers the declaration in yesterday's paper [Westen], signed by Messrs. P. Mueller, L. Schwuchow, and Chr. Bruder, wherein certain questions are asked of the mayoral candidate Wright, and whereby he is requested to give a reply prior to the election. The text of the aforesaid questionnaire also accuses him [Wright] of being a temperance advocate at heart, and states that he discharged some of his men because they frequented a tavern contrary to his wishes.
One might have expected that Feldkamp's appeal, with its startling headline, would cause consternation among Chicago's tavernkeepers, and that they would appear in hordes at the Turner Hall to hear what new perils assail them. But the crowd did not materialize; one and one-half hours past opening time a small crowd gathered, barely sufficient in numbers to warrant opening of the portals.
John Feldkamp, in addressing the assembly, remarked that the meeting was 3called to consider ways and means to prevent the threatening victory of the temperance forces at the Springfield legislature, and that the ten members who requested that he [Feldcamp] publish the announcement would be able to explain the purpose of the meeting.
Feter Mueller declared the propaganda issued heretofore by the tavernkeepers had not helped much. The "drys" succeeded in submitting their temperance bills to the legal committees, which passed then, now the measures are before the legislature. One of the political Parties is responsible for this, and now the question arises, which organization [Democrats or Republicans] the tavern keepers will support at the election.
Mr. Langenhahn expressed the opinion that the problem had been discussed sufficiently before, and a decision given making it unnecessary to resume the argument. Baum declared the announcement did not explain adequately why the meetings was called. Marry Rubens [attorney], who is to represent the tavernkeepers in Springfield, was requested to give some information.4
Rubens explained that matters are not as unfavorable at Springfield as it appears, Mrs. Willard representative of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, succeeded in persuading the state legislative committee to accept will Which involves the license question; the bill provide that all women who are older than eighteen years are to be given the right to vote. But this bill has no chance of passing, because the best-informed members of the House declare the measure to be unconstitutional.
The other bill is a graver problem, because it stipulates that every two years, in all towns and election districts, an election may be held in which qualified voters of every ward may decide whether saloons shall or shall not be maintained within the district; there is no doubt that, if the measure becomes a law, several wards in Chicago will close the saloons within their confines. But it is not likely that this bill will be passed during the present session, since an attempt was made to bring the measure before the House and Hurry the acceptance, irrespective of routine order; 5but the scheme failed and it is very improbable that the matter can be acted upon before the Senate adjourns--even if the Legislature is favorably inclined.
Baum referred with ridicule to the smallness of the crowd in view of the impending danger announced in the notice, and remarked that, since the danger is but moderate, one might proceed with other business. The chairman, however, requested that the problem be settled first.
Schwuchow asked which party was responsible for the presentation of the temperance bill.
Rubens: "The Willard bill was submitted by Hinds, a Democrat. The following legislative committee members are inimically inclined: Black, (R.); Nast, (R.); Taylor, (R.); Peters, (R.); Trusdell, (D.). Our friends: Veile, (R.); Meyer, (Socialist); Provat, (D.); O' Malley, (D.); and Sniggs, (D.)"6
The two most inveterate "drys" of the committee are Black, the chairman, and Taylor, from Winnebaro County, both Republicans.
Mueller: "The Republican chairman of the House is responsible for the chairman and the members of the committees, and the Republican party for the chairman of the House."
Mr. George did not want the Association to expose itself to ridicule, and thinks that not enough members were present to pass resolutions. He did not defend the Republican members of the Legislature; even among the Democrats one finds very embittered prohibitionists.
Senator George White and Representative O'Malley were then invited to address the assembly. These gentlemen had come to attend the meeting, but the procedures probably proved too protracted, and so they had already departed. The incident was considered closed.7
P. Mueller then offered a resolution whereby the Governor is requested to accept the recommendations of the Cook County judges in regard to Henry A. Kaufmann, and to appoint him as Justice of the Peace, since Mr. Kaufmann always was able to combine liberal views with the law.
All present were in favor of Mr. Kaufmann. However, Mr. Rubens, as well as Messrs. Georg, Baum, and others, were opposed to the adoption of such a resolution, as it might prove harmful instead of beneficial, whereupon the resolution was withdrawn.
Schwuchow made a motion to reconsider the report of the campaign committee which was accepted, unread, at the last session.
The chairman considered the motion out of order, because the meeting was not called for that purpose, and therefore a reconsideration of a former resolution was not entertainable. Since no other matter was to be discussed, 8the meeting was adjourned. Lively arguments continued at the tavern of the Turner Hall.
[Translator's note: "Hornberger shooting affair" is a proverbial expression used of activities involving much noise and effort, but meagre results.] Under the heading, "Tavernkeepers! Danger Confronts Us!" President John Feldkamp ...
I B 2, II A 2, I F 1, I F 2, I K, IV
Secondary listingsGerman // Contributions and Activities > Vocational > Industrial and Commercial (II A 2) ?
German // Attitudes > Politics > Voting as Blocs (I F 1) ?
German // Attitudes > Politics > Part Played by Social and Political Societies (I F 2) ?
German // Attitudes > Position of Women and Feminism (I K) ?
German // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- April 24, 1879The Ladies' Club of the German Society
The Ladies' Club of the German Society gave a luncheon at Klare's hall yesterday afternoon and many members, as well as friends of the Society, were present. After coffee, the president, Mrs. Hedwig Voss, gave an address which was received with much acclaim; she spoke about American ladies' clubs, and we herewith quote her speech:
American Ladies' Clubs
"The American ladies' clubs of late have enlarged their activities. Formerly, these clubs were mostly concerned with temperance and blue laws, equal franchise, and the usual benevolent activities. We German women are not much interested in such subjects. If religious sentiment (the belief in more inspiring matters pertaining to the world and human nature) does not pervade our daily actions, then it is not worth much. If religious belief is genuine, then we cannot believe in religion during festive occasions, or discard our belief,putting it on or off like clothing, according to circumstances. Undoubtedly, according to 2German views, the same harmless procedures should be tolerated on Sunday as on weekdays. Now, as to moderation, it is surely an excellent idea to be moderate in all things, and this applies particularly to women; but these nice virtues cannot be enforced by police measures. Virtues can only develop through a proper, sensible education, and by adherence to good principles. But particularly, with respect to temperance, so many of our American women show such an entire lack of tact that the temperance cause and the women behind it are being ridiculed.
"And the voting privilege! I do not think many of us are going to get gray hair thinking about it. Upon to the present time, we have not been concerned about politics, and our inherent modesty prevents us from becoming involved in matters of which we do not know much. But, unfortunately, there are also many men who are absolutely uninformed about our institutions, the American Constitution, and matters pertaining to the state; their efforts, as citizens, manifest themselves accordingly. And that is the claim to which our American women subscribe. The American women declare that men have made an awful 'mess' of politics and 3that, naturally, women should also have something to say in politics. The American women, are of course, better enabled to participate in politics than we [German women] are, because they have been more interested in the subject, and they have even entered the various professions; there are ministers of the Gospel and doctors, even lawyers, regardless of the protests of their male colleagues. Many women are newspaper writers and give lectures. Hence a large number of intelligent men now declare that the abstract right of voting cannot be denied the fair sex; after all, they are capable human beings endowed with intelligence.
"As employees of the state (of course, so far only in subordinate positions) women have proved to be very capable. Considered on the average, women are more ambitious and conscientious than men. Who knows, at long last we may attain this 'equality', the right to vote, and it may be given to us even without effort; allegorically speaking, it drops into our lap like ripened fruit, and then it may not appear as sour and unenticing as it does now.
"Lately, clubs have been organized in which the aforesaid aims appear to be 4somewhat relegated to the background. Among these associations are first of all, the 'social science clubs'. The word gives difficulty in translating from English into German, because one cannot obtain a proper conception of what is meants by a 'social' science. The object of these clubs is to investigate the shortcomings of our present social structure, to find out the reasons, and to eliminate the undesirable features, in so far as possible. The two main causes which promote bad conditions in general are attributed to laziness and ignorance. If the people could be given enough understanding, so that they may perceive the consequences of their foolish actions, and, if it were possible for the people to be aroused to pursue useful activities as a matter of habit, then a great many temptations would be removed; poverty, sickness, vice and misery would diminish noticeably. These newer women's clubs consist of seven divisions, in each of which the chairman, president, secretary and treasurer constitute the executive board. The divisions are: benevolence, education, art and literature, sanitation (that is, instruction on matters pertaining to health), home management, industry, and politics. Love for the state--the state of being well dressed--is taken 5for granted in so far as women are concerned, so the fair sex need only alter the conception a little, and then the women will soon be splendid citizens.
"Then, aside from these divisions, these clubs have subdivisions, for example, in the education division: lectures, education for women, schools, kindergartens, and care of small children. The other branches are divided in a similar manner. It thus becomes apparent that this presents a large field in which those with the most varied abilities can assert themselves. In considering only the last phase, every woman, even if she has no children, is a teacher, even if she only serves in giving an example to our growing youth. And, above all, as a teacher she must develop her abilities on her own initiative, otherwise she will not be able properly to fulfill her duties.
"The leader of the social science clubs of this State is Mrs. Elizabeth Boynton Harbort, assistant editor of the Inter Ocean for many years. This newspaper [Inter Ocean] has a special department for women, and publishes two pages every 6Saturday entirely devoted to women. Under the headline "Woman's Kingdom' one finds accounts of women's attainments, club activities, etc., whereas the heading 'Home' is restricted to household matters. On one page we may obtain inspiration from philanthropic ideas, and on the other page we may learn how to bake a pumpkin pie or build a so-called 'air castle' of cards. That newspaper [Inter Ocean] has a large circulation, particularly in the country districts, and it undoubtedly has a good influence. It provides a sort of substitute for clubs and associations with people, since these social activities are restricted to rural communities.
"Mrs. Harbort also publishes a paper expressly for clubs, The Social Science Journal, and every member is given a copy free. The first issue was published on New Years's, and a somewhat triumphant note is contained therein: 'Hail, Sisters, our harvest is well-ripened, may the gatherers not be lacking. For the sake of the Country, truth and justice, let us not dedicate ourselves to luxury, idleness, and mere superfluous ornamentation as we did in the past, but let us take an interest in more valuable endeavors, such as diligence and independence.7
Labor is honorable, even for women. We need improvements in the home, school and church, in society, associations, and politics, and the women must help. Let us co-operate and forget our immaterial personal affairs for the sake of the common weal, and success will be assured.'
"Much may have been said and written while activity was lacking, but, at the beginning, one must express himself, consider, and seek advice. We may be exceedingly intelligent and benevolently inclined, but it will not benefit others, if we remain aloof and mute. And, considering the activity of American women, their energy and sacrificial spirit, they will not stop with mere words. At present, hundreds of women are making arrangements for an authors' carnival, which is to be held at the Exposition building for the benefit of charitable institutions. It will be a fair, but of an unusual character. The salesladies will appear in groups, representing various persons and scenes from the works of well-known authors, and the presentation--in costume and action--is to be shown in an authentic manner. The idea has proved popular elsewhere, and has exceeded expectations. The people come, they want to see--and they buy; the 8latter, after all, is the most important feature.
"The Women's Shop is also an innovation which is scheduled for the near future. A store is to be rented, a saleslady will be employed, and all women may then dispose of homemade articles without the necessity of functioning as clerks. The members of the club [which establishes the store] will try to obtain customers in order to help their less fortunate sisters. Everything made by women will be acceptable: paintings, drawings, ornaments of all kinds, fine embroidery and other handmade articles, clothing for children, linen, bakery goods, candy, preserves, and most assuredly, popcorn. The list of the executives contains many names of German women who may thus benefit members of their sex who are of foreign origin.
"Also a trade school for girls is to be founded; this is very commendable. The wife of former Governor Beveridge leads these organizations. Poor, neglected children roaming the streets are to be taught, so that they may become useful. Many states have such schools for boys, but no places can be found for girls; in 9fact, the latter, in many cases, were virtually driven from these institutions to make room for the boys; and, as the girls were left to shift for themselves, one can readily imagine what became of them after growing older.
"In the police annals of the City of New York, an account is given of a woman called Margaret, the mother of criminals. She grew up under the influence of street environment, without schooling or work. In the course of time, she had many children and still more grandchildren, until the progeny amounted to hundreds of persons. More than one half of this large family became wards of the state. The women almost invariably became prostitutes, while the men were feeble-minded or drunkards, thieves, tramps, robbers and murderers. The state has had to pay more than one million dollars to apprehend, prosecute and support these criminals--not to mention....the bad influence upon others caused by association with that element.
"Would it not have been worth while for the state to educate the child in the 10first place? The women in particular, the mothers, are responsible; they can even curb the negligence and vices of a man, if they are of superior stock. However, it often requires a deplorably long period until such a humanitarian idea penetrates into the craniums of our politicians and united action is taken. Women's meetings were also held in our State, even in the senate hall after adjournment; motions were made, resolutions passed and petitions signed; many lawmakers were present, but so far nothing has transpired.
"During such meetings women often became fresh and arrogant, and so, regardless of the gallant and submissive spirit of American men, some became disgruntled and obstinate. When Miss Frances Willard, with her temperance regiment, appeared and also demanded the senate hall, some gentlemen objected, and one of them declared vehemently: 'According to my view, these women would do better by going home and taking care of their children; their offspring will surely develop into ruffians if left to themselves.' Another gentleman declared that one should not spoil Sister Willard's fun; he, for his part, enjoys the sight when women 11harangue unrestrictedly. Those senators who do not care to be reproached for their sins need not be present; no law makes it mandatory. He also does not believe that small children will be neglected, since neither Miss Willard (an old spinster) nor the protesting senator are blessed with progeny. Of course, such banter appealed, and a large majority of the senatorial group gave their consent for the use of the hall. The ladies could argue to their hearts' content, and undoubtedly did.
"The trade school for girls is not yet favored by the Senate, but the school is to be started, though on a small scale. A suitable place has been rented, and much interest has been aroused. Even among the elite Americans, two clubs for small girls have been founded; one of these clubs has already collected more than one hundred dollars in furtherance of the cause. According to the report, the children are not 'forced' to go into the school, nor are special efforts made to obtain attendance, but, nevertheless, the children appreciated it--they were zealous and declared they would never give up their school membership. That is gratifying. Even if there appears to be an inclination to imitate the older 12people, such ideas given during childhood are not likely to be disregarded entirely in later years, and in many cases may cause a wonderful development.
"Herewith, ladies, I bring to a close my discourse about American women's clubs, although the subject has only been shown in general. However, I would like now to speak to you as a German.
"Many of you may probably think: 'How can a German housewife find time for such involved affairs?' Of course, if a woman has small children, or a large household to be managed with little or no extra help, then she will hardly be able to take an active interest in such matters. But many of us are better situated, so that we need not 'stay within our shell' like a snail or remain in a burrow like a marmot. We German women have a reputation throughout the world for having a sense of domesticity, and may heaven prevent us from disregarding our duties and from acting in an irresolute, unintelligent manner. We surely have sympathy for anything that suffers, and individuals hardened by self-ishness--thinking only of personal gratification--are rare among us. But are 13we not often too particular, penny-pinching and one-sided? Of course, the home should be our main interest, but it should not--and must not be--our boundary. Regardless of how carefully we protect our children, eventually they must face stern reality, and....our offspring cannot escape reality: If women reach the stage where they take an enthusiastic interest in affairs which benefit the community, then, to quote a well-known German author, 'only a boor would insist that women stick to their brooms and darning needles.' (Applause).
"Our minds and sentiments should be susceptible to broader activities. After all, we are so closely related, so similar despite our dissimilarity, composed of the same substances, motivated by identical wishes, virtues and weaknesses--differing only in degree--and we have the same sentiments toward anything which is really good and commendable. May we, therefore, also display a growing interest in a better conception of life, for honest endeavor, and let our proverb be 'progress!'"14
Generous acclaim followed this splendid address, which undoubtedly made a lasting impression.
Then followed a number of musical selections, under the direction of Oscar Schmoll:
Romance from "Robert der Teufel," (Robert the Devil) by Meyerbeer, and airs by Franz Schubert, sung by Miss Alice Sittig; Recitative and Aria from "Hans Heiling," by Marschner, and songs by R. Franz and Raff, sung by Miss Amalie Kleinofen; Fantasy for violin and piano, based on the motif from "Stradella," by Sinzele, played by Messrs. Von Goetzen and Oscar Schmoll; "Leichte Cavallerie" (Light Cavalry) Overture, by Suppe, and a "Rhapsodie Hongroise" by Eugene Ketterer, played by Miss Minna and Mr. Georg Claussenius.
The excellent renditions were awarded deserving applause.
After that, various topics of interest were discussed in an informal manner, 15and new members became affiliated with the Club, thus furthering the beneficent work. Not only the members, but also many friends, were present who, after learning the facts, expressed their willingness to help the cause.
The Ladies' Club of the German Society gave a luncheon at Klare's hall yesterday afternoon and many members, as well as friends of the Society, were present. After coffee, the ...
II B 2 g, II D 10, II B 1 a, I B 1, I B 2, I K
Secondary listingsGerman // Contributions and Activities > Benevolent and Protective Institutions > Foreign and Domestic Relief (II D 10) ?
German // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Aesthetic > Music (II B 1 a) ?
German // Attitudes > Mores > Temperance (I B 1) ?
German // Attitudes > Mores > Blue Laws (I B 2) ?
German // Attitudes > Position of Women and Feminism (I K) ?
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 29, 1879A New Association
About thirty ladies and gentlemen attended a meeting at 13 South Halsted Street yesterday evening to found the Working Woman's Industrial Protective Union. Mrs. Anna Schrock opened the meeting in a lengthy, well-prepared address, wherein she stressed the suffering and the low wages which are the lot of women, and that only an organization can mitigate the evil.
Mrs. F. B. Kingsbury said that a similar association exists in California, and is very successful.
Mrs. Mills remarked that an alliance with labor unions and co-operative enterprises would bring quicker results.
The chairman declared that the most important matters at present were the election of officers and the membership drive. Any workingwoman can become a member by paying twenty-five cents, and dues for the year amount to only 2one dollar. The income of the association is to be used to pay hall rent and other expenses. If the organization is successful, several rooms will be rented and furnished to shelter women and children in need. Perhaps even a school may be added later. An employment bureau is also to be organized as soon as possible. It is the object of the association to help all women earn better wages.
At the end of Mrs. Schrock's speech, a gentleman arose and nominated Mrs. Anna Schrock as president of the new association. The gentleman proved to be Attorney Marcus Monroe Brown, whom Arabella McLaughlin tried to shoot some time ago....
Mrs. Schrock was elected president; Mrs. Kingsbury, vice-president; Mrs. Barnum, treasurer. Mrs. Mills, secretary; but Mrs. Mills declined, because she did not share Mrs. Schrock's views. Then the "protector of poor widows," M. M. Brown, was nominated secretary by the president. In the interim, 3rumors spread concerning Brown's character, and his election did not arouse enthusiasm by any means, but he considered it proper to give a speech, in which he declared that the success of the organization was assured.
One of the ladies present suggested that the members attend the meetings of the Working Women's Union [another organization] which are held every two weeks at Uhlich's Hall, where labor questions, and women's problems in labor matters in particular, are discussed.
The president did not like that remark at all. She said that she had her own ideas on how to ameliorate the conditions confronting women, and that she had a high goal in mind. She felt grieved when thinking of the thousands of poor girls leading a life of shame, and who could be saved by such an organization as the present one. She has had to endure persecutions because of her views, but expressed determination to continue her efforts. Whoever was not willing to help her, should not be affiliated with the organization. 4After that, about a half-dozen names were entered on the membership list, and an equal number of quarters collected, whereupon the assembly adjourned until next Monday evening.
About thirty ladies and gentlemen attended a meeting at 13 South Halsted Street yesterday evening to found the Working Woman's Industrial Protective Union. Mrs. Anna Schrock opened the meeting in ...
I K, I E
Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- October 15, 1883The Socialist Club
At the South side the Socialist Club convened last Saturday evening at Kotter's Hall. Comrade M. Schwab gave a speech about: "Women and Socialism." The speaker emphasized especially the necessity of drawing more women, as it has been done so far, into the Socialist movement.
The men should make their wives Socialists, so that it would not be necessary for the younger generation to free itself again after a hard struggle from their earliest youth of inbred prejudices. One always insists that woman's mind is inferior to the man's but all the arguments advanced for this assertion are void, because the apparently higher intelligence of the man develops only for the reason that the woman in consequence of her physical weakness is in a dependent situation and because today's entire education is designed to keep women ignorant.
To the women is trusted the future of mankind, because they are the first teachers 2to children. A certain type of people surrounds the woman with a sentimental glory, talking about the poetry that surrounds feminine beings, and that these and other beautiful things would be destroyed, if women would participate in public life, or would be the equal of man in every way.
The priests are holding their own, only because they know how to interest the women for their cause. The Socialists should be their imitators and begin Socialistic agitation at home... A real Socialist acknowledges the equality of men and women and should act accordingly.
At the South side the Socialist Club convened last Saturday evening at Kotter's Hall. Comrade M. Schwab gave a speech about: "Women and Socialism." The speaker emphasized especially the necessity ...
I E, IV, I H, II B 2 g, I K
Secondary listingsGerman // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
German // Attitudes > Social Problems and Social Legislation (I H) ?
German // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Intellectual > Forums, Discussion Groups and Lectures (II B 2 g) ?
German // Attitudes > Position of Women and Feminism (I K) ?
Chicago Tribune -- March 07, 1886Manners and Customs of the Bohemian Portion of the City's Population. They Are Industrious, Thrifty and Generally of a Most Peaceable Disposition. a Community That Is Rapidly Growing Rich by the Efforts of its Individuals.
There is probably no more interesting and progressive section of Chicago's foreign population than that inhabited by the Bohemians. Some years ago there was a decided prejudice against them on the part of American workingmen and capitalists. They took a very active part in the strikes and riots here some eight years ago, and they established a Socialistic propaganda which was far from being popular. They so far succeeded in carrying their ideas into effect that they were the ringleaders of the strikes, and they elected four of their nominees - not all of them Bohemians, however, to the Chicago Common Council. One of the most active among them at the time was Belohradsky, who is now living in Texas. Another so-called leader was Leo Meilbeck, Alderman and 2legislator, who afterwards committed suicide while acting as Public Library attendant. Frank Stauber and J. J. Altpeter were also elected to the council as representatives of the German and Bohemian Socialistic elements, as was Christian Meier. It is only fair to say, however, about Stauber and Altpeter that there have been few more conscientious councilmen than they. But as before stated, the Bohemians lost caste about the time alluded to on account of their Socialistic tendencies and "striking" propensities. When they first came to America they were willing to work for almost anything. They would underbid the Irish and German and American workingmen, and naturally evoked considerable hostility against themselves as a result. They were to suffer for this, and were, in fact, looked down on as outcaste, and not entitled to much sympathy. When they took to striking and communism they were cursed up hill and down dale by employers and employees. Latterly all this has changed, and in the lumber and furniture manufacturing regions, where they are now employed, they are looked upon as some of the thriftiest members of the community, useful citizens, capable and efficient workingmen and large contributors to the wealth and growth of Chicago.3
The first Bohemian Immigrants.
The first Bohemian immigration to Chicago began about the year 1848 - "the year of revolution". The Czechs rose in rebellion against the Austrian authorities, with whom they have never been on good terms, but were speedily suppressed by the Emperor and his army. Those who were prominent in the rebellion had to flee the country. Most of them came to America, some of them settling in Montreal, where they engaged largely in the cigar-making business. The Bohemian emigration was at first about the rate of 6,000 per year. In 1878, 1879 and 1880 it reached probably 10,000 per annum. It has fallen off again to 6,000. Most of those who came here were farmers, farm laborers, workers in wood, or weavers - usually carpet and cotton weavers. Those of them who located in Chicago settled down in the lumber region of the Sixth and Eighth wards. Some settled in the hardwood region of the Fourteenth Ward. F. B. Zdrubek, editor of the Bohemian daily paper the Svornost, estimates the Bohemian population of Chicago now at 40,000 at least. He estimates the entire Bohemians of America at 20,000. Outside of this city 4they are located in Nebraska, Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin on farms. Of the 40,000 in Chicago 26,000 are in the Sixth Ward, 9,000 in the Seventh and Eighth Wards, along Canal Street and Blue Island avenue principally, and about 5,000 are in the Fourteenth Ward.
Lumber Workers and Furniture Men.
They readily find employment in the lumber yards and furniture factories. The lumber merchants say they are steady, faithful workingmen. They are constant, but they do not rush matters. The ordinary pay is about 15 cents per hour, though they get as high as 20 cents. They have practically driven out Irish and German lumbermen. The latter will not work by the hour. They work by the piece - by contract - and are not satisfied unless they make from 40 to 50 cents per hour. At Harvey's, where the foreman, John Kallal, is a Bohemian, very few of the Bohemians are employed. The same is true of Hatch and Keith's. At Beidler's Germans seem to have preference. But as a rule the Bohemians have the call. Many of them are excellent cabinetmakers and upholsterers. They make from 535 to 40 cents per hour at this trade. They are nearly always at work - always driving at something. Their wives and the members of their families are also employed washing for families, tailoring, etc. Any person who goes into the Bohemian district will encounter some Bohemian man or woman in every block loaded down with bundles of pantaloons or vests on the way to some down-town clothing house. The housewife usually employs four or five girls at this work. The girls make from $5, to $6. per week, and their employers make a handsome profit. The practice which prevailed in Bohemian regions some time ago, of sending the women around to pick up shavings and kindling wood is fast dying out. The women's time is more valuable now-a-days and begging is unknown among them. The Italians appear to have a monopoly of that. The "dagos" can be even encountered in the Bohemian quarter plying their vocation.
People so hard working and so thrifty as the Bohemians cannot but prosper. The Bohemian quarter in the Sixth Ward is certainly a credit to their industry and zeal. There is not a more cleanly or better built workingmen's section in 6Chicago. The district west of Halsted to Lawndale, south of Sixteenth to Twenty-second Street, is built up with comfortable three-story brick dwellings and stores, nearly all of them owned by the Bohemians. The buildings occupy nearly the entire length of the lot. They are all neat and substantial, although there is some degree of sameness in the plan of building. Portions of some are frame structures pushed back on the lot and built up in front. All are neatly painted and have a wholesome and healthy appearance. Along Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-first, Centre Avenue, Throop Street, Ashland Avenue, Blue Island, Wood Street, Hoyne Avenue, the structures are very fine; the stores are especially substantially built and commodious, and would reflect credit on any part of Chicago. From a sanitary point they are all right too, though perhaps there is too much crowding. Nearly every floor has three families. This is not always conducive to morality, it is claimed. The Bohemians, as is well known, are very fond of soups. The odor from that article of food is not always the most pleasant. But, on the whole, there is little cause of complaint nowadays. Being so very frugal they do not buy the best cuts of meat, but they buy good cuts. Mr. Curran of Curran and Delany, who do an extensive trade with the Czechs, 7says they always buy good but not the best meats, and they are excellent at paying. They always come to time with their bills. They are good customers and not in the least clannish. Very many of them are in the butcher line themselves, and though there are some in the saloon line, there are not many. The editors of the Svornost say there are only about fifty in the "Cesky vinopalna line" (Bohemian distillery). There are almost as many in the drug store business. Quite a number are also in the carpet-weaving and clothing trades. Nearly all of them are making money. It is estimated that at least 60 per cent of the Bohemians are property owners. They have twelve building societies, with an average membership to each society of 700, and Mr. Cermak, one of the editors of the Svornost says that the weekly receipts from each society varies from $600 to $900. Besides, there are a number of men who are not members of those societies who are large property owners; William Kaspar is reported to be worth $100,000. John Kallal is a member of the firm of T. W. Harvey and Company. Dr. Kadlec of the Public Library Board; Frank Fucik, the West Town Clerk; John Matuska of Matuaka and Craig, the furniture dealers; and several others well-to-do. The editor of Svornost publishes besides the daily, two weekly papers, the Amerikan Mondays and the Prilcha Duchu Casu Sundays. Besides, he publishes quite a number of books and 8pamphlets, and his establishment on South Canal Street is well stocked. He employs about fifteen typesetters. Nearly all of the Bohemians can read and write their own language. Their public school system in the old country is conducted almost entirely by the priests. In this country the priests try to control the education, but the liberal thinkers' society - the C. S. P. S. (Czecho-slovak Benevolent Society) - which has a membership of 2,000 in this city, stoutly opposes. The C. S. P. S. by the way, has a magnificent hall and school in the Eighteenth Street. The organization is condemned by the church, but it flourishes. The editor of the Svornost seems to be the leading spirit in it. Liberal thought has been a phase of Bohemian public life since the time of John Huss. The attendance at the Catholic schools - there are three of them - is quite large. They are taught by the sisters. The children in attendance are all neatly and comfortably clad. They seem to run to bright colors. Every one wears a bright red hood, strong, thick-soled shoes, and a comfortable calico dress with abundance of petticoats. The Bohemian attendance at the public schools is also quite large, especially at the Throop, Longfellow and Garfield 9schools. Few, however, remain to complete the Grammar School course. The young women nearly all marry early. There is a disposition among the boys to be somewhat wild. This is especially the case with those of them who get to have a contempt for their parents and their parents' country. There are three Bohemian Catholic churches, one in the Fifth Ward, one in the Sixth Ward and one in the Eighth. Nearly all the women attend church while not more than half the men do so. John Kallal, already alluded to, is the leading Catholic layman. There are three theatres and about a dozen Bohemian halls. There is usually theatrical entertainment every night, and there is sure to be a dance every Saturday. At these dances some of the young Bohemians are apt to be boisterous, but as a rule they are well conducted, and there is little trouble.
Habits and Mode of Life.
There is an impression abroad that the Bohemians are slovenly in their habits. This is not the case. On the contrary they are clean and tidy as a rule. The 10women especially are very cleanly. They get on very well with their neighbors. Since Sadowa there has been some feeling between them and the Germans, but it is dying out. They take very kindly to the Poles. The Irish do not play them fair in politics, they say, and there is a tendency among them to be more self assertive. They like Cullerton because he attends to ward improvements, but they are down on Lawler for many reasons, though Frank appointed a leading Bohemian sub-Postmaster of the Southwest district. The leaders among them say that they will demand a better representation among the political parties in the future. They have a sort of natural penchant for politics. They manage to secure representation in all the principal offices in town. They claim from 6,000 to 7,000 votes, though this is probably an exaggerated estimate. They claim a population of but 40,00 altogether, and as they have abnormally large families, and, as many of them neglect to take out naturalization papers, 6,000 or 7,000 is too high an estimate. They have very nearly a majority, however, in the Sixth Ward. Hitherto they have acted with the Democrats, but the leading ones among them, with the exception of Kallal, Schlessinger and Nikodeun, say they are tired of the Democratic party, particularly of the Harrisonian branch 11of it. They assert that they have been victimized by the contractors in street-paving jobs, and, rightly or wrongly, they hold administration responsible therefor. They also complain of the espionage of the police. As a usual thing the Bohemians are orderly and law-abiding - they are, as stated before, a little boisterous at their society meetings when they indulge too freely in beer, which they too often do, and the policemen are too apt to use their clubs on them. There is a general impression, too, that the women are so desirous of getting rich that they do not know the difference between "mine and thine" very frequently. This is pronounced a gross slander, however, by the Bohemians themselves, who complain that the police treat them harshly, spread false reports about them and allow young toughs to break into their amusement halls, where the aforesaid toughs insult the women. This is especially the case at the Bohemian Hall on Taylor Street, near Canal, and frequent fights result as a consequence. In the Sixth Ward places of entertainment the Bohemians are amply able to take care of themselves.12
The Loafers Among Them.
It is very noticeable that they do not loaf about saloons to any great extent. The present is a very dull time in the lumber region, and many hundred men are idle there, but in the Bohemian saloons in the vicinity very few men are to be found. They devote much of their time now-a-days to improving their buildings, constructing sidewalks, and clearing away rubbish or assisting their industrious wives. They are seldom found idle. Two young men met on Twenty-second Street last Thursday were asked why they were not at work. "No work to do", they replied. No house - no work now". They went on to explain as best they could that they had been in search of work.
Besides the religious, anti-religious and building societies, the Bohemians have also several gymnastic societies. They practice nearly every night. They are very athletic fellows although they are not quick. For persons who are such skilled tailors they display very poor taste in dressing. The men's clothing is generally speaking, coarse and badly fitting, the pantaloons bag at the knees 13and are many inches too short, while the shoes are coarse and heavy. They are a healthy race, though there is considerable mortality among the children in summer, very likely due to overcrowding and the neglect of other sanitary regulations. Though they have prospered in Chicago there is a general tendency among those who have ready cash or who can dispose of their property, to leave here and go to live on farms. Their papers here are filled with advertisements of farms for sale in Nebraska, Dakota, Texas, and parts of Wisconsin, and there are a couple of farm agencies here doing a big business. For this and other reasons it is not likely that the Bohemian population of Chicago will increase to any great extent in the future, though they are a prolific race, and many of those who go to farming return in a few years. The Bohemian quarter of the Sixth Ward is now nearly built up. The Scandinavians are crowding in on them west of Ashland Avenue, in what is called the Stockholm region. The lumber business there is not expanding. Much of it is likely to go to South Chicago, and the furniture factories are already crowded. As small traders they do not make much headway, their trade being confined mostly to people of their own nationality. The extension of the tracks of the West Division Railway Company 14on West Nineteenth Street, will open up some new territory, but not a great amount. The building societies of the region have practically done their work. Very few dwellings are going up now. Nearly all are three and four story store buildings of a very substantial character. The Bohemian are not the only buildings, however. The Germans and the Hebrews are doing more than their share.
It is curious that, though there are very many Bohemian Jews in this city the relation between them and the Bohemian Christians appear to be far from cordial; and the Catholic Bohemians and the liberal thinkers appear to cordially hate each other. The liberal thinkers seem to be the most prosperous, and also to be the better educated. They seem to have a decided preference for Voltaire, Huxley, Darwin and two or three of their own writers. Their literature is not extensive. The women have two or three societies of their own, and, strange as it may seem in women, the societies are not of a religious character. It is a mistake though, to suppose that the Bohemians as a whole are not religious people. Of the 40,000 15who live here more than two-thirds attend church some time or other. The average Sunday attendance at the church at the corner of Allport Avenue and Eighteenth Street is about 6,000. Twice that number of different persons attend during the year. The attendance at the DeKoven church numbers about 4,000 on the average, and the attendance at the Portland Avenue Church in the Fifth Ward is about 2,500. The Bohemians of the Fourteenth Ward attend the Polish church. The pastors pay great attention to the societies belonging to the church, and devote their entire energies to keeping them intact. Among no foreign nationality is there such pronounced hostility to formal religion, and it requires all the zeal of the clergymen to combat this.
Mr. Frank Fucik, a well-known Bohemian of the Seventh Ward, said yesterday, in relation to the building societies and other matters: "The district between Halsted Street and Ashland Avenue is now almost built up, and the Bohemians are beginning to build in the district between Ashland and Western Avenues. The Scandinavians are also building in there, but west of the lime kiln on Hoyne Avenue and thereabouts the Bohemians seem to have it all to themselves.16
Value of Their Property
"What is the value of their property? I heard it estimated at $20,000,000, but that is an exaggeration, perhaps. They own at least $16,000,000 worth of property in Chicago. They seldom send money to the old country, except for the purpose of assisting relatives to come out. What they earn they keep here. It is a mistake to think that the Bohemians are only common laborers and wood-shovers. They are blacksmiths, watchmakers, and wood-turners, etc. Those along Canal Street, Canalport Avenue and Blue Island Avenue work at various mechanical trades. They work at the manufacture of American cutlery to a very large extent, and they are all steady, sober, active men. They have frequently been slandered because they have not been understood."
"To whom do the house-owners rent"? "To people of all nationalities - generally to their own countrymen though. They usually get $7 or $8 for three rooms. A good proportion of the rent goes for a time to pay interest. The death rate is as low in the Bohemian quarter as in any other portion of the city.17
Their homes look as neat and as clean. They appear clean themselves, and I dont think there is the least ground for prejudice against them now."
Mr. Chatfield of the firm of Street, Chatfield and Keep, lumber dealers, who traveled through Bohemia, said that in their native country the Bohemians appear to be industrious, frugal, hard-working people. Like the Irish they did not like their form of government. There have been frequent uprisings. They seemed to be of considerable political and intellectual force in their native country. He considered them a very valuable portion of the population. He had heard few things derogatory to them.
A three days' sojourn in their midst was convincing as to their thrift, their industry, their cleanly habits, their generally high moral character, their saving habits and their intellectual advancement. They usually make good citizens; they have aided more than any other class of the population in building up the best portion of the southwestern district of the city; they have done their part by their labor in adding to the material prosperity of the 18city in adding to its taxable value. They are excellent members of society, and they and their children have done and will no doubt continue to do their full duty towards the great city which they have chosen for their future home.
There is probably no more interesting and progressive section of Chicago's foreign population than that inhabited by the Bohemians. Some years ago there was a decided prejudice against them on ...
I D 1 b, II A 2, IV, II D 1, III C, I C, I F 1, I K
Secondary listingsBohemian // Contributions and Activities > Vocational > Industrial and Commercial (II A 2) ?
Bohemian // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
Bohemian // Contributions and Activities > Benevolent and Protective Institutions > Benevolent Societies (II D 1) ?
Bohemian // Assimilation > National Churches and Sects (III C) ?
Bohemian // Attitudes > Own and Other National or Language Groups (I C) ?
Bohemian // Attitudes > Politics > Voting as Blocs (I F 1) ?
Bohemian // Attitudes > Position of Women and Feminism (I K) ?
Zgoda -- January 26, 1887Slander
There are many Americans who give our forefathers credit for their splendid support of the Catholic religion and their undying love for their native land.
Not long ago something was said in regard to the above mentioned which caused hard feelings and misunderstanding among Polish people; we feel that it should be overlooked.
American citizens attending the Polish National Alliance convention began collecting donations to support and maintain the academy and convent of the Ursulan Sisters. Donations were given good-heartedly.
During a church mission in a small town near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a Polish Catholic priest, Father Koluszewski of Cleveland, ascended the pulpit and denounced sternly the donations given to support the "n Home."2
"Who gave them permission," said the Reverend Father to the congregation, "to take care of the collections for the Ursulans? Do not believe them; they are liars, these Ursulans; they are a suspicious group of ladies. In the old country the devil sent women to do his bidding where he himself had failed."
I will not say anything that you can hold against me but I will add this - that the reason for the sudden anger of Reverend Father Koluszewski against the Ursulans is that the Polish National Alliance of America is taking care of the donations for the Ursulans and is being fully supported by its 3,000 members and by different societies and Catholic institutions.
Reverend Father Koluszewski is himself working against the Polish National Alliance; he cannot understand how an organization as big as the P. N. A. can undertake so great a responsibility and still have so many Roman Catholic priests striving for an opportunity to join it.
Reverend Koluszewski's speech from the pulpit only caused the people to 3leave in great anger; it caused ill feeling among the P. N. A. members because they were willing to contribute to the support of poor Ursulan Sisters' Convent.
Another priest said: "As a priest, I am humiliated at the sudden outburst of Reverend Father Koluszerski; as a Pole, I cannot find words to apoligize for his behavior. I know that from our native country the poorest class of people crossed the ocean in search of a country where they could be taken care of in their old age, as for example, the Home of the Ursulan Sisters. This institution is also striving to save our children from the shame put upon their souls because of the lack of education. They are working to teach our Polish children the success and pleasures of life received from having a good education and from the teachings of the Catholic religion.
It also shows in old records that the head of this institution, Superior Sister Morawska, donated her farm and all her money in her home town of Poland for the building of this home, Ursulan Sisters. This shows that any propaganda or slander said against these "Sisters" is only used as an obstruction against the Polish people in their effort to advance and their 4undying love for the Catholic religion.
Almighty God will punish the trouble-maker who spoke so rudely about the Ursulan Sisters and their undying love for the Catholic religion.
Dr. Rev. Father Kanonik.
There are many Americans who give our forefathers credit for their splendid support of the Catholic religion and their undying love for their native land. Not long ago something was ...
III C, I A 2 c, III B 4, I K, III B 2, II D 5, I A 2 a
Secondary listingsPolish // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Contributions (I A 2 c) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Nationalistic Societies and Influences > Conventions and Conferences (III B 4) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Position of Women and Feminism (I K) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Nationalistic Societies and Influences > Activities of Nationalistic Societies (III B 2) ?
Polish // Contributions and Activities > Benevolent and Protective Institutions > Homes for the Aged (II D 5) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Elementary, Higher (High School and College) (I A 2 a) ?
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 29, 1887Election Rights for Women
The Federal Senate has voted against the bill, which was to entitle every women reaching the age of maturity to cast her vote. Among the minority (23 men) in favor of the bill was the new Senator of Illinois, Mr. Chas B. Farwell... Women anxious to participate in political activities may be numerous, but they were doubtlessly gifted with a good mouthpiece, which explains of course, why "Statesmen" like these are in favor of women in politics. These Statesmen have to resort even to such tactics, in order to strengthen their position. According to Cady-Stanton, Susan Anthony and others, the principal reason for introducing women into politics is, that women would have an ennobling and moralizing influence upon politics. This is one of the silly phrases for which people,who preferably let others think for them, would fall, without questioning the other side of it.
It is quite surprising that an English-American paper(The Local Daily News) has the courage to point out the reverse when it says: "The women who have a beneficent influence on social life, are not the same women who demand the 2right to vote... Very much is said about the charitable and noble influence of good women, while it is entirely overlooked what the influence of the low and indecent woman can be. What would be the result, if women of Chicago would obtain the vote? Would the virtuous and noble, highly educated women, or the morally low, heartless, and uncultured woman make use of this privilege?
We hear so much about liquor taverns at times of elections; but the influence of occupants of houses of ill-fame is still worse. The franchise would never be exercised by the decent women, who never yearned for it, but by 7000-8000 indecent, immoral and uneducated women. What if these women, like those 8000 mentioned in Chicago, 10,000 in Philadelphia and 16,000 in New York, altogether about 120,000 throughout the United States would take part in elections? Of their influence would have to be reckoned with in nominating candidates? The election turmoil which is now carried from tavern to tavern would then be carried from one house of ill-fame to the other. The election day would furnish us with scenes of indecency never seen before. The decent and modest woman would not 3venture to rub elbows with this element and therefore would abstain from voting...the shame and disgrace brought on the country by the women suffrage, would be fatal to the country."
It rarely happens, that an English-American newspaper goes as far as taking a stand against the "ladies" and telling them frankly the truth. We fully agree with the attitude of the news, for every word this article contains, breathes pure truth... No matter what changes the 20th century may bring, general suffrage for women at least will not become constitutional during the 19th century.
The Federal Senate has voted against the bill, which was to entitle every women reaching the age of maturity to cast her vote. Among the minority (23 men) in favor ...
I K, I B 1
Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- April 28, 1888Suffrage
Raster writes that it is not necessary to take the menacing nagging of some fanatic women seriously. Does he mean his article does not have to be taken seriously? His main reason is that women do not want the right to vote.
It is hard for us to say that a nominal amount of women do not want suffrage but we will even concede that most of them do not care about their rights to vote, This is because of our having given them a wrong education and of having surrounded them for centuries with prejudices which dulled them to their own interests.
The attainment of suffrage is in the interest of woman as the development of the political and economic conditions interest and touch her often far deeper than the man. Notice the rise of prices and fall of wages because of the tariff.
Besides the interest any woman has in a reasonable molding of political and economic conditions she possesses an incontestable right for co-operation on legislation. She fulfills the same allegiance to the government as does the man and equal duties should have equal rights.
Do not take exception to the fact that women are not subject to military service 2since in several countries, men are also not subjected. Besides for a woman it is as great a sacrifice to send her husband, sweetheart, son, or brother to war while she remains at home in constant fear for the life of her loved one.
Not only has the woman the right to participate in public matters but she also has a pressing interest in it. And if this right has not been acknowledged by the legislature of most countries then it is for the reason that so far men have made laws in their own interest and to the disadvantage of women.
There would have never been such important laws about divorce and subsistence for children born out of wedlock or about adultery on the part of women in contrast to men, if women had participated in legislation.
The reason that women as yet do not have much interest in public affairs, prefering gossip and newspapers to economic and political questions, lies in the fact that they had no right to participate in these questions. If they possessed the right they would soon learn how to make use of it to the fullest extent. But it is disgraceful and humiliating that women should declare it not proper to show any interest in politics, that this is against feminism, that men will look after those matters, etc.
We feel sorry for a slave who does not feel his chains, but more pitiable is one 3who boasts about his chains. And to this number of unfortunate ones belong a large number of our women.
Raster writes that it is not necessary to take the menacing nagging of some fanatic women seriously. Does he mean his article does not have to be taken seriously? His ...
I K, I B 3 b, I B 3 c, I G, I H, I E
Secondary listingsGerman // Attitudes > Mores > Family Organization > Parent-Child Relationship (I B 3 b) ?
German // Attitudes > Mores > Family Organization > Family Economic Organization (I B 3 c) ?
German // Attitudes > War (I G) ?
German // Attitudes > Social Problems and Social Legislation (I H) ?
German // Attitudes > Social Organization (I E) ?
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 23, 1888American Family Life.
The modes of living and habits of life of the American family are aimed at emancipation of the woman from the house or home. The kitchen barely exists for the American woman, while it is a source of continual worry for the German woman, and makes it impossible for her to spend the forenoon elsewhere. The American woman prepares the meal when husband takes off his hat and coat. The menu of the American housewife, consisting of beefsteak and salad, is prepared in five minutes. A servant takes care of the house, keeping it clean, etc., therefore much time is left for leisure. This is being utilized for attending temperance meetings, for debating in clubs, for aesthetic discussion in literary societies, etc; in short, it has become a habit for her to find her amusements independently of her husband. She may remain innocent in doing so but her husband will become demoralized because he is losing the moral influence of his wife. Husband and wife are not one body and soul, but two different individuals, whose inclinations and desires drift apart very definitely, and the consequence is estrangement, divorce, or a sensational scandal. If the American husband, who is attached to his home, senses the loss of his wife's social intercourse, he is willing to take big sacrifices intellectually, in order to enjoy her companionship. If she is a suffragist, or a prohibitionist, or a spiritualist, the husband, most likely, joins the same organization. The rather cool temperature 2of the American family life can be readily seen in their external attitude. The American wife does not say "my husband", but merely, "Mr. Jones" and Mr. Jones speaks of his wife as "Mrs. Jones". In every nook and corner is a lack of that mutual spiritual support, which makes a truly married life possible. All civil service reforms, tariff reforms, political reforms will not save Americanism from decay, unless the American family life is reformed, because it is the source and origin of all political life.
The modes of living and habits of life of the American family are aimed at emancipation of the woman from the house or home. The kitchen barely exists for the ...
I B 3 a, I K
Secondary listingsGerman // Attitudes > Position of Women and Feminism (I K) ?
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 08, 1888The Inequality of Woman.
Mrs. Rawson's complaint that she did not receive justice in our courts furnishes us with something about which we should think.
To the average mind this complaint seems incredible, but to the keen observer of human nature it is perfectly clear that women are not on an equal basis with men in any relationship pertaining to life. Women possess an entirely different range of thoughts and emotions. They look at the world and at human affairs from a vastly different viewpoint, irrespective of what they themselves and men may say to the contrary. Some very excellent men are trying to bring about the equality of both sexes, but it is this very difference which prevents the achievement of that ideal condition of human society.
Men and woman can not meet on an equal plane discussing matters, except in very rare cases and under exceptional conditions. Men and woman can not be friends in the sense that women are with women and men with men. The difference of sex will always be present and a different solution will be presented to every problem. Women will always claim a certain consideration, and perhaps rightfully so, 2because of their sex. This consideration will have the tendency to work out to their advantage or their disadvantage, but never in perfect equality. In some cases they gain more, and in other cases they lose more than they deserve.
Women arouse either unusual sympathy before our courts, or unusual diversion. The result in both cases is injustice. But this is human nature, and what can be done to overcome it? The women are treated either with extreme mildness or unusual severity. And this will continue until men and women are made of different stuff.
Mrs. Rawson's complaint that she did not receive justice in our courts furnishes us with something about which we should think. To the average mind this complaint seems incredible, but ...
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