The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 12, 1897
    The Approaching Polish National Alliance Convention (Editorial)

    The same motives that underlie the projects of a new daily, Dziennik Narodowy (National Daily), and a new Immigration Home have undoubtedly influenced the bosses of the Polish National Alliance to propose that certain individuals be appointed to "seek suitable places for Polish Colonization."

    Every would-be official, every candidate for such office, every ex-official, and every would-be patriot who out of virtue makes this his career is at the same time a real estate agent. Everyone of them has organized and is organizing various kinds of Polish colonies under a legion of names, such as Posen, Cracow, Warsaw, Czestochowa, and Pacanow. Whether Czestochowa or Ryczywol, the name does not matter. The fact is, however, that these names were given for sentimental reasons to worthless colonies (and we are not telling everything2). The agents, using these established Polish names coupled with a hundred fancy lies, have confused and tricked the people, setting them up on sandy plains, marshes, and pathless tracts where wolves howl from hunger. By exploiting the people's naivete and goodness, the agents only succeeded in jeopardizing their own reputation and credit. Some of them have disappeared from the American scene, while others who stayed on have lost their prestige and no one believes what they say, even though they boast of the title of ex-censors and hire halls during national exercises sponsored by the Polish National Alliance to further their aims.

    The credit of the agents has been damaged beyond repair; however, not all have followed in the footsteps of those [who left] Chicago, Buffalo, Milwaukee, and other cities for Canada, London or Johannesburg--some are still vegetating in our midst, even if they no longer can make money from their gold-3giving farms. It is the opinion of some of the Polish National Alliance leaders that the former should come to the rescue of some of the agents.

    Therefore the Polish National Alliance has strapped on its insurance organization another load: the building of Poland on Pacanow or Ryczywoc [proposed Polish colonies]. A beautiful picture is going to be painted: the railroad companies are going to supply service to these colonies, which are not far from large cities. The truth, however, is that these barren fields have never been inhabited by man, that the colonizing commissioners are going to be paid from the Polish National Alliance treasury, that they are going to receive rich rewards from the railroads for providing slaves, who are going to be promised free grants for the little effort of cultivating them. Under this new veil of pseudo patriotism we cannot see anything in this large scale organization of Polish colonies but individual gains, which has nothing in common with the general idea.

    4

    Let us admit that we are blinded by pessimism and that we err. Furthermore, let us assume we favor this undertaking, that all the proposals of the censor are important and possible. Let us also assume that the Dziennik Narodowy, once it begins to be published, will support itself; that the Alliance Immigration Home will also be self-supporting once it gets started, and that the Polish colonizers, after great difficulties, will gather a handful of people willing to settle on Alliance colonies.

    How much will these experiments cost? The Dziennik Narodowy alone will swallow $15,000 for the first year. The Immigration Home will take twice as much, while the colonizing venture will take as much as the newspaper scheme.

    From where is the Polish National Alliance going to get these sums unless it taps the insurance funds? These funds are being exhausted now that the veteran members are dying off and new blood from the youth is difficult to recruit as a result of high premiums.

    5

    This latter predicament is not so dangerous, since there is still money on hand and the Alliance headquarters are not mortgaged. A crisis could be stemmed if one arose. But what of the Dziennik Narodowy, the Immigration Home, and the Alliance colonizing Agency during a crisis? Are they going to represent assets which will serve as collateral for loans?

    If this is your judgment, then you are playing with a worthless enterprise which will not be of benefit to anyone, but will endanger the Polish National Alliance morally as well as materially--with inevitable bankruptcy.

    The same motives that underlie the projects of a new daily, Dziennik Narodowy (National Daily), and a new Immigration Home have undoubtedly influenced the bosses of the Polish National Alliance ...

    Polish
    I C, II B 2 d 1, II D 2, I L
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 29, 1897
    First Day of the Polish Roman Catholic Union Convention

    Yesterday at 1:45 P.M. afternoon session the president, Clement Belinski, opened the first day's afternoon session of the Polish Roman Catholic Union Convention, held at Saint Stanislaus Kostka School Hall, and called upon Reverend Vincent Barzynski, pastor of Saint Stanislaus Kostka Parish, to say a prayer.

    In the name of the Credentials Committee, Reverend Tarnowski informed the delegation that there were sixty delegates representing eighty-eight votes, and that other societies were represented by alternates. This was followed by the reading of the names of the delegates, whose credentials were checked. According to the list, the following groups were represented:

    Holy Family Society of Chicago, Illinois, delegate John Manna, 1 vote; Holy Name of Mary Society of Chicago, Illinois, Albert Tomasik, Leon Szopinski, 2Peter Ligman, Jacob Mucha, Boleslav Klarkowski, Anthony Obochowski, W. Pyterek, Paul Ratkowski, and John ArkusZewski, 1 vote each; Saint Joseph Society of Bay City, Michigan, John Jachimowicz, 1 vote; Saint Stanislaus Society of Bay City, Michigan, John Jozwiak, 2 votes; Saint Dominic Rosary Society of Chicago, Illinois, John Wisniewski and Francis Czerwinski, 1 vote each; Holy Name Society of Chicago, Illinois, Clement Belinski and Francis Nowak, 2 votes each; Saint Adalbert Society of Grand Rapids, Michigan, Philip Banasiewicz, 2 votes; John III Sobieski Society Number 1, of Chicago, Illinois, Thomas Krolik, 1 vote; Saints Peter and Paul Society of Chicago, Illinois, Charles Armgart, 1 vote; Augustine Kordecki Society of Chicago, Illinois (suspended); Our Lady of Sorrows Society of Chicago, Illinois, John Damski, 1 vote; Saint Joseph [Society] of Chicago, Illinois, Anthony Rudnicki, 1 vote; Holy Name Society Number 1 of Chicago, Illinois, John Gniot, Francis Komoroski, Andrew Wolnik, John Plotka, 1 vote each; Saint Joseph Society of Erie, Pennsylvania, John Wieczorek, 3 votes; Holy Name Society of Bay City, Michigan, Thomas Gliniecki, 32 votes; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society of Chicago, Illinois, Francis Szybist, 1 vote.

    Also, Saint Mary Queen of Poland Society of LaSalle, Illinois, Peter Bracki, 3 votes; Saint Adalbert Society of Everson, Pennsylvania, Andrew Chmiel, 2 votes; Saint Hyacinth Society of Grand Rapids, Michigan, A. Smaglinski, 1 vote; Saint Francis Xavier Society Number 1 of Chicago, Illinois, Reverend Francis Lange, 1 vote; Saint Vincent de Paul Society of South Bend, Indiana, Lucas Ruzkowski, 2 votes, Valentine Korpal, 1 vote; Saint Isidore Society of Chicago, Illinois, Stanislaus Kolemba, 2 votes; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society of Gaylord, Michigan, Reverend Casimir Skory, 1 vote; Saint Andrew Society of Sobieski, Illinois, Adam Stachowski, 1 vote; Saint John Cantius Society of Chicago, Illinois, Michael Swiatkowski, 3 votes; Saint Adalbert Society of Chicago, Illinois, Anthony Dyczkowski and John Madry, 1 vote each; Saint Adalbert Society of Syracuse, New York, Francis Mokwa, 4 votes; Saint Vincent de Paul Society of Cleveland, Ohio, Ignatius Tarkowski, 6 votes; Holy 4Cross Society of Chicago, Illinois, Michael Klosowski, 1 vote; Saint Stanislaus Kostka Society of South Bend, Indiana, Francis Gasiorowski, 1 vote; Saint Casimir Society of Chicago, Illinois, Jacob Brodnicki, 1 vote; Saint Adalbert Bishop Society [no place given] Stanislaus Budzbenowski, 1 vote; Onufry Grochowski, 1 vote; Saint Mary of Perpetual Help Society of Chicago, Illinois, Michael Reszelewski, 2 votes; Sacred Heart of Mary Society of Chicago, Illinois, John Zielinski, 2 votes; Holy Name Society of Chicago, Illinois, Vincent Spychala, 1 vote; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society of Cleveland, Ohio, John Ziolkowski, 1 vote; Saint John the Baptist Society of Chicago, Illinois, Anthony Polenz, 1 vote; Transfiguration Society of Mount Pleasant,[Michigan], Albert Piszula, 2 votes; Saint Adalbert Society Number 1 of Chicago, Illinois, Matthew Piatkowski, 2 votes; Saint Joseph Society of Manistee, Michigan, F. Jazka, 1 vote; Saint Mary of Perpetual Help Society of Chicago, Illinois, Joseph Reich and John Klukaszewski, 1 vote each; Saint Stephen Society of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, Reverend Szymanowski, 2 votes; Saint Joseph Society 5of Chicago, Illinois, John P. Lama, 2 votes; Saint Mary of Perpetual Help Society of Buffalo, New York, Reverend T. Flaczek, 1 vote; Saint George Society of Buffalo, New York, Joseph Slisz, 2 votes.

    The following appointed their representatives: Mr. Wleklinski represented Saint Casimir Society of Leavenworth, Kansas; Saint Michael Society of Camden, New Jersey; Saint Casimir Society, Dunkirk, New York; Sacred Heart of Jesus Society, Forest City, Iowa; Holy Name of Mary Society, Peru, Illinois; Sacred Heart of Jesus Society, Cleveland, Ohio; Saint Francis Xavier Society, Sobieski, Illinois; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society, Berea, Ohio; Saint Stanislaus Kostka Society, Traverse City, Michigan; Saint Adalbert Society, Berea, Ohio; Saint Stanislaus Society, South Chicago, Illinois; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society, Antrim, Pennsylvania; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society Alpena, Michigan; Sacred Heart of Jesus Society, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania; Saint Michael Archangel Society, East Saginaw, Michigan; Saint Anthony Society, 6Detroit, Michigan; Saint Joseph Society, Cleveland, Ohio; Saint Casimir Society, [city not given]; Saint Joseph Society, Kingston, Pennsylvania; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society, Stevens Point, Wisconsin; Saint Michael Knights Society, Ashland, Wisconsin; Saints Peter and Paul Society, LaSalle, Illionis; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society, Nanticoke, Pennsylvania; Holy Name Society, Bremond, Texas; Saint Joseph Society, New York, New York; Saint Joseph Society, Brooklyn, New York; Saint Adalbert Society, Warrior Run, Pennsylvania; Saint Florian Guards Society, Glenlyon, Pennsylvania; Saint Barbara Society, Glouster, Ohio; Sacred Heart of Jesus Society, North Creek, Ohio; Kosciusko Guard Society, Wheeling, Pennsylvania; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society, Trenton, New Jersey; Saint Valentine Society, Clarendon, Texas.

    Also, Saints Peter and Paul Society, Saint Joseph, Michigan, represented by Lucas Ruszkowski, 1 vote; Saint Joseph Society, New York, New York, Peter Kiolbassa (not signed by a priest), 2 votes; Saint Stanislaus Kostka Society, 7Berlin, Wisconsin, Clement Belinski, 2 votes; Charles Chodkiewicz Knights Society, Everson, Pennsylvania, Peter Kiolbassa; Saint Joseph Society, Nanticoke, Pennsylvania, Clement Belinski, 3 votes; Saint Joseph Society, Duryea, Pennsylvania, Albert Wachowski, 1 vote; Saint Joseph Society, Everson, Pennsylvania, Andrew Chmiel, 1 vote; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society, Sheboygan, Wisconsin, John Jozwiak, 1 vote; Saint Kunegunda Society, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, Reverend V. Barzynski, 1 vote; Saint Stanislaus Bishop Society, Hartford [Connecticut], F. Czerwinski, 1 vote; Saint Francis Society, Nanticoke, Pennsylvania, C. Belinski, 1 vote; Saint Joseph Society, Antrim, Pennsylvania, A. Jedrzejek, 1 vote; Sacred Heart of Jesus, Cleveland, Ohio, I. Tarkowski, 2 votes; Saint Joseph Society, Schenectady, New York, A. Jedrzejek, 1 vote; and Saint Adalbert Society, Menominee, Michigan, A. Jedrzejek, 1 vote.

    Also, Saint Hedwig Society, Bay City, Michigan, John Jozwiak, 1 vote; Saint Hyacinth Society, So South Amboy, New Jersey, Reverend Szymanowski, 81 vote; Saint Paul Knights Society, Chicago, Illinois, Joseph Rejch, 1 vote; Saint Stanislaus Kostka Society, Manistee, Michigan, F. Jarka, 1 vote; Saint Adalbert Bishop Society, South Amboy, New Jersey, Reverend Szymanowski, 1 vote; Sacred Heart of Jesus Society, Cleveland, Ohio, John Ziolkowski, 1 vote; Saint Hedwig Society, Buffalo, New York, Reverend Thomas Flaczek, 2 votes; Saint Anthony Society, Buffalo, New York, Reverend T. Flaczek, 1 vote; Sacred Heart of Jesus Society, South Amboy, New Jersey, Reverend Szymanowski, 1 vote; Saint Martin Society, Manistee, Michigan, F. Jarka, 1 vote; Saint Adalbert Society, Manistee, Michigan, F. Jarka, 1 vote.

    It was also indicated that three societies were suspended. The mandates of five societies did not have the signature of their respective pastors.

    Because some of the representatives of suspended societies complained that their groups had been unjustly eliminated, the president was instructed on a motion 9by Mr. Klarowski, adopted by the floor, to appoint a special committee to investigate the matter. The committee chosen was composed of Reverend Szymanowski, Mr. Korpal of South Bend, Indiana, and Mr. Rudnicki of Chicago, at the president's order, the committee went to another room to settle this business.

    Mr. Tarkowski was given the floor and said that he represented one society as delegate and another as substitute, and asked whether or not he was entitled to a vote as substitute and another as delegate. Reverend Barzynski explained that since this was an extraordinary convention, a delegate was entitled to one vote as a substitute. This gave rise to a debate in which Klarkowski, Kiolbassa, Pisula, Czerwinski, Reich, Tomasik, Polenc, and Wachowski took part. The latter insisted on strict adherence to the constitution. This kept the discussion going, which was soon joined by Manna, Slisz, Grochowski, Lama, Stachowicz, Klarkowski, Pyterek, Wachowski, 10and Reverend Stanislaus Nawrocki. A motion seconded by Kiolbassa was made to close the debate. The president stated that since this was a special session, special laws should be instituted. At this point, Reverend Lange moved that every delegated regardless of the number of societies he might represent, should have only one vote. This motion was unanimously adopted.

    In the meantime the committee that investigated the doubtful credentials had returned. Reverend Szymanowski, in the name of the committee, announced the results. The matter of one of the socieities, the Saint Joseph Number 2, came for discussion on the floor. The question involved was that the society under discussion, which had ninety members, had been suspended for not paying the required assessments. Fifteen members, however, had paid their assessments and demanded to be heard at the convention.

    As a result, a heated discussion followed. Words were exchanged between 11the president, the secretary, Reverend Szymanowski, Rudnicki, and others. Opinions were also expressed by Reverends Kozlowski, and Barzynski; also by Kiolbassa, Swiatkowski, Lama, and others. At the suggestion of Reverend Kozlowski, Reverend Szymanowski, in the name of the committee, formulated the following proposition: "The fifteen members can form a separate group under a new name and join the Union, and their delegate can be temporarily accepted at the convention. In the event of death in the society, however, this cannot be considered". The floor accepted this proposal. The same treatment was given the suspended August Kordecki Society.

    Next under discussion was the Saint Cecilia Society, also suspended. The committee considered the suspension unjustifiable, and the floor accepted this verdict after hearing the president's opinion and the claims of the defenders of the society.

    12

    Then followed the business of credentials that had not been presented according to requirements. The floor deemed them void. Some of the credentials that had been written out for representatives and not for delegates.

    After receiving their report, the president expressed his appreciation to the members of the committee for their fine work.

    At this point the secretary read a letter of congratulation from the staff of Narod Polski (Polish People).

    Delegate Jachimowicz asked the president whether the floor should elect a marshal. The president replied that as soon as the matter was proposed and seconded, this question would be decided, and urged the choice of a capable man for this office. Delegate Jachimowicz nominated Peter Kiolbassa. The president put the nomination to a vote and the floor accepted it unanimously.

    13

    Thereupon the president asked Mr. Kiolbassa to take the stand before the chairman's chair. This was complied with, and the new marshal expressed his thanks to the assembly and promised to fulfill his new duties to the best of his ability. Before leaving the stand, Mr. Kiolbassa suggested that an election for secretary take place.

    Delegate Szopinski proposed Stanislaus Szwajkart, although he was not a delegate. Delegate Reich nominated Leon Szopinski. The marshal took the floor and said that two secretaries were needed and moved that the two named be given the offices. This motion was carried.

    The marshal then named Mr. Manna and Reverend A. Nowrocki as sergeant at arms and vice-sergeant at arms respectively.

    Thereupon the marshal announced that, according to the business listed, the next in order was the reading of the new constitution. Delegate 14Szopinski moved to appoint a commission to read the constitution in the evening and to make all the corrections and recommendations on the following day. Delegate Pyterek immediately proposed to have the constitution read without a commission. This was accepted. At this point the floor recessed for fifteen minutes.

    After a fifteen-minute pause, the marshal called the session to order and read a letter of congratulation from Reverend Andrew Ignasiak. This was followed by a request that the secretary read the outline of the new constitution.

    Upon a motion by Delegate Reich, the secretary read a paragraph taken from the code of laws of the State of Illinois. It was also agreed. that the president appoint a committee to study any suggestions in regard to the constitution. The secretary, at the request of the floor, read the new amendments to the constitution, including Article 1, paragraphs 11 and 12, 15as well as Articles II, IV, V, and VI, which were turned over to a committee for preparation and presentation on the following day. As to Article IV, it reads as follows:

    "The Polish Roman Catholic Union is to observe two Polish national holidays--the third of May, as the day of acceptance of the new Polish Constitution [1791], and November 29, as the day commemorating the Polish rising against the Russian yoke [1830]."

    Delegate Szopinski moved that the committee add to this paragraph that "The Polish Roman Catholic Union recommends that the societies affiliated with it observe these holidays."

    The next item in the order of the day was the appointment of a committee to frame up the constitution. The following were named: Reverend Francis 16Lange and Anthony Rudnicki, both of Chicago, Illinois; Ziolkowski of Cleveland, Ohio; Jozwiak of Bay City, Michigan; Reich and Belinski, both of Chicago, Illinois; Jhrka of Manistee, Michigan; Reverend Rosinski of Cleveland, Ohio; L. Ruszkowski, B. Klarkowski,and L. Szopinski, all of Chicago, Illinois.

    After settling this matter, Mr. Reich moved that the delegates express their thanks to the president for his willingness to comply with the wishes of the floor. The motion was carried and the assembly rose to pay its respects to the president.

    At this point, at the request of the floor, the marshal closed the session at 5:45 P. M. and ordered it to be resumed on the following day at 9 A. M. Before dismissing the assembly, Reverend Barzynski said a prayer.

    The telegram received from the staff of Narod Polski reads as follows:

    17

    "The staff of Narod Polski send the convention the heartiest congratulations and wishes of success in the work for this great organization, as is the Polish Roman Catholic Union, Long live the Union!

    "Sincerely,

    (Signed) John Tarkowski,

    Thomas Zagrzebski,

    John Chonarzewski,

    John Mucha."

    The letter from Reverend Ignasiak reads as follows:

    "Erie, Pennsylvania, July 27, 1897.

    "To the delegates of the Polish Roman Catholic Union of America convened at the Saint Stanislaus Kostka School Hall, Chicago, Illinois.

    18

    Gentlemen: Not being in a position to attend in person, I wish, however, to be present in spirit. First of all I send you sincere wishes, beseeching God that you fulfill your work wisely and peacefully, and hope that the needs of the Polish Roman Catholic Union be met with success. Be wary of those within the organization that sow discord and misunderstanding, for if they are not made quiet or of their own free will quit, they must be ordered to do so. This is imperative to the welfare of the Union. I suggest that death benefits be arranged according to ages and amount of assessment, and they should amount to $500, $1,000, $1,500 or $300, $600, etc. The amount to be paid is optional with the individual and not with the society to which he belongs. Women must pay separately if they wish to have death benefits. This is the best method, for it is true and tried. All American societies follow this procedure. We cannot follow another.

    "With fraternal love.

    Reverend Andrew Ignasiak."

    19

    The following priests were present at this special session: Paul Gutowski, Detroit, Michigan; John Radziejewski, Saint Adalbert Parish, Chicago, Illinois; Boleslav Nowakowski, Saint Mary of Perpetual Help Parish, Chicago, Illinois; F. S. Motulewski, Saint Anthony Parish, Toledo, Ohio; C. Skory, Gaylord, Michigan; K. Fremel, Saint Casimir Parish, Cleveland, Ohio; Stephen Szynanowski, Perth Amboy, New Jersey; F. Lange, J. Kasprzycki, and John Piechowski, all of Chicago, Illinois; Thomas Flaczek, Saint Adalbert Parish, Buffalo, New York; B. Rosinski, Cleveland, Ohio; Casimir Truszynski, Peru, Illinois; Francis Byrgier, Sobieski, Illinois; Joseph Barzynski, LaSalle, Illinois; John Kubacki, Reynolds, Indiana; C. Kobylinski, Hammond, Indiana; Paul Rhode, pastor of Saints Peter and Paul Parish, Chicago, Illinois; Matthew Krawczunas, Chicago, Illinois; W. Bobkiewicz, Rutland, Illinois; Joseph Cieburowski, Chicago, Illinois; Matthew Tarnowski, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Raszkiewicz, Otis, Wisconsin; Kozlowski, Manistee, Michigan; Wrobel, Michigan City, Michigan; Koptykiewicz, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Nawrocki and Wojtalewicz, both of Chicago, Illinois; and Pescinski, Stenens Point, Wisconsin.

    Yesterday at 1:45 P.M. afternoon session the president, Clement Belinski, opened the first day's afternoon session of the Polish Roman Catholic Union Convention, held at Saint Stanislaus Kostka School Hall, ...

    Polish
    III B 4, III B 3 a, II D 1, II D 2, IV, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 29, 1897
    The Second Day of the Polish Roman Catholic Union Convention

    The delegates gathered early for the second day of the Polish Roman Catholic Union convention at the hall of the Saint Stanislaus Kostka school, and when the marshal sounded the gavel at 9:25 all were present. Before the business of the day was opened, Reverend Vincent Barzynski, pastor at Saint Stanislaus Kostka Parish, said a prayer.

    The marshal ordered the secretary to read the minutes from the previous session. At the conclusion of the reading, Boleslas Klarkowski moved that the minutes be accepted without change. The motion was carried. Thereupon, at the request of the floor, the roll-call followed.

    Leon Szopinski read a letter from Reverend Dominic Majer of Saint Paul, Minnesota, spiritual counsel of the Polish [Roman Catholic] Union of America, who wished that 2the blessing of God might prevail throughout the session of the convention, and that all difficult problems might be solved with ease.

    Thereupon the marshal asked the committee which had been ordered to look over the additions to the constitution and make alterations to submit its report. Delegate Szopinski read the statement of the committee. The first to be read was Article III, which deals with the aim of the Union.

    Considerable debate took place over this article, and no ready agreement could be reached between Reverend Barzynski, Anthony Rudnicki, Slisz, Lama, Stachowicz, Reich, Czerwinski, Grochowski, Mokwa, Ligman, Swietkowski, and others. In the end various charges were adopted, and the article was accepted in the following form:

    "The aim of the Polish Roman Catholic Union is to be the organization of all Polish Catholics, based as a unit upon the principles of the Roman Catholic 3faith and the national tradition [of Poland] for the purpose of mutual and material support. By the phrase 'moral support' it is understood 'promotion of friendship, unity, and true brotherly love; promotion of education in the Christian and national spirit, and the protection of Polish honor whenever occasion calls'. By 'material support' it is meant 'to provide such aid, in the form of payments to the family of a deceased member, as stipulated by the convention; as well as other useful and honorable assistance as may help relieve the burden of the members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union--and the payment of certain sums in the event of sickness, as well as the payment of funeral expenses, in part or in whole, depending upon the financial circumstances of the society to which the deceased member belonged."

    The second item to be read was that dealing with the amount of death benefit to be paid. This brought about an enthusiastic discussion, and by 11:30 A.M. one part of it had been agreed upon. It was decided that death benefits for men should vary from $250, $750, and $1,000 as soon as two, three, and four assessments 4were paid. As to the women the committee suggested a death benefit of $250.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, July 30, 1897.

    After the amounts to be paid for death benefits had been fixed, there was further discussion as to whether these changes should be incorporated in the constitution. Reverend Barzynski, Reverend [F.] Lange, and Delegate Wleklinski went over the matter thoroughly. Suggestions were offered by the president, C. Bielinski, and the marshal. Reverend Barzynski moved that these new changes go into effect thirty-days after the close of the convention. Delegate [P.] Ligman moved that ninety days should elapse, while Delegate [T.] Krolik moved that the change should become effective after January 1, 1898. [A.] Rudnicki and Reich intervened, and in conclusion it was moved to have the new changes become effective beginning January 1, 1898. After a vote, all were in favor, and the change was passed.

    5

    Delegate [S.] Klarkowski then moved that, beginning from this convention until January 1, 1898, the Polish Roman Catholic Union pay death benefits of five hundred dollars after the death of a Male member and two hundred and fifty dollars after the death of the wife of a member. After a short discussion this motion was carried.

    The secretary then read the proposition of the committee to revise initiation fees. The proposition reads:

    "Members should pay to the treasury of the Polish Roman Catholic Union as follows: Members 18 to 25 years old,25 cents; 25 to 30 years, 50 cents; 50 to years, 75 cents; 35 to 40 years, $1; and 45 to 50 years, $1.50".

    This motion was carried without debate, and then the committee made another motion that "Women members should pay as follows: Members 20 to 30 years of age, 25 cents; 30 to 40 years, 50 cents; 40 to 45 years, 75 cents." This motion, too, was carried without discussion. This business completed, one of the delegates made a 6motion that inasmuch as it was 12 noon the meeting be adjourned until 1:30 P.M.

    At 2 P.M. the marshal's gavel called the convention to order. Reverend Szymanowski of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, asked for the floor to discuss two important matters. Having to leave that evening, he requested to be heard before the committees presented their reports. His request granted, the priest took the floor to say that the Immigration Home in New York, which is primarily supported by the Polish clergy was in dire need of help. He beseeched the delegates to propose to their respective societies a tax of one or two cents per month for the support of this Home. He stated that this had nothing to do with the convention, as it was a request for a voluntary contribution on the part of each society. Delegate Rudnicki moved to have this proposition accented, and his motion was carried.

    The second item in the order of the day was the claim of Mrs. Kokosinska, a widow, who asked for payment of death benefits for her husband's death. Her late husband 7had been a member of the Holy Trinity Society of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, but according to Reverend Szymanowski, he had been suspended by the secretary of the society for failure to pay his dues. The widow had made a plea to be paid, and the collectors of the Society came to her support on the grounds that the deceased had been suspended by error. The priest stated that he had the books of the society.

    Delegate Rudnicki motioned that the marshal appoint a committee of five to study claims of this nature. The motion was carried; the marshal named Reverend Rosinski of Cleveland, A. Rudnicki, P. Ligman, Swiatkowski, and Gliniecki of Bay City to the committee, which, together with the secretary of the Polish Roman Catholic Union and Szymanowski, repaired to another room to find a solution to the problem.

    Reverend V. Barzynski gave several letters that had just arrived to the recording secretary, who in turn handed them over to the marshal. The latter instructed the secretary to read them. The letters were from Reverend C. Rohowski of 8Bronson, [Michigan], who regretted that ill health had prevented him from coming: from Reverend Dabrowski of Detroit, who expressed his sorrow for not attending because of lack of time; and from the Sacred Heart of Jesus Society of Morris Run, Pennsylvania, appointing Mr. Wleklinski as its representative at the convention.

    When the reading was over, the marshal ordered Delegate Szopinski to continue the perusal of the suggestions of the committee.

    Save for small changes, the following motions were carried:

    "Assessments, or premiums, will be paid according to age.

    "The task of reclassification of assessments and announcement of new rates will be entrusted to a special committee appointed by the floor, which committee is to complete its work not later than sixty days after appointment. The results are to be turned over to the administration of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, 9which will immediately transfer all matters affecting the organization to the societies, ordering that the payment of the new assessments begin on January 1, 1898.

    "Every member of the Union, or his wife, is to pay one assessment in advance as a deposit and as a guarantee that assessments will be paid regularly.

    "The written assessment, depending upon the membership, is to be paid by the secretary of each society to the secretary of the Polish Roman Catholic Union within thirty days of receiving the order. Societies not abiding by this rule will be suspended and will forfeit their right to any claim against the funds of the parent organization.

    "Suspended societies may be reinstated within thirty days after the date of suspension if they pay their dues, providing that a death does not occur or a member becomes seriously ill in the meantime.

    10

    "Every society belonging to the Polish Roman Catholic Union is to have its own president, secretary, and treasurer. The secretary and the treasurer are to post bonds, which will be kept by the administration of the Union.

    "A member who forty days after the date of his assessment is still in arrears, is to be suspended, and within forty-eight hours the secretary of the society is to send in to the secretary-general a suspension form supplied by the administration of the Polish Roman Catholic Union.

    "A suspended member can be reinstated within thirty days after the date of suspension if he presents himself in person at the regular meeting of his society, pays his dues, and is in good health. After thirty days,a suspended member, if he desires to be reinstated, must bring a certificate of his health from an approved physician."

    New changes concerning the organization of the Polish youth read as follows:

    11

    "The committee urges the assembly to appoint a permanent commission which, with the approval and under orders of the administration of the Union, will be in charge of organizing our Polish youth."

    This motion was enthusiastically supported by several delegates. Delegate Szopinski moved that the commission be composed of five members; Delegate [J.] Mucha moved that seven be appointed; Delegate Lama requested that it be composed of members from various cities; and Reverend V. Barzynski suggested that the commission be authorized to name subcommissions in other cities.

    This gave rise to a heated debate, in which delegates Pyterek, Klarkowski, Mucha Polenz, and others took part. At last, the following motion was carried: "The commission is to be composed of seven members, who are to be appointed by the marshal at tomorrow's session." session."

    The next motion of the committee reads as follows: "To each assessment is to 12be added a tax of one, two, three, or four cents, depending upon the ability of a member or his wife to pay; which tax is to constitute a fund to be held in reserve against hard times or unexpected incidents."

    This motion was readily supported by several members of the assembly and adopted. Thereupon Delegate Szopinski informed the floor that the committee had no other motions to offer and moved for a thirty-minute recess. The motion was carried, and the marshal ordered the assembly to take it easy for half an hour.

    After recess, the marshal called the assembly to order, and since the Grievance Committee was ready with its report, he ordered its chairman to give it.

    Delegate Rudnicki, acting for the Grievance Committee, gave the following report:

    "Concerning the case of Kokosinski, of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, we have been unable to reach a conclusion because of lack of reliable evidence, since the book [membership book] of the society to which Kokosinski belonged contains 13doubtful signatures. Because of this we have decided to postpone this matter until more authentic evidence is received by Reverend Szymanowski from the collectors of the society in question. In the meantime the book and receipts of the society will be delivered into the custody of the secretary-general of the Polish Roman Catholic Union. A final decision will be given by the administration."

    This matter was further discussed. Debates followed in which many members took the floor. Delegate Tomasik moved that the report be accepted without changes, while Delegate Jozwik proposed that the collectors should make their reports under oath. Reverend Szymanowski informed the assembly that, pursuant to the wishes of the committee, the collectors would take an oath in the church. Reverend Lange moved that the oath be taken before a notary public and an affidavit to this effect submitted. In conclusion the report was accepted with the addition of Reverend Lange's suggestion.

    After the disposition of this matter, the marshal asked the floor to speak up, 14inasmuch as the Motions Committee had no more proposals to submit. This brought forth a barrage of motions from various delegates, the more important of which were as follows:

    Delegate Szopinski raised the question as to how the newly suspended societies that wished to be reinstated were going to be treated.

    Delegate Klarkowski moved that the societies in question be given ten days' time to pay their dues for reinstatement: Delegate Mucha suggested that thirty days' time be given. Lama moved in favor of Klarkowski and Tomasik in favor of Mucha. A discussion followed in which Ruszkowski, Tarkowski, Czerwinski, Rudnicki, Slisz, and other participated. Delegate Krolik pointed out that if the societies were to be reinstated, the Polish Roman Catholic Union would be liable for any death that occurred during the interim. In the end the marshal put the motion to a vote. Thirty votes were cast for the thirty-day period and thirty-two for the ten-day period.

    15

    A lengthy discussion ensued over a question made by Delegate Armgart, who asked the floor what would happen to a member over 45 and up to date with his payments, if the society to which he belonged should be suspended by the parent organization. This was discussed by Reverend Barzynski, [J.] Arkuszewski, Mucha, Stachowicz, Slisz, and Ligman. Delegate Grochowski suggested that the member in question could try to get a transfer to another society.

    Delegate Wachowski made the following motion: "A member in good standing who leaves the city to reside on a farm where there is no group affiliated with the Polish Roman Catholic Union, should be maintained as a separate member."

    Delegates Bielinski, Banasiewicz, and Armgart took the floor on this matter. Szopinski presented the following motion as a substitute for Armgart's: "In cases of groups loyal to the Polish Roman Catholic Union but not large enough to form a society of their own, the administration of the Union is to issue them transfer cards to the closest society, under condition that they will be 16entitled to death benefits only, unless the society desires to make special concessions relative to the sick benefit plan. Delegate Bielinski added this: "If such members have their assessments paid to date." This motion was carried.

    Delegate [T.] Krolik asked the floor about the amount of entrance fee that would be charged to members of several years' standing and over 45 years of age in case their societies or they themselves should be suspended, but who desired to be reinstated. Delegate Szopinski informed the floor that the Assessments Committee would undoubtedly include such matters in its report.

    Delegate Slisz inquired as to how much surety should the secretary and treasurer of a society post. The president and marshal took voice on this matter, and Delegate Szopinski moved that the figure should be announced by the administration. This was passed.

    17

    Delegate Klarkowski moved to take up the matter of a charter and that a committee be chosen to take care of this business.

    Reverend Barzynski, who apparently felt slighted, informed the floor that such a committee had been chosen at last year's convention in Philadelphia. This committee worked out an addition to the constitution which was presented and deferred until the special session now being held would accent a new constitution. "When this is done," he continued, "the matter of the charter will be taken up." This brought about a debate in which [P.] Kiolbassa, Mucha, Bielinski, Grochowski, and others took part. The result was that Klarkowski's motion was defeated.

    Delegate Smaglinski of Grand Rapids moved to appoint a committee to audit the books of the secretary. This motion was supported by Tomasik, who added that it be composed of five persons. The marshal appointed the following:

    18

    Smaglinski, Slisz, Swiatkowski, Ratkowski, and Tomasik.

    Delegate Jozwik moved to appoint a special committee to work out an appeal to all societies not as yet belonging to the Polish Roman Catholic Union to join the organization under special conditions within thirty or sixty days.

    Delegate Szopinski moved to have the administration take care of this matter, and Delegate Mucha added that both the administration and the organ [Narod Polski] take this up. The motion passed; however, the floor did not permit the concession of special conditions.

    Delegate Slisz made a motion to choose a committee to examine the cost of publishing the organ of the Polish Roman [Catholic Union]. The marshal explained that this matter should be taken over by the committee that is going to examine the books of the secretary. Delegate Klarkowski insisted that a separate committee of three take over this duty. Lama seconded the motion, and the floor 19passed on it. The marshal appointed the following: Lama, Gasiorowski and Jachimowicz.

    Delegate Szopinski moved to appoint a resolutions committee. Delegate Klarkowski opposed this move on the grounds that it would duplicate the work of the Constitution Committee. As a result, the motion was defeated.

    Because no further motions were presented to the floor, Delegate Rudnicki asked for permission to say a word or two about the organ of the Polish Roman Catholic Union.

    He claimed that, above all, the form at Narod Polski should be altered considerably, and that this weekly should primarily concern itself with matters of the Union, since there are enough Polish newspapers which deal with conditions in general. Rudnicki then criticized the editing of the weekly during recent months. He asserted that the staff lowers and offends other individuals, 20editors, and such organizations as the Polish National Alliance, Polish Union, and others. The speaker suggested that these policies be abandoned, and that no insinuations or lies be cast at persons or institutions. Peace and harmony should be its objective, he concluded.

    Long enthusiastic applause was given the speaker as he sat down. His motions were eagerly supported.

    Delegate Manna pointed out that inasmuch as the main administration is going to issue certificates of membership, these certificates should be returned to it at the time of death and payment of insurance.

    Since it was 6 P.M. and no new motions had been presented, Delegate Slisz moved that the session be adjourned until the following morning at 9 o'clock. Reverend V. Barzynski informed the delegates that the next day was Friday and that requiem services for the dead members of the Union would be held at 8 A.M.

    The meeting was adjourned by the marshal, who, before dismissal, asked the spiritual adviser, Reverend Gutowski, to say a prayer.

    The delegates gathered early for the second day of the Polish Roman Catholic Union convention at the hall of the Saint Stanislaus Kostka school, and when the marshal sounded the ...

    Polish
    III B 4, IV, II D 1, II D 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 08, 1897
    Convention of Polish Military Societies

    The third annual convention of the Union of Polish Military Societies under the Guidance of Saint George, in South Chicago, was held on August 29.

    First of all, representatives of the societies belonging to the Union attended Mass at 9:30 A.M. at Saint Michael Archangel Church. The following societies were present in full regalia: Knights of Saint Mary Society, Division II; Knights of Saint Casimir Society; Independent Krakus Society, Division VIII; Polish Sharpshooters of the Crown of Poland Society; and Knights of Saint Mary Society, Division I.

    The services over, all members assembled at the Saint Michael Parish Hall, and after the roll call the meeting was adjourned until 2 P.M.

    2

    At 2 P.M. the gavel sounded and all delegates and officials of the Union took their proper places. After the checking of credentials, the president, Francis Jurkiewicz, said a prayer. Then the secretary read the minutes from the proceedings of the past year; which were accepted.

    A report presented by the committee on revisions was read, covering conditions of the Union from August 26, 1894, to August 29, 1897. It was revealed that there was $200.91 cash on hand, collected monthly fees at five cents.

    A committee of ten was appointed to revise the constitution. Death benefits are to be set at $300, provided the deceased member belonged to the organization for at least six months before his death.

    No one can become a member of the Union of Polish Military Societies unless he joins a group that is affiliated with it. Individual members are not 3accepted by the Union.

    An election of officers was held, as follows: John Szafranski, president; Charles Witkowski, vice-president; Vincent Witkowski, secretary; F. X. Rydzewski, treasurer.

    Leon Przybyszewski, Francis Wujek, John Nowacki, Joseph Rolewicz, and Adam Kuckowski were chosen for the executive committee.

    All were unanimously accepted and sworn in. The new president, Mr. Szafranski, said a prayer to conclude the convention.

    Vincent Witkowski, secretary,

    8748 Houston Avenue.

    The third annual convention of the Union of Polish Military Societies under the Guidance of Saint George, in South Chicago, was held on August 29. First of all, representatives of ...

    Polish
    III B 4, II D 2, II D 1
  • Narod Polski -- October 06, 1897
    United Efforts

    A special committee of convention delegates of the POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC UNION has started to work in earnest. Two groups have turned in a sworn statement of the state of the treasury of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, a third group worked on the system of past dues of members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, another group is being formed for the purpose of organizing young Poles in the Catholic organization. Members of societies belonging to our organization are helping steadfastly our officers in the hard work of organizing the Polish-American public in a strong organization which would be a strong bulwark against atheism, gather under its care those of wavering faith and tempted by enemies, the weak countryman in a strange land. We will not go in detail as our opponents are doing, we will not fight with sword, remembering the words of Our Lord "He who fights with a sword dies by it."

    We will fight with confidence in God, with words of truth and faith on our lips, under the care of that Patron of ours, who so many times saved our country in her difficulties and in Her mercy is interceding to God to send to the blinded the Holy Ghost to enlighten the hardened stragglers.

    We believe in the intercession of the Heavenly Queen of Poland, we feel the moment is near when light will overcome darkness, when rebellious groups will be converted or disappear.

    2

    The Polish Roman Catholic Union will work to hasten that blessed moment, to gather the scattered groups all over North America not with an artificial and short lived flame but with a powerful knot of brotherly love, our common Catholic faith, and national arms.

    We will not build castles on ice and try to convince the people that the ice is granite, but will slowly and steadily raise a Polish Catholic building of faith on the mount of Jesus built by true patriotism. The ice will melt, the castles will tumble in ruins, but our building will endure through ages, to testify to the power of God, to work with faith. The Jewish-Socialist agitation armed to destroy everything that is holy, to remove "judges with a code" and "priests with mass" has increased greatly in these times, and we need a strong Polish-Catholic organization. This organization is the Polish Roman Catholic Union and its brave members, who stand steadfastly by their organization and work towards its growth.

    In this work other Catholic organizations will undoubtedly help us. We must unite and work together, as one Catholic newspaper says "either in one spirit and one thought and defend together, our faith of our forefathers, spread the glory of God among people, awaken the spirit of patriotism, but not with sharp words but with calm, quiet work, spread morality, education, inspiring 3love of country, which we should love all the more now that she is suppressed and in slavery. We turn a pleading eye to God in whose hand rests the fats of all nations. We hope that other Catholic organizations will help us, laying aside small issues and offering our work on the altar of the general good of Polish public. We must all join hands forgetting all misunderstandings in face of that terrible illness that attacks the Polish American public, this doubt and it's consequences-the schism.

    Our members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union well know the material help in case of death is not our main reason of existence nor our main aim. That is Christian duty, which we rightfully perform.

    Our main aim is to invite Polish-Catholics into one large family, defend our members from false prophets, who having no faith in their hearts, tear it away from others. Sectionists and demagogues having on their lips the word of God even when they are arousing the people to wreck the works of God, that is His Church and her priests, to approach God without intercession, to free from revealed commandants the hearts and thoughts of our people - these are the greatest enemies of our Polish people in America, betraying everyone, God, our people and our country. Against these we must arm ourselves by joining forces, not to attack and fight them, but to defend the teachings of Christ, our Holy Faith and the ideals of our country.

    A special committee of convention delegates of the POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC UNION has started to work in earnest. Two groups have turned in a sworn statement of the state of ...

    Polish
    III B 2, III C, II D 1, III E, I C, I E, II D 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 18, 1897
    New Polish Society Organized

    The Saint Hyacinth Society of Saint Hyacinth Parish, recently organized, and which joined the insurance plan of the Polish Roman Catholic Union immediately after its organization, has already thirty members. The purpose of the new society is to uphold the principles of the Roman Catholic Church and to preserve the customs of the Polish nation.

    The Saint Hyacinth Society of Saint Hyacinth Parish, recently organized, and which joined the insurance plan of the Polish Roman Catholic Union immediately after its organization, has already thirty members. ...

    Polish
    III C, II D 1, II D 2
  • Abendpost -- December 31, 1898
    Germania Life Insurance Company.

    Every German-American can be proud of the Germania Life Insurance Company. This Company was established in 1860 by Hugo Wesendonck. This concern did not desire to glory in extra-ordinary results, but to act in the interest of the insured, according to the best German principles. This characteristic has prevailed up to this time.

    The Germania Life Insurance Company is the only American Insurance Company, which is permitted to function in the whole German Empire. Two Separate investigations of their business method and financial standing resulted in a testimony confirming their methods and standing as sound. Mr. B. Goldsmith and Dr. L. Starkel are the local General Managers. Their office is located at 79 N. Dearborn Street.

    Every German-American can be proud of the Germania Life Insurance Company. This Company was established in 1860 by Hugo Wesendonck. This concern did not desire to glory in extra-ordinary results, ...

    German
    II D 2
  • Revyen -- December 01, 1900
    [Dania Celebrates]

    November 23 Dania celebrated its 38th anniversary. About 100 members were present. Peter Mikkelsen, the president, bade welcome to the assemblage. Henry L. Hertz was the toastmaster of the evening. Among the many speakers of the day we may mention: Peter J. Noer, Geo. Hoffmann, Fritz Frantzen, H. Ockenholt, Dr. K. Johnson, C. Antonsen and Chas. Ryberg.

    Several humorous song's were written by Louis Henius and sung by the audience.

    November 23 Dania celebrated its 38th anniversary. About 100 members were present. Peter Mikkelsen, the president, bade welcome to the assemblage. Henry L. Hertz was the toastmaster of the evening. ...

    Danish
    II B 1 c 3, II D 2
  • Revyen -- December 01, 1900
    [Concerning the History of the Danes of Chicago]

    Mr. Volkmar Johnson writes a very interesting article about the greatest marquerade in the history of Dania; this event took place February 28, 1874.

    The Tammany and the Tweed ring went to pieces about this time. Among those that suffered from this catastrophe was also a Danish merchant, Jesper Nicolai Hansen, called Oil-Hansen. Hansen was a sailor from Helsinger, Denmark. He came to Chicago and became the first prominent Hansen on the Northwest Side. He died soon after. His oldest son, Nic Hansen, and another brother came a lot to Dania;but as he was not born in Denmark he could not became a member of said society. But he was nevertheless well liked by all. Later on he became head-bookkeeper in a National Bank in Chicago.

    In 1874 the Mukker-party was at its height. It was anti everything and much hated by the Germans in Chicago. The result was that old captain Hanzen 2from New York with German money started a Danish paper, Friheden (Freedom); and Hoffman Schmitt, a Dane, became the editor. The aim of the paper was to fight the Mukker-party. Dania therefore resolved to make their masquerade a political event.

    Tickets went to two dollars pro persona. All scenes and costumes were realistic and up-to-date. The two most prominent men of the whole affair were Hoffman Schmidt and Gustav Mueller. (See Revyen, December 8, 1900)

    Mr. Volkmar Johnson writes a very interesting article about the greatest marquerade in the history of Dania; this event took place February 28, 1874. The Tammany and the Tweed ring ...

    Danish
    II B 1 c 3, II D 2, II B 2 d 1, I C
  • Revyen -- December 01, 1900
    [Concerning the History of the Danes of Chicago]

    Mr. Volkmar Johnson writes a very interesting article about the greatest marquerade in the history of Dania; this event took place February 28, 1874.

    The Tammany and the Tweed ring went to pieces about this time. Among those that suffered from this catastrophe was also a Danish merchant, Jesper Nicolai Hansen, called Oil-Hansen. Hansen was a sailor from Helsinger, Denmark. He came to Chicago and became the first prominent Hansen on the Northwest Side. He died soon after. His oldest son, Nic Hansen, and another brother came a lot to Dania;but as he was not born in Denmark he could not became a member of said society. But he was nevertheless well liked by all. Later on he became head-bookkeeper in a National Bank in Chicago.

    In 1874 the Mukker-party was at its height. It was anti everything and much hated by the Germans in Chicago. The result was that old captain Hanzen 2from New York with German money started a Danish paper, Friheden (Freedom); and Hoffman Schmitt, a Dane, became the editor. The aim of the paper was to fight the Mukker-party. Dania therefore resolved to make their masquerade a political event.

    Tickets went to two dollars pro persona. All scenes and costumes were realistic and up-to-date. The two most prominent men of the whole affair were Hoffman Schmidt and Gustav Mueller. (See Revyen, December 8, 1900)

    Mr. Volkmar Johnson writes a very interesting article about the greatest marquerade in the history of Dania; this event took place February 28, 1874. The Tammany and the Tweed ring ...

    Danish
    II B 1 c 3, II D 2, II B 2 d 1, I C