The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Svenska Tribunen -- January 02, 1895
    The Spiritual Life of the Swedish-Americans

    The life in America, which is changing in many respects for the immigrant, also has a powerful influence on the inner man. The Swede, who, do doubt, is very sensitive to new impulses and impressions, very easily yields to what we term the American spirit, whereby we mean the spiritual atmosphere in which we are living. With this we understand that he is willing to submit to existing customs and that he is living the American life as it appears here. In other words, he learns to look at things and their existence from the American point of view. He is morally and physically changed from Swedish to American, but it does not occur without a fight. It depends upon his education. The more educated he is in the old country the harder it is for him to leave the peculiar Swedish life and to appear in a new national outfit.

    We will now choose from the large crowd one example we can call typical - a young worker, who has been out one or two years in the public schools, where he received 2sufficient learning to understand how helpless he was in his own country, and whose first year in America was the most remarkable year in his entire life. It was then he floated between two worlds, uncertain as to which of them he should choose, if he ought to go back to the Swedish or stick to the American side, still so strange, cold, and uninviting. He felt himself lost to his native country, and was disappointed in his new place. The people seemed to be so cold and calculating. He had thought that life would continue like a dance on the new earth and that is would be very easy to secure a job.

    Instead he had to seek opportunities to secure a job for a long time. Then he really felt deceived in his dream about life in the New World. When in this mood and in this situation he looked at the rushing stream of life, he shivered and yearned wholeheartedly for that calm little cottage in his native country, where parents, sisters, and brothers were still living. It felt so peculiar in his soul. Should he lose his Swedish qualities and thus everything human?

    3

    It appeared so to him in his first fight between that inner Swedish and the outward American life. But he is winning this fight. The second year comes with continued fight. He is not yet reconcilled with his fate. A new victory follows; he begins to distinguish some of the American high-spots, he also, begins to feel that the conditions for success here depend upon the grade of zeal, with which he makes himself acquainted with the conditions here. He understands now, that he must submit himself to the institutions of the new country, not they to him and to his taste.

    The third year brings the conviction that America is yet the best country on earth for the one, who has to work. He has now learned to speak good English and through this has been more closely affiliated with people in general. He has found out at the same time and to his surprise that thest strange people are better than he at first thought.

    4

    The fourth year develops a new consciousness in him. He begins to feel that he is a part of the great mass and that he has ambition here, an ambition higher than the worker or the professional man - a political and moral ambition.

    He becomes a citizen in the fifth year (if he has taken out his "first paper".) He becomes an American anyhow with or without the citizenship certificate, because a psychological change has occured. The Swedish characteristics in name disappeared in favor of a more cosmopolitical manner of thought, and the remembrance of the old home, which in the beginning overshadowed the light sides of his present life has been forced into the background, where it is preserved as pictures are in an art gallery, beautiful and dear, but also a bit cold, except in those moments, when a letter from the old country recalls them to life. In short; he is now wed to the new earth and every year fastens him by a new thought or emotion to the great Republic, which he has learned to love as his country. And yet, he is still Swedish in the depths of his soul. He has not changed spiritually. It is superfinally that his spirit has been modified to suit the outward conditions in that country where he is active. Meet him a half century after his arrival and 5you will find him still a Swede at the bottom, although not on the surface. His political views, his general conception of the world, and his manners are all American or republican if you please; but his prejudices and his likes, his inner man, his whole temper, are, and will stay, Swedish. What is peculiarly great of the Swede stays forever with the Swedish-American, and what is small with the former also follows the latter through his whole life. The Swedish qualities appear more clearly under the American sun. This might arouse the question: How can he be thoroughly Americanized when he still is so Swedish? Because the process of americanizing him dosen't change a man into an entirely different human. The best in the Swedish nature has a very good basis in the American life and the worst in his nature is maintained by the world situation. To be Americanized is hardly anything more that to heartily endorse the republican form of government and then obey it honestly.

    What we have said so far in regard to the Swedish-American and the influence the American life has had on his spiritual expansion concernes only that individual 6who is so placed that he daily come into contact with people of all types in society and in business. It is different with him, who settled further or in the primeval forest far way from the great highways. Many such remains almost entirely untouched with the American spirit, while some come under its influence but slightly. Such a Swedish colony or colonist located on the furthest border line or American civilization is a very interesting psychological study.

    What the observer notices first it that this monotonous pioneer life puts its stamp on the religious element of the Swede. Separation from the outer world turns his senses inward. The first visible effect of it is homesickness. He knows how fruitless it is to think of seeing the beloved ones he left on the shore of the ocean. How can he then be reconciled with himself and his fate? He dosen't know, but he seeks his consolation in the hope of meeting them sooner or later in another home, the eternal one. When he separated from everything to which his heart has fastened, realizes how pershible everything earthly is, He seeks the eternal with so much more ferver. That is one of the reasons for the erection of so many Swedish churches and prayer houses, which have sprung up during the last thirty years in the American west.

    7

    The Swedish-American has an unusually deep, half glad, half melancholy of feeling at this time of the year when the Christmas and New Year holidays are being celebrated. Memories of his old country over take him, so to speak, and his heart bleeds, because he misses that little world and the beloved ones over there. How willingly he stretches the wings of the spirit towards the beloved land in the North, but how deceived he feels when, year after year he discovers that Christmas in this country is not what it was at home and that he is losing more and more that Christmas spirit during the first two or three years in America!

    Has he then lost anything of himself? He believes that and feels sorry for himself. Yet he is the same person in reality. That which he thought was lost has only sunk deeper into his soul and will spring from there as the flowers from the earth when spring arrives.

    The life in America, which is changing in many respects for the immigrant, also has a powerful influence on the inner man. The Swede, who, do doubt, is very sensitive ...

    Swedish
    III A, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 02, 1895
    Let Us Strive Toward Higher Education

    Every broad-minded person will admit the fact that there is a lack of an intellectual group among Polish-American citizenry. There are individual cases, that is true, but these do not comprise an intellectual class.

    The fire and desire for education among our Polish youth in America is lacking to an extent that it is hardly believable. In America, where the ambition of youth does not stop after securing a degree, our Polish youth can barely muster enough energy to prepare for First Holy Communion [Translator's note: During this period (1890's) a child had to be in the higher grade of the elementary school and at least twelve years of age before he could get his First Holy Communion. This, of course, has reference to the Polish parochial schools].

    In all the twelve free public high schools of the city of Chicago it is doubtful 2whether there are more than ten Polish teachers. During the past three years only one Polish young man, Mr. Jezierny, and one Polish young lady, Miss Frances Mikitynska, received diplomas in these schools. There also are about ten Polish students at the Jesuit High School, but a part of this number is enrolled in the business course and not the general course.

    On the list of public school teachers in Chicago for 1892-93 only three Polish names were found, namely, Anna Drezmal [also Drzemala], Wanda Ladynska, and Otylia Mikulska. The latter two were teachers of German and had received their training abroad. Miss Mikitynska was appointed a teacher last year. This small number is the entire representation of the Polish people of Chicago, whose number is the largest in America.

    There is a mere handful of Polish students in universities and other institutions of learning.

    3

    At the University of Chicago there are at present four students bearing typical Polish names: Lipski, Witkowski, Pienkowski, and Jarzebski, but only the last named is a Pole; Witkowski and Lipski are Jewish. Pienkowski, although of Polish descent, does not know a word of Polish.

    Northwestern University has two Polish students, a young man who is training for a pharmacist and Miss Dowiatowna, who is studying medicine.

    Mr. Klosowski is the only Pole attending the University of Illinois at the present time.

    In the other technical and professional institutions of Chicago the following names are found: Messrs. Sawicki and Zurawski, who attend classes at a technical school, and Mr. Kuflewski, who is studying medicine.

    4

    Six of the above-mentioned students completed their training in the "Gymnasium" or high school, in Europe and not in America.

    It is very sad indeed to have such a meager representation in our higher institutions of learning, because the Poles number over 50,000 in Chicago.

    These facts are given because I have often become saddened by them and because my greatest desire is to see the Poles take greater advantage of the educational opportunities offered in Chicago. Would to God that this appeal would only urge one Pole to have his children receive the benefits of higher education.

    Every broad-minded person will admit the fact that there is a lack of an intellectual group among Polish-American citizenry. There are individual cases, that is true, but these do not ...

    Polish
    I A 1 a, II A 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 03, 1895
    The Duty of the Press (Contribution)

    Every newspaper ought to make an effort above all to awaken the greatest number of intellectuals in society, to encourage them to avail themselves of their position, and stimulate them to activity, education and understanding of their position and duties in life.

    Every paper throughout the world, including the United States, ought to live a general life, not an individual one. The papers should not be primarily concerned with their own individual desires and private ventures. Each newspaper ought to feel and understand all the needs that may arise in society during the course of time.

    If the journalist will always and everywhere step out as a citizen, if in his articles he will consider beforehand the kind of words that will reach 2the general reader, if he will take note of his true usefulness along with the purpose of his aims, and the steps by which these aims are to be achieved, if the demands and needs of society will be his goal and not the applause of a thoughtless crowd, only then will his purpose be carried out faithfully, only then will he be a useful doer for society.

    ....Onward! Onward toward the sun!

    Darkness is our constant foe!

    There where the light is the brightest--

    That is where truth lies, that is the place of God!

    One of the first duties of a newspaper ought to be the awakening of the people toward education.

    The journal ought to spread far and wide the fact that education for all is essential to life, just as bread and water, as sleep and activity, as health and thought; but it ought to support only the true culture, supported by 3eternal truth.

    He who desires culture for all certainly does not have his personal interest at heart, and so will profit sooner or later from it. Knowledge is power; it alone can give a lasting foundation upon which it is possible to build moral and material success.

    The second important obligation of the press, especially the Polish press, ought to be its interest in youth. It should work in the direction of helping youth by stimulating it to unity and activity and by awakening its hearts and thoughts toward the ideals of nationalism. The saddest and most often-repeated folly committed by our Polish youth is its utter disregard and disrespect for our past and our national life. This, however, is not true of all our youth. A good portion of the younger Polish people, according to reports, have a warm and sincere feeling toward nationalism. We also know how to draw the remainder into our fold and encourage them to become active.

    4

    But this work must be intellectual and constructive. It is not wise to hold the truth from youth. Yet if it is to be imparted to them, one must not only be deeply convinced about its results but also be able to watch over it, as in administering medicine; for sometimes the organism may not respond to the curative measures, and may develop into a more serious problem.

    Love for youth, along with patient work with youth, is of primary importance. Let us do as the poet says:

    Let us on our garden plots

    A small plant start to grow,

    Thought the smallest blade may sprout,

    Or start a small spark aglow...

    And night will turn into day.

    This day.this glowing of hearts and minds, I sincerely wish to all of 5our youth and all of us, for youth is our future!

    B. Klarkowski

    Every newspaper ought to make an effort above all to awaken the greatest number of intellectuals in society, to encourage them to avail themselves of their position, and stimulate them ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 03, 1895
    Contributions for the Holy Family Orphanage

    The Holy Family Orphanage received contributions from the following: desti-

    Our Lady of Sorrows Society of St. Adalbert Parish, $5; Mrs. Slominska of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, $10; and The Women's Rosary Society of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, $3.30.

    The Holy Family Orphanage received contributions from the following: desti- Our Lady of Sorrows Society of St. Adalbert Parish, $5; Mrs. Slominska of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, $10; and The ...

    Polish
    II D 4, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 03, 1895
    Four Plays to Be Presented by School Children

    The school children of St. Mary of Perpetual Help Parish, under the supervision of the Franciscan Sisters, are to present four plays, two in English [titles not given] and two in Polish; namely, "Lakomy Doktor" (The Greedy Doctor) and "Maly Nauczyciel" (The Little Teacher), on January 6 at Kaiser's Hall. The proceeds are to go toward the building of a new parish school. Besides the short plays, songs, drills and recitations will be given. All those wishing to enjoy a pleasant evening and see what the parish school children can do are cordially invited to attend. The program will start at 7:30 P. M.

    The school children of St. Mary of Perpetual Help Parish, under the supervision of the Franciscan Sisters, are to present four plays, two in English [titles not given] and two ...

    Polish
    II B 1 c 1, I A 2 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 03, 1895
    Reverend Vincent Barzynski Delivers Address at Polish Mass Meeting

    At the mass meeting held Sunday at the Polish Hall, Reverend Vincent Barzynski gave the following address relative to the method of commemorating 1895 as a year of mourning throughout St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, of which he is pastor:

    "Our national year of mourning is either to be something great, holy and important as the very meaning of the words imply, or it must be turned into some kind of a farce, as a French imposition or an American humbug.

    "If the latter were to occur then it is of no use for me to continue to speak; however, I believe otherwise, dear friends, about your patriotism and feeling toward the motherland. For which of you does not feel the stigma of the heavy wrongs and sorrows which our people rose against a hundred years ago.

    2

    "We Poles in America, especially those in the large cities and towns, feel the brunt of these past burdens the more, and that is why we should strongly commemorate 1895 as a year of national mourning. We are the sons of the Polish fathers who have already died or are dying for their country, for our beloved Poland, this mother of heroes and saints, this bulwark of Christianity, and this sun of Slavic civilization.

    "Just as in torn Poland, so here the hand of the enemy is reaching out and tearing apart that which could unite, awaken, elevate, and envelop our scattered nation with respect.

    "The enemies of our people have sent and are sending daily so-called emissaries to organize various pseudo-patriotic factions, only to prevent the Poles, especially the Polish youth, from uniting into one group, a group that would embody patriotic and nationalistic virtues for the unification of our youth and the elevation of its moral, national, patriotic, and educational feelings. The work of these agents has been directed toward leading our Polish youth astray. And 3during the coming year, this epochal moment of sorrow, their activities are even more concentrated.

    "The poor Polish-American youth, as a result, is being drawn into numerous factions. Here in Chicago are found camps of debauchery and idleness, camps of prodigality and family disorganization, camps of false patriotism where all the pompous speakers come to the conclusion that our enemies have long ago adopted; that Polish schools are unnecessary (because they are Polish and Catholic), that our youth should not think about its fatherland, that work for the Polish national cause is foolish, that contributions for the Polish National Fund are not necessary.....For what reason, they say, should the Polish-Americans create such a fund? They would not know what to do with it!

    "This is indeed sad in many respects. It is sad the more because these camps and one-sided factions, which follow their own particular program of weakening the Polish national spirit, have a common aim....All of them, although they carry on all kinds of misunderstandings among themselves, join together and attack the central Polish order--the Polish Catholic.

    4

    "Is this not desperate? Is it not painful to look upon these conditions?

    "This is the reason for our national mourning, a mourning for every Pole who knows what the fatherland is, and who has respect and love for it as a son cherishes his mother. It is this son who clearly sees the dangers threatening our mother, our Poland.

    "In the presence of such dangers, in view of the possible loss of our youth for the national cause, it is not right for us to observe this year, as was done for a century, in silent mourning. It is not right to stay by the wayside. The festive shroud of silent mourning should be cast away and exchanged for one of diligent work.

    "We are in need of action--action which will bring about a cure. We will make an especial effort during 1895 for such action.

    "Amid the thought of the above desires, I open debate for the realization of 5such resolutions, devoted toward better patriotic work during 1895, a year of Polish national mourning."

    After the conclusion of this address by Reverend Barzynski, the mass meeting was started on its way. Details were given in yesterday's issue.

    At the mass meeting held Sunday at the Polish Hall, Reverend Vincent Barzynski gave the following address relative to the method of commemorating 1895 as a year of mourning throughout ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, III C, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 04, 1895
    St. Adalbert Parish to Commemorate 1895 as Year of National Mourning

    The representatives of all the Polish societies of St. Adalbert Parish held a general meeting on December 25, 1894, at Pulaski Hall for the purpose of making plans for commemorating 1895 as a year of national mourning [1895 marks the 100th anniversary of the third partition of Poland]. The following resolution was adopted:

    "Because April 24, 1895, marks the one hundredth anniversary of the third partition of Poland by her enemies, namely, Russia, Austria and Prussia;

    "Because the Polish nation, which has always and everywhere protected the rights of freedom and religion of other peoples, did not offer any cause for such ignominious and bloody dismemberment of our country and people;

    "Because, for over a hundred years we have innocently borne the servitude 2and the horrid and bloody persecution dealt us by the three powers, Russia, Prussia and Austria, which have taken away our country and now wish to take away our language and faith;

    "Therefore we resolve:

    "From January 1, 1895, to May 3, 1895, to renounce voluntarily all social activity and pleasures as an indication of our mourning for partitioned Poland.

    "We appeal to every righteous Pole to deny himself all worldly pleasures during the above prescribed time, to supplement this with deep reflection upon our country's past, and to take active part in work for the good of our nation, thereby showing to others that we not only know how to love our country but that we also want to cherish it.

    "We protest against the tyrannies and persecutions of our brothers who 3live on torn Polish land, and against the violated rights which were guaranteed them in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna."

    This resolution has been distributed to the Polish and English press.

    The representatives of all the Polish societies of St. Adalbert Parish held a general meeting on December 25, 1894, at Pulaski Hall for the purpose of making plans for commemorating ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, III H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 05, 1895
    The Polish Hospital of Chicago

    At the present time when the New Year has just begun, when stock of last year's activity has not been completed, I wish to recall to the mind of our Polish society of Chicago the Polish Hospital, which was organized by the Sisters of Nazareth about a year ago. I am not going to bring to light the needs and usefulness of this institution. Everyone of us is familiar and aware of its advantages.

    When this hospital was organized, the general Polish public not only gave it recognition and support, but also did not spare any material assistance, and willingly hurried to give it aid.

    Unfortunately, this ardent support for so noble a cause soon cooled. Today the Polish people have practically forgotten that the Polish Hospital exists, that it needs our help. It is very simple to play upon our feelings. As soon as someone makes known someone's misfortunes and needs, generous gifts and 2contributions come from everywhere to give succor to the stricken. But alas, we are not systematic with our donations.

    We burst forth like an ignited match, which quickly gives a bright glow and as quickly burns out, only to let our fire quickly pass away. This is the picture of our generosity. It is simple for us to create something on the spur of the moment, but it is difficult for us to continue to support this new creation. In this respect we can compare our nature with that of a woman who cries easily because of sentimental reasons, but cannot continue to cherish this sentiment for long, that is, to retain the first impression and noble impulse to the end.

    We virtually pass from one thing to another with unbelievable levity. Today we abandon for new things the things we ardently supported yesterday, only to drop them on the morrow for newer ones.

    This holds true for our Polish Hospital. Our support is gradually cooling.

    3

    And yet this institution has accomplished a great good. During the short existence of this hospital, fifty-five persons were under its care, twenty-eight of whom were cared for free of charge. At the present time there are ten patients. Every doctor on the hospital's staff is at their disposal. The hospital is conducted under the best order and is scrupulously clean. The Nazareth Sisters do not spare any trouble or work, and are devoutly attached to their duties of caring for the sick. The ailing not only find tender care during their sickness but also moral support, something that at times is of greater value. Each patient hears sweet words of solace and courage which cannot be found in other hospitals.

    Honor and recognition is due a hundredfold to these worthy caretakers. But recognition is not their only due; active support, material aid from the general Polish public is also necessary.

    It is the purpose of this article to remind the Polish people. It is hoped that this reminder will strike at the appropriate time. The New Year has just started.

    4

    Only recently we have distributed gifts during Christmas. Is it justifiable to forget during this distribution the exceptional work of the Polish Hospital? No! On the contrary, it is believed that the Polish people will recall to themselves their duty during this New Year. They will come to realize their laxity, and once again they will not stint on their aid to the hospital. Let us be merciful and the Lord will reward us a hundredfold for our every contribution given in the name of mercy. Above all, let our more prosperous countrymen not forget this Polish institution. Let all our Polish societies offer donations, even if it is only a few dollars. No one will become poor because of this kindness, and at the same time these offerings will be of great help and the purpose of the hospital will be fulfilled.

    Let masses of people come to the assistance of this worthy institution, but not those that always carry the burdens of beneficence; let the masses be constant in their support.

    Could not a few pennies go toward the support of the Polish Hospital along with 5the large offerings and collections for other causes? Only through constant support will this institution be able to fulfill its intended purposes and strive for better and bigger accomplishments in the future.

    "Let us be merciful and we will attain mercy" (sic). The Polish Hospital has been erected under such a concept, and in case of need requires our mercy.

    B. Klarkowski

    At the present time when the New Year has just begun, when stock of last year's activity has not been completed, I wish to recall to the mind of our ...

    Polish
    II D 3, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 05, 1895
    Contributions for Polish League

    The following contributions were received by the secretary of the Polish League, Stanislaus Szwajkart: Francis Czachorski, of South Chicago, gave $1, of which twelve cents was designated for the Polish National Fund; Anthony Polene gave eighty-five cents for the Polish National Fund. The following persons contributed twelve cents each for the Polish League: Casimir, Vincent, Marianne, Stanislaus, and Stanislaus Zenty, of 876 West 18th Street, and Anthony Luczak, 930 Van Horn Street; Martha Luczak gave thirteen cents. Edmund Jarecki, teacher at St. Stanislaus Kostka College, gave fifty cents for the educational branch of the Polish League.

    The following contributions were received by the secretary of the Polish League, Stanislaus Szwajkart: Francis Czachorski, of South Chicago, gave $1, of which twelve cents was designated for the Polish ...

    Polish
    III B 2, IV
  • L'italia -- January 06, 1895
    [Society Elects New Officers]

    The Sicilian Crenocria Society has elected a new administrative group for the coming year. They are: Formusa Vincent, president, Joseph Zuccaro, vice-president, Joseph La Mantia, recording secretary, Francis Piazza Palotto, financial secretary, Carmel Triolo, treasurer, Louis D'Asaro, Joseph Pusateri and Joseph Cusanti, trustees, Joseph Pusateri, and Mario Arena, committeemen on sick benefits, Paul La Rocco, marshal, Joseph La Mantia, chaplain, Leonard Gelardi, sergeant-at-arms,Michael De Cola, standard bearer, William Campagna, Italian flag bearer and Salvatore Cannella, American flag bearer.

    The Sicilian Crenocria Society has elected a new administrative group for the coming year. They are: Formusa Vincent, president, Joseph Zuccaro, vice-president, Joseph La Mantia, recording secretary, Francis Piazza Palotto, ...

    Italian
    II D 1, V A 1