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L'italia -- January 01, 1895Sentence Confirmed
Judge Hortonhas refused the appeal of Beriedetto Di Iono, and the prisoner is now in Joliet serving his twenty-one year sentence, less the time allowed for good behaviour.
It was while playing cards and imbibing too much wine with friends at Clinton and Ewing, that Di Iono in a fit of rage during an argument of his own instigation, stabbed Domenico De Cristofaro to death.
He was arrested and after the coroner's verdict of guilty he was held to the grand jury which indicated him and ordered his trial in a criminal court.
The trial took place last October, and the jury finding him guilty, he was sentenced to Joliet for the term before mentioned.2
Di IONO appealed the sentence but as stated at beginning of this article his appeal was refused.
We cannot condemn too much this vicious habit of carrying a knife.
Judge Hortonhas refused the appeal of Beriedetto Di Iono, and the prisoner is now in Joliet serving his twenty-one year sentence, less the time allowed for good behaviour. It was ...
II E 2
L'italia -- January 02, 1895(No headline)
Ten Years. (An Editorial).
Ten Years! Much is the work we have accomplished, many the victories won, many the defeats experienced. Ten Years! An epoch of change in ideas and customs; but for this paper an epoch at the end of which it finds itself in the fore-front fighting the fight of the oppressed without a thought to any reward.
During these ten years, we have had to change our tactics to meet the change in those of our opponents, but we still adhere to our program of liberty and justice with which we began our fight, a program which we shall continue to follow as a star that guides the lone traveler on his way.
We have been the recipients of threats, but we have laughed them down, to persecutions we shrugged our shoulders, and temptations when they came too close, were made to feel the flame of our wrath, and fled like birds of the night at the appearance of dawn.2
To do battle in a good cause, we were never too tired or unprepared. When the issue involved the integrity of the colony, when impostors and charlatans tried to impose their will to the detriment of the many, we have fought serenely on the field of battle knowing that we were fighting for the best interests of the independent and honest majority.
We have gone into the field against the "bosses", political and industrial, to protect the interests of the Italian worker. We have unveiled the shameful corruption existing on the West Side, carried by a clique with utter disregard for law and order. We have not allowed old and tried friendships to deviate us from the path of what we considered our duty, and there is now one of the Italian colony's most corrupt members on trial, criminally accused of having attempted to railroad a poor cripple to jail.
Although we could go on indefinitely speaking on the merits of this newspaper, the special features, our foreign and up to the minute correspondence, we need only point to our large and growing circulation as our best advertisement. And so we wish you all a Happy New Year.
Ten Years. (An Editorial). Ten Years! Much is the work we have accomplished, many the victories won, many the defeats experienced. Ten Years! An epoch of change in ideas and ...
II B 2 d 1, II E 1, II E 2, I F 6, I H
Secondary listingsItalian // Contributions and Activities > Crime and Delinquency > Organized Crime (II E 1) ?
Italian // Contributions and Activities > Crime and Delinquency > Individual Crime (II E 2) ?
Italian // Attitudes > Politics > Graft and Corruption (I F 6) ?
Italian // Attitudes > Social Problems and Social Legislation (I H) ?
Svenska Tribunen -- January 02, 1895The Spiritual Life of the Swedish-Americans
The life in America, which is changing in many respects for the immigrant, also has a powerful influence on the inner man. The Swede, who, do doubt, is very sensitive to new impulses and impressions, very easily yields to what we term the American spirit, whereby we mean the spiritual atmosphere in which we are living. With this we understand that he is willing to submit to existing customs and that he is living the American life as it appears here. In other words, he learns to look at things and their existence from the American point of view. He is morally and physically changed from Swedish to American, but it does not occur without a fight. It depends upon his education. The more educated he is in the old country the harder it is for him to leave the peculiar Swedish life and to appear in a new national outfit.
We will now choose from the large crowd one example we can call typical - a young worker, who has been out one or two years in the public schools, where he received 2sufficient learning to understand how helpless he was in his own country, and whose first year in America was the most remarkable year in his entire life. It was then he floated between two worlds, uncertain as to which of them he should choose, if he ought to go back to the Swedish or stick to the American side, still so strange, cold, and uninviting. He felt himself lost to his native country, and was disappointed in his new place. The people seemed to be so cold and calculating. He had thought that life would continue like a dance on the new earth and that is would be very easy to secure a job.
Instead he had to seek opportunities to secure a job for a long time. Then he really felt deceived in his dream about life in the New World. When in this mood and in this situation he looked at the rushing stream of life, he shivered and yearned wholeheartedly for that calm little cottage in his native country, where parents, sisters, and brothers were still living. It felt so peculiar in his soul. Should he lose his Swedish qualities and thus everything human?3
It appeared so to him in his first fight between that inner Swedish and the outward American life. But he is winning this fight. The second year comes with continued fight. He is not yet reconcilled with his fate. A new victory follows; he begins to distinguish some of the American high-spots, he also, begins to feel that the conditions for success here depend upon the grade of zeal, with which he makes himself acquainted with the conditions here. He understands now, that he must submit himself to the institutions of the new country, not they to him and to his taste.
The third year brings the conviction that America is yet the best country on earth for the one, who has to work. He has now learned to speak good English and through this has been more closely affiliated with people in general. He has found out at the same time and to his surprise that thest strange people are better than he at first thought.4
The fourth year develops a new consciousness in him. He begins to feel that he is a part of the great mass and that he has ambition here, an ambition higher than the worker or the professional man - a political and moral ambition.
He becomes a citizen in the fifth year (if he has taken out his "first paper".) He becomes an American anyhow with or without the citizenship certificate, because a psychological change has occured. The Swedish characteristics in name disappeared in favor of a more cosmopolitical manner of thought, and the remembrance of the old home, which in the beginning overshadowed the light sides of his present life has been forced into the background, where it is preserved as pictures are in an art gallery, beautiful and dear, but also a bit cold, except in those moments, when a letter from the old country recalls them to life. In short; he is now wed to the new earth and every year fastens him by a new thought or emotion to the great Republic, which he has learned to love as his country. And yet, he is still Swedish in the depths of his soul. He has not changed spiritually. It is superfinally that his spirit has been modified to suit the outward conditions in that country where he is active. Meet him a half century after his arrival and 5you will find him still a Swede at the bottom, although not on the surface. His political views, his general conception of the world, and his manners are all American or republican if you please; but his prejudices and his likes, his inner man, his whole temper, are, and will stay, Swedish. What is peculiarly great of the Swede stays forever with the Swedish-American, and what is small with the former also follows the latter through his whole life. The Swedish qualities appear more clearly under the American sun. This might arouse the question: How can he be thoroughly Americanized when he still is so Swedish? Because the process of americanizing him dosen't change a man into an entirely different human. The best in the Swedish nature has a very good basis in the American life and the worst in his nature is maintained by the world situation. To be Americanized is hardly anything more that to heartily endorse the republican form of government and then obey it honestly.
What we have said so far in regard to the Swedish-American and the influence the American life has had on his spiritual expansion concernes only that individual 6who is so placed that he daily come into contact with people of all types in society and in business. It is different with him, who settled further or in the primeval forest far way from the great highways. Many such remains almost entirely untouched with the American spirit, while some come under its influence but slightly. Such a Swedish colony or colonist located on the furthest border line or American civilization is a very interesting psychological study.
What the observer notices first it that this monotonous pioneer life puts its stamp on the religious element of the Swede. Separation from the outer world turns his senses inward. The first visible effect of it is homesickness. He knows how fruitless it is to think of seeing the beloved ones he left on the shore of the ocean. How can he then be reconciled with himself and his fate? He dosen't know, but he seeks his consolation in the hope of meeting them sooner or later in another home, the eternal one. When he separated from everything to which his heart has fastened, realizes how pershible everything earthly is, He seeks the eternal with so much more ferver. That is one of the reasons for the erection of so many Swedish churches and prayer houses, which have sprung up during the last thirty years in the American west.7
The Swedish-American has an unusually deep, half glad, half melancholy of feeling at this time of the year when the Christmas and New Year holidays are being celebrated. Memories of his old country over take him, so to speak, and his heart bleeds, because he misses that little world and the beloved ones over there. How willingly he stretches the wings of the spirit towards the beloved land in the North, but how deceived he feels when, year after year he discovers that Christmas in this country is not what it was at home and that he is losing more and more that Christmas spirit during the first two or three years in America!
Has he then lost anything of himself? He believes that and feels sorry for himself. Yet he is the same person in reality. That which he thought was lost has only sunk deeper into his soul and will spring from there as the flowers from the earth when spring arrives.
The life in America, which is changing in many respects for the immigrant, also has a powerful influence on the inner man. The Swede, who, do doubt, is very sensitive ...
III A, I C
Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 02, 1895A Year of National Mourning
What should the national mourning in 1895 signify?
Strictly speaking, this mourning cannot mean anything else than the gathering of strength for the national cause; recollection of previous hardships for the sake of Polish posterity, which is to live in a liberated Poland; revival of the spirit and a brighter awakening of the people upon the aspect of the century of fruitless efforts and struggles, which sadly terminated one after the other in greater sorrows and downfalls.
Let us bespread our brows with ashes, do penance, be compassionate, in order to be resurrected.
We have fallen through our own fault and the malediction of this fault, which, despite the numerous tests, is continuously with us. And today the candid patriotism of the Polish people is being replaced by a certain number of 2compatriots who shield themselves under the guise of patriotism. This particular type of loyalty only arouses the enemies of our people to scoff at and to despise our Polish patriotism. The enemies assert that this patriotic shield tries to cover up the abominable discords, intrigues and treacheries among the Poles, which cannot be hidden by any front or disguise.
Love for the fatherland became aroused--not in all, but in many--by an external formula, without quintessence and significance. And this formula was used to hide, from the most vile, the plans of those dealing with the downfall of the country [Poland]. Spies and enemies held no regard for the revered meaning of the words and began to use and abuse them, for they realized how frivolously and hypocritically the term of patriotism was expressed by the so-called "professional" pseudo-patriots.
Alas, this is the sorrow of sorrows in Polish hearts where true patriotism beats. These are the hearts that hide themselves from this horrible infection by the strictest form of mourning.3
Today--the year of mourning--in the presence of this contagious disease of falsehood, which comes from the miserly shams of stuffed patriotism, we should rise above it all through sorrow and penitence and awaken ourselves to the actual truth--a truth that is as clear as a drop of dew--and love for the fatherland.....By awakening ourselves and others to the realization of the danger of losing our national faith, we will avoid falling into an ambush and avoid developing into undesirable souls.
Today the primary essential and absolute obligation of every true lover of Polish nationalism and the fatherland is the concentration of loyalty and unity, the consideration of the best method of co-operation in kindling the fire in the true-spirited Poles, and the stamping out of the loathsome disease which contaminates the life and health of the Polish nation.
This year of mourning ought to be a year of our rebirth.
It is of less importance how we are going to commemorate the century of our 4subjection (no matter how evident and how impressive our outward demonstrations may be) than how we are going to remember this sad past in our hearts; what action we will take in reawakening the true feeling of patriotism is what is going to count.
Let us cleanse ourselves of our faults, misery, selfishness! Let us stand as sentinels beside the banner of faith and ideal! Let us ennoble ourselves! Let us all be of good will!
Where does this good will lie and who are its followers? Those are the ones who truly desire good for all, who are convinced by sound reasoning and basic facts, who recognize the truth and voluntarily adjust their opinions, judgments and outlooks according to the present incongruities; those are the ones who spread not hatred but love, those who have a desire for truth, and those who are compatriots.
Our resurrection should guard against those who venture to bargain for the unity 5of our fellow countrymen through sophism, misinterpretation or hypocritical stretching of facts, lies or calumnies, personal attacks or intrigues.
Then, during this year of mourning, our watchword ought to be: true patriotism and good will.
Upon this watchword, upon this alarm, every Polish heart in which there is still a glowing spark of faith in God, love of the people and the hopes of resurrection [of Poland] ought to awaken.
Reverend Vincent Barzynski,
pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish
What should the national mourning in 1895 signify? Strictly speaking, this mourning cannot mean anything else than the gathering of strength for the national cause; recollection of previous hardships for ...
III B 3 a, III H, IV
Secondary listingsPolish // Assimilation > Relations with Homeland (III H) ?
Polish // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
L'italia -- January 02, 1895(No headline)
An Italian National Theater.
Tonight marks the opening of the new Italian National Theater at 139 Ewing St. under the management of Francisco Abbato and Company.
An Italian National Theater. Tonight marks the opening of the new Italian National Theater at 139 Ewing St. under the management of Francisco Abbato and Company.
II A 3 d 1
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Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 02, 1895Let Us Strive Toward Higher Education
Every broad-minded person will admit the fact that there is a lack of an intellectual group among Polish-American citizenry. There are individual cases, that is true, but these do not comprise an intellectual class.
The fire and desire for education among our Polish youth in America is lacking to an extent that it is hardly believable. In America, where the ambition of youth does not stop after securing a degree, our Polish youth can barely muster enough energy to prepare for First Holy Communion [Translator's note: During this period (1890's) a child had to be in the higher grade of the elementary school and at least twelve years of age before he could get his First Holy Communion. This, of course, has reference to the Polish parochial schools].
In all the twelve free public high schools of the city of Chicago it is doubtful 2whether there are more than ten Polish teachers. During the past three years only one Polish young man, Mr. Jezierny, and one Polish young lady, Miss Frances Mikitynska, received diplomas in these schools. There also are about ten Polish students at the Jesuit High School, but a part of this number is enrolled in the business course and not the general course.
On the list of public school teachers in Chicago for 1892-93 only three Polish names were found, namely, Anna Drezmal [also Drzemala], Wanda Ladynska, and Otylia Mikulska. The latter two were teachers of German and had received their training abroad. Miss Mikitynska was appointed a teacher last year. This small number is the entire representation of the Polish people of Chicago, whose number is the largest in America.
There is a mere handful of Polish students in universities and other institutions of learning.3
At the University of Chicago there are at present four students bearing typical Polish names: Lipski, Witkowski, Pienkowski, and Jarzebski, but only the last named is a Pole; Witkowski and Lipski are Jewish. Pienkowski, although of Polish descent, does not know a word of Polish.
Northwestern University has two Polish students, a young man who is training for a pharmacist and Miss Dowiatowna, who is studying medicine.
Mr. Klosowski is the only Pole attending the University of Illinois at the present time.
In the other technical and professional institutions of Chicago the following names are found: Messrs. Sawicki and Zurawski, who attend classes at a technical school, and Mr. Kuflewski, who is studying medicine.4
Six of the above-mentioned students completed their training in the "Gymnasium" or high school, in Europe and not in America.
It is very sad indeed to have such a meager representation in our higher institutions of learning, because the Poles number over 50,000 in Chicago.
These facts are given because I have often become saddened by them and because my greatest desire is to see the Poles take greater advantage of the educational opportunities offered in Chicago. Would to God that this appeal would only urge one Pole to have his children receive the benefits of higher education.
Every broad-minded person will admit the fact that there is a lack of an intellectual group among Polish-American citizenry. There are individual cases, that is true, but these do not ...
I A 1 a, II A 1
Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 02, 1895The Special New Year Edition of the Dziennik Chicagoski (Editorial)
The second special New Year edition of the Dziennik Chicagoski is off the press and open to the judgment of the Polish reading public. This edition was carefully prepared and edited according to a special plan which, in the main, gives a summary of all the Polish-American events of the preceding year. Along with this, many feature articles, penned by aspiring writers and those who write for a hobby, are included.
It is needless for us to write about the reasons which prompted us to publish the first issue of this kind last year--and which prompted us to repeat the same this year. These were well publicized a year ago. A summary of the main purposes of the New Year edition is as follows: To take account of our strength and to take stock, at least to a certain degree, of the kind of writing abilities we [the Polish people] possess.2
Truly, it is difficult to ascertain the results of this experiment after two attempts, mainly because such experiments do not take hold. The idea was too novel, and as a result many were wary of it. Conditions for common equality and general peace, in the wake of Kosciusko's year [Translator's note: 1894 was dedicated to the memory of the Polish hero], however, were more favorable; consequently, there was a common appearance of support for the various proposals. Today, as the echo of the quarrels of the numerous factions is heard anew, there is a lack of this feeling of common equality, which was so instrumental in conjoining everyone, if not under one standard, then at least in one place. No matter how one may look upon this experiment, it cannot be said that it is something tried at random.
The fruits gathered by us from this experiment are not only satisfactory, but they are also abundant. Without question there are many interesting articles in our collection of material. The contributions are distinctive and of divergent views. We did not hesitate to place before us the semblance of characteristically contentious material, because the nature of the collection permits it. We were 3not directed by individual sympathy or antipathy; we only removed from our collection of contributions articles from notorious calumniators and conductors of injurious scandals, which have no place amid respectable people.
The nature of our annual literary contest should not be based upon the same conditions, nor be influenced by us--with the exception of one stipulation. In some respects this contest is appealing, it does encourage many persons to write, and many write a contribution, if only once a year, and pour out the opinions they have been harboring on things of the day.
Our collection of contributions takes up most of the columns in this issue. It is replete with literary and current articles, and, above all, it contains many curious and interesting excerpts from the Lwow Polish-American Pavilion Memorial Book, a catalog of the Lwow Fair in which Polish-American life was represented. We especially recommend these articles to our readers.
[Translator's note: This special issue of January 2, 1895, contains twelve pages-ordinarily the paper contains only four pages.]
The second special New Year edition of the Dziennik Chicagoski is off the press and open to the judgment of the Polish reading public. This edition was carefully prepared and ...
II B 2 d 1, II B 1 e, III H
Secondary listingsPolish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Aesthetic > Literature (II B 1 e) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Relations with Homeland (III H) ?
Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 02, 1895The Memorial Book of the Polish-American Pavilion at Lwow (Editorial)
We have heard and read many times that the part played by the Polish-Americans in the Lwow Fair of 1894 created a favorable impression; that the native Poles were in a position to publicly come in contact with Polish-American life; that a definite tie of sympathy and understanding has been established between the Pole of America and the Pole of Europe; and that better co-operation in the work for the national cause [freedom of Poland] has been brought about.
These facts, which were well publicized by the Polish papers abroad, and extolled by toasts given at banquets in Lwow in honor of E. J. Jerzmanowski of New York and Adam Szwajkart of Chicago, were all repeated by the Polish-American press. Unfortunately the Polish element of America, which seems to be divided by discord and continual squabbling, did not react favorably toward this. A portion of Polish-America began to voice its anger, along with other inconsequential 2remarks, about the Polish-American Pavilion at Lwow. The contention of this opposition was that the Poles of America were poorly represented.
This is not true, a hundred times untrue. The proof of this--the proof of the most enthusiastic endeavor and greatest feeling for patriotism and brotherly love, revived in Polish hearts by the Lwow Fair--lies at this moment before us. We will share this evidence without delay with our readers of the New Year edition of the Dziennik Chicagoski. We are also happy to announce that the expression of our faith in the Polish-American Pavilion at Lwow has come true.
The proof of the favorable results lie in the Memorial Book of the Polish-American Pavilion at Lwow.
Mention of this book has already been made. The idea was originated by Adam Szwajkart, manager of the Pavilion. Mr. Szwajkart seriously remarked to himself, "If the Pavilion is to bring to realization our closer contact with the Polish people of Europe, then a permanent record of the results should be made." A 3record book of heavy vellum was displayed at a vantage point in the Pavilion, with the suggestion that the visitors pen their names, impressions, and reactions about the Polish-American Pavilion.
Out of this arose an unusually interesting historical document, a living mirror of visitors' impressions of Polish-American work and activity.
The consensus of expressions in this book ring as follows: heartfelt benevolence, admiration and enthusiasm beyond any boundaries.
In an interview after his return to America, Mr. Szwajkart stated, "Despite the many trials and tribulations, the intrigues of evil-spirited people, the hanging threat of bankruptcy, the days that I spent at the Pavilion will remain as the happiest moments of my life. Why? Because there flowed from the hearts of the Polish people a feeling of a real happiness, sincere admiration, and a glowing enthusiasm toward us [the Poles of America]. It seemed as if all this was brought about by some magic wand," he concluded.4
All of Adam Szwajkart's efforts and hard work were amply rewarded by the ardor expressed by his fellow countrymen. This can be readily understood when one glances through the pages of the Memorial Book of the Polish-American Pavilion at Lwow.
It is high time for us to give a summary of this important document. The book is rather large, of heavy parchment, with a silver eagle and an American flag on its cover, containing the following gold leaf inscription:
"Polish-American Pavilion--Kosciusko's Fair at Lwow--1894."
The book contains one thousand pages, of which 934 pages are signed by the visitors of the Pavilion. Each page averages about ten signatures.
Taking this as an average, about ten thousand persons, perhaps more, voiced their sympathies in one way or another for those in America. A majority, three-fourths, signed only their names; the remainder added poetical expressions, good wishes, 5observations, opinions, aphorisms, and excerpts from prophetic sayings to those in America. There are various forms of writing, but the spirit is the same--warm and sincere.
"May fortune favor you," "Live," "Thank you for your work," "Return to us!"--these are the wishes that can be found on each page of the Memorial Book.
And what a variety of names grace the book! There are signatures of Polish aristocracy, school children, parliamentary delegates, workers, native citizens, school teachers, editors, doctors, poets, medical students, priests, soldiers, officers, veterans of the Polish uprisings, and children of the new Polish generation. Besides these there are names of many notable Polish individuals, many of whom left sentimental sayings [Long list of names given].
Polish names, however, are not the only ones in the book. There also are Russian, Czech, Lithuanian, Slovak, many Hungarian, German, even an Italian name with the following inscription:6
"Amico della Polonia." Besides Polish phrases, there are words of practically all the languages of the world. A Greek sentence is also found in the conglomeration of foreign expressions.
The Memorial Book gave many an opportunity to send original good wishes to friends in America. Good wishes by many are sent to Reverend Vincent Barzynski, pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish; S. Zahajkiewicz, editor of the Dziennik Chicagoski; the editor of the Zgoda [no name]; and many others. Someone who signs herself "Anatolka" recalls memories of her cousin in America, etc.
On the whole, the book contains many interesting, serious and humorous passages.
An effort is going to be made by the Lwow Fair committee to have the book on public display [in Chicago].
[Over eleven columns of excerpts are published--all of interest.]
We have heard and read many times that the part played by the Polish-Americans in the Lwow Fair of 1894 created a favorable impression; that the native Poles were in ...
III H, IV
Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 02, 1895Final Steps Taken at Mass Meeting Relative to 1895, a Year of Polish National Mourning
Yesterday, the first day of 1895, the last steps were taken relative to the method of commemorating 1895 as a year of national mourning throughout St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish at a mass meeting held in the Polish Hall, Bradley and Noble Streets. Several hundred Polish people of the community attended.
The assembly was opened by Reverend Vincent Barzynski, pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, who acted as chairman; Mr. Steltman acted as recording secretary.
Reverend Barzynski, who was the initial speaker, pointed out the aims of the meeting. "A hundred years ago we were torn asunder by our enemies," said the pastor, "and here in America, the land of freedom, we are separating ourselves by harboring discord and hatred, dividing into various factions, fighting among ourselves, and wasting the national feeling. Therefore we should carry out a twofold program of mourning! And this is not to be a mourning of groans 2and outward demontrations, but one of action. Work toward the national cause, unity, sorrow for the faults, strong desire for education--these are to be its aims," Reverend Barzynski concluded.
"It is not necessary for us to wear any mark of mourning", stated Szczesny Zahajkiewicz, the second speaker of the evening, "but all that is necessary is a sincere sorrow in our hearts. There is need for work among our Polish youth in America; for it requires moral instructions as well as knowledge about Poland. This can be the greatest monument offered to our country a century after her fall, during this year of sorrow. We need to establish evening and Sunday schools, organize our youth, and give it the ten commandments of love for the fatherland," he avered.
The Polish youth was called upon by Mr. Skaryszewski to safeguard its native tongue and spirit.
The rearing of our youth was discussed by Ignacy Kowalski. He pointed out the influence that can be exerted by the parents--and called upon the parents to keep a careful watch over their children. He urged the parents to see that 3their children fulfill the duties of the school, watch their after-school activity and set up organizations for them.
Henry Nagiel in his talk urged the people to be generous in support of the Polish League, which fosters Polish culture, especially the development of reading rooms, libraries and national publications.
A short speech was also given by W. Pyterek, who urged the people to commemorate this coming year, and educate our children. "Our youth is the key which some day will open the locks of our shackles, they are the tools which will cast aside the heavy stones of bondage. The white eagle will then fly and Poland will awaken," said Mr. Pyterek.
Peter Kiolbassa was the final speaker to take the stand. He summarized the important points of the previous speakers, and gave a plan as to how to observe 1895 as a year of mourning. He especially hoped that the Polish people would strive to eradicate undesirable activities and drunkenness among the Polish people at large, and support education.4
The following resolution was adopted:
"We, the Polish people, who are gathered at a mass meeting held on January 1, 1895, resolve to:
"1. Observe 1895 as a year of national mourning through the accumulation of strength and the elevation of the spirit, unity, harmony, and national work; further, by avoiding undesirable and demoralizing activity and striving to avoid scandals; finally, by thriftiness and by supporting general public causes--and to convene once a month relative to our work for the national cause.
"2. Work during the course of this year of national mourning by striving for the awakening of our faith and the moral and cultural development of our youth through the organization of evening and Sunday schools, and the creation of youth organizations with the support of parents and guardians.
"3. Especially contribute toward the support of education, and, above all, 5help to establish Polish libraries and reading rooms, arrange lectures and support Polish publications printed in America.
Yesterday, the first day of 1895, the last steps were taken relative to the method of commemorating 1895 as a year of national mourning throughout St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish at ...
III B 3 a, II B 2 f, I B 3 b, III B 2, I B 1, III A, III C, III E, III H, IV
Secondary listingsPolish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Intellectual > Special Schools and Classes (II B 2 f) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Mores > Family Organization > Parent-Child Relationship (I B 3 b) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Nationalistic Societies and Influences > Activities of Nationalistic Societies (III B 2) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Mores > Temperance (I B 1) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Segregation (III A) ?
Polish // Assimilation > National Churches and Sects (III C) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Youth Organizations (III E) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Relations with Homeland (III H) ?
Polish // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
L'italia -- January 02, 1895The De Bartolo Trial
December 29, 1894. The absence of Judge Everett, who has gone to spend the holidays with his family, has caused the postponement of the De Bartolo trial to some time in the near future.
The rumor current in the Colony, that De Bartolo has been declared not guilty, is untrue. The change of venue, as we stated in a previous article, was made at the request of Wickersham, a lawyer, representing Mr. Durante, who charged that Judge Bradwell, before whom the case had previously been heard, favored too much the lawyer for the defense. Transferring the case to Judge Everett's court, a new order was issued for the arrest of De Bartolo.
The trial will definitely get underway in ten days and we will keep our readers informed of its progress.
December 29, 1894. The absence of Judge Everett, who has gone to spend the holidays with his family, has caused the postponement of the De Bartolo trial to some time ...
II E 2
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