Press Survey Code Book
Code Book for Use of Editors and Supervisors
[From the Final Narrative Report, Foreign Language Press Survey Project, 1940.]
When the Foreign Language Press Survey was set up in the autumn of 1936, it was necessary to formulate an integrated system of general subject headings under which the material translated by the project could be classified. This outline had to be sufficiently general in order that a large variety of material from many sources could be placed together; at the same time, of necessity, it had to follow a logical development which would permit persons using the file at a later time to find their material with a minimum of trouble and labor. The project supervisors were fortunate in securing the use of the outline of subject headings prepared by Prof. Bessie Pierce, Department of History, The University of Chicago, for research assistants translating material for her History of Chicago. Miss Pierce's outline, expanded and systematized to suit the project's needs, has served as the basis for the classification of the material translated by this project. Before being placed in use it was submitted to Prof. Pierce, a member of the project's Sponsor's Committee, and received her approval. Since then the only changes have been the addition of a few headings which were found necessary from time to time.
This code outline serves translators as a guide for selection of material for translation and enables the editors to classify translated articles. The letters and figures provide a system for filling the source material prepared by the project. It is the foundation of the project and the key to the work which it is doing.
Naturally, during the years that this outline has been in use certain rules for the classification of various types of material have arisen. In order to codify these and, at the same time, provide an explanation of each section and subsection of the outline, this Code Book has been prepared. All persons editing material for this project are expected to refer to it constantly. Uniformity in coding is a vital necessity and editors must not rely on their memory alone for the proper code. Space has been provided after each code for pencil notes and interpretations of the outline so that the book may be kept up to date. Editors are also expected to check the files of prepared translated material to provide themselves with precedents in coding. But this Code Book, if they will refer to it constantly, will be of the greatest assistance in maintaining that uniformity of codes and cross references which is so essential to the project.
Thomas R. Hall. Project Superintendent
Almost every article translated by this project concerns more than one subject or contains certain implications which may be valuable in other connections. For example, an article on the study of foreign languages in parochial schools, in addition to expressing an attitude on a phase of education, may be valuable material for a study of the efforts of the language group to preserve its individuality (segregation). It would consume too much time to look through every note in the files in order to find all the material on any subject. Therefore, a system of cross references has been provided to assist researchers in locating available material which is not coded directly under any one subject heading. These sub-codes are reproduced on 3 x 5 cards, together with the source line of the article and the code under which the article is filed. Anyone wishing to get all available material on any subject, after he has examined the articles filed under the main codes dealing with his subjects, can by consulting the cross reference file locate all other articles in the file which contain references to the question he is investigating.
The principal subject of every article gives it the chief, or main code. Sub-codes are assigned all minor phases of the article which are considered important enough for cross references. It is the responsibility of the editors to select the principal theme of the article, assign the main code in conformity with it, and choose the important minor themes, giving them the codes which constitutes the cross references.
Certain codes will be used quite frequently as cross references (III B 2 or IV), others only rarely. One code (V B) is never used as cross reference. The only code for which cross reference cards are made when it is the main code is IV (Representative Individuals). This exception is made so that all material concerning persons placed in this file will be easily available.
The editor must be the judge of the need for a cross reference. It is impossible to assign an oblique code for every theme of the article, if only because the size of the cross reference file must be kept within reasonable bounds. But, on the other hand, there is no desire to restrict editors in assigning all necessary cross reference codes. Constant reference to the Code Book while editing will make the task of assigning cross references much more simple.
Each foreign-language community in this city has developed certain attitudes toward the institutions of the new home and the problems which it has had to face as a group or as part of a great nation. This is not to contend that each is unanimous in its opinions; divergent interests, different economic strata, and pure factionalism have brought about differing attitudes on many questions within each group. There is, however, a certain unity in the opinion of each group. Their attitudes toward problems of life in this country, the conflicts which have arisen because of differences between inherited mores of the old homeland and the ways of life of the new, are of particular interest in a study of the history of the foreign-language communities in Chicago and their part in the development of the city.
The impact of their influence on the life of Chicago and the course of its development is tremendous. Their attitudes toward public questions, customs, and ways of life have had an overwhelming influence. Whether these attitudes are expressed in organized fashion in the polls or whether they are reflected in the daily political, social, economic, artistic and moral life of a great metropolitan center such as Chicago, they have had much to do with the course of its development, resulting in social phenomena which are not to be seen in more homogeneous "American" sections of the nation. Of course, all of these people are American; they have merely brought with them points of view differing from those of earlier immigrants.
In order that historians and sociologists may chart the development of our cosmopolitan city, it is necessary that we should collect a great wealth of material which reflects the attitudes of these groups, that is, those thought patterns which influence and mold public opinion among them.
I A Education
The education of youth has, perhaps, created more problems in the various foreign-language communities than any other subject. The nature of this education, its relation to old-country customs, and the questions involved in organizing life in a new environment have been most difficult of solution.
I A 1 Secular
I A 1 a Elementary, Higher (High School and College)
The attitude of religious groups in various communities toward the American public schools has been an important factor in their life. Some denominations and sects have opposed secular education and have openly opposed its progress within their community. Other factions have supported it as a means of getting ahead in the new country and becoming "Americanized".
I A 1 b Foreign Languages
It was natural that many immigrants wished their children to learn their old language. Some of the more populous communities felt that their position and strength entitled them to have the language of the home country taught in the public schools in their neighborhoods. The controversy between the Czechs and the Germans regarding public instruction in their languages during the last years of the 19th century is an excellent example of this desire to perpetuate the mother tongue.
I A 1 c Taxation for Public Schools
Opposition to publicly-supported education has called forth protest against taxation for public schools. Opponents of public schools tend to look with disfavor on taxation for their support.
I A 1 d Special Endowments
This division of the outline applies especially to schools of higher learning, although financial and other support to all accredited secular schools is to be coded here. Gifts and endowments of any sort tend to show the attitude of at least a part of the community toward education, and also provide a clue to its economic status.
I A 2 Parochial
Parochial schools have played a very important part in the development of the foreign-language communities. Great effort has been made to build them up, in some localities they are used to transmit much of the culture of the old homeland.
I A 2 a Elementary, Higher (High School and College)
Those elements which have opposed the public school have, in most instances, favored the parochial schools. In many cases, the reverse is true. The desire of the churches to retain a hold on the youth has produced serious conflicts in some communities. For these reasons, the attitude of the community or its various parts toward its parochial schools is deeply significant.
I A 2 b Foreign Languages
Parochial schools are often the vehicle for the transmission of the old culture, including the language of the old country. For example, the schools in many Polish parishes teach American-born youngsters the Polish language.
Conflicts arising between the young born in this country and their parents who grew to maturity in a different environment have greatly influenced the development of every foreign-language community. Therefore, any expression of opinion relative to the study by the children of the parents' language, the medium for the transmission of the culture of the homeland, is most important.
I A 2 c Contributions
This section bears the same relation to parochial schools that the section on taxation bears to public schools. The feeling which any group or part of a group may have toward parochial schools is reflected in their financial and other contributions for the support of such schools.
I A 2 d Special Endowments
Gifts to parochial schools, for buildings, etc., or in the form of scholarships, show in what esteem they are held by the community, or parts of it.
I A 3 Adult Education
The problem of giving adult immigrants an opportunity to improve their education has always been an important one, particularly in those communities in which the educational level is extremely low. Many had little or no schooling in the old country and got their first real chance for training in America. Not all communities have appreciated the necessity of raising the educational level of their members. But awareness of the advantages of additional education for adults is growing.
All expressions of opinion for or against adult education should be given this code or cross reference. This includes efforts to get persons interested in night school, free classes, etc. Material coded II B 2 f (Special Schools and Classes) and II B 2 g (Forums, Discussion Groups and Lectures) which refers to adult education should be given this cross code.
I B Mores
Each nationality brought to this country certain ingrained customs, of which, despite the new environment, it could not rid itself in a day. Certain human ways, common to all peoples, are looked upon by each in different fashion. There was a tendency to pass such customs along to the succeeding generation; even today they are strong in each community. Therefore, it was but natural that these inherited outlooks should influence every foreign-language community in its approach to the problems which were encountered in the new home. Nowhere is this tendency to follow the old ways so strong as in those practices which touch the family and personal life of the individual. For this reason, the reaction of each community to certain problems which are common to all cultures has been influenced by the methods which were used in the old country when these same questions arose. The impossibility of establishing here the moral sanctions which were invoked in the homeland, and the great difficulty in adjusting to those of a new society have greatly widened the difficulties faced by the individual in his efforts to fit himself into American life.
I B 1 Temperance
Each community has its own point of view on the use of alcoholic liquors and narcotics, which it has not hesitated to express. In many sections the point of view of the homeland has been transferred to this country more or less completely. It should be noted, however, that this section of the outline has reference to temperance and total abstinence. In other words, the practice of the individual or the practice of the community, not the law of the land, is the point at issue.
I B 2 Blue Laws
From the time of their settlement, the colonies which coalesced to form the United States tried to solve certain questions of human conduct by legislative enactment. It is not a long step from the compulsory church attendance laws of the Massachusetts Bay Colony to the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in our lifetime.
This tradition is different from that of most of the foreign peoples who came to live in America. Their reactions have influenced the course of our legislation to a great degree. In large part their attitude accounts for the anti-prohibition sentiment which flourished in large cities while the Eighteenth Amendment was part of the Constitution.
This section refers not only to the prohibition of alcohol, but to Sunday Laws and all sumptuary legislation.
I B 3 Family Organization
Contemporary America has seen many problems arise which are closely connected with the family unit. An increase in divorce, the changed relationship of the younger to the elder generation, the employment of women in industry have forced a revision of seemingly age-old standards, with resulting bitter debate. Many migrants find themselves torn between the practices of the society in which they live and traditions which they brought with them from other lands, usages which are often completely at variance with those of their present home. Naturally, compromises between these differing traditions have developed.
I B 3 a Marriage
Every people devotes especial attention to the marriage tie; around it has developed a host of sanctions and customs. This section of the outline provides a place for the opinions of groups, or their component parts, concerning matrimony in all its phases. Such material will be useful for sociological studies and will provide material for the study of trends in public opinion concerning marriage. It should be borne in mind, of course, that newspapers are often owned by religious groups which have an interest in promoting special points of view.
I B 3 b Parent-Child Relationship
Relationships between children born in this country and their parents who grew to maturity in the old country are deeply affected by American life. The children often find themselves torn between two standards--that of the school, the playground, the street, and that of the home. Frequently, the languages of the outside world and the family are different. As a result, discord develops, parents find their children drifting away and many times families are disrupted. All these important influences of the great city affect the life of immigrants and their children. In order to provide information on, and examples of, these influences this section of the outline has been set up.
Remember that items bearing a main code in the II E section may require a cross reference to this subsection.
I B 3 c Family Economic Organization
American business life and standards of living have brought about many changes in the economic organization of the family. In part, these very immigrants who are so much affected have been partly responsible for this change through their participation in the development of our industry.
Formerly, here as elsewhere, the man was the breadwinner. In a space of several decades all this has altered. Wives and daughters have won a place in business; old-country customs have not been able to stand up against these rapid developments. Immigrant parents are bewildered at the sight of their working daughters; and attempts to re-establish the customs and ways of the homeland have failed almost completely.
Although this development is not peculiar to this country, it is strongest here. Psychological and economic problems of the greatest import have arisen as a result. The judgments which our alien-born citizens and their descendants have formulated covering these generations are of considerable value in arriving at an understanding of our American civilization.
I B 4 Religious Customs and Practices
Many groups, such as the Jews and Greek Orthodox Christians, brought with them religious customs which they prized and desired to follow. Some of these ways had to be fitted into a new culture, which resulted in many difficulties. For example, Jewish dietary laws have resulted in a Kosher food industry. The Russian Orthodox Christian cannot have in this country the tremendous number of religious holidays he enjoyed at home, since American industry, in which most Russians work, does not permit so many vacations. All these things affected the outlook of the immigrants, were discussed by them, and were taken up by their press. We want to know how they adjusted themselves, what compromises were necessary, and what syntheses the generations born in this country have affected.
I C Own and Other National or Language Groups
The animosities and friendships which have developed among various nationalities and language groups in their homelands have been reflected in this country. Thus, during the World War, the Czech people of Chicago opposed everything German. These relationships played a large part in our political, economic, and social life. The Italians and Germans of Chicago have condemned Irish politicians; various groups are accused of religious bigotry or dangerous economic practices. In a city where each national group is something of a little world such opinions are important.
This section of the outline will receive a large number of cross-references as the group opinion may be but a minor phase of an article concerned chiefly with other subjects. It should be borne in mind that an action may reflect an opinion of one group toward another which has not been expressed in words. Thus, a demonstration of one group against another may show the attitude of the demonstrating group.
I D Economic Organization
Many millions came to America because they could not earn a decent living at home under conditions prevailing in their homelands. In this country the peasant became a factory-worker, while the intellectual was often forced by circumstances into manual labor. Arriving with certain attitudes toward the modern industrial system, or perhaps with no clear cut idea of it at all, these immigrants were thrown into an entirely different economic environment.
The effect has been tremendous. At first the raw industrial worker, who but lately had been a peasant, thought that his wage represented the acme of wealth and well-being, a belief which his employer oftentimes fostered zealously. As his acquaintance with America grew, this feeling passed away; the worker became more Americanized in his outlook and began a struggle for better living and working conditions.
If the immigrant had been an industrial worker in the old country he was likely to transfer to America the outlook of his fellow-workers at home. This was often socialism more or less extreme, anarchism philosophical or active, or some form of syndicalism. At any rate, a considerable degree of class-consciousness was generally evident.
All of these factors have influenced the immigrant and his children in their theories of economic organization in America and, therefore, have become a part of our political life.
I D 1 Capitalistic Enterprise
I D 1 a Big Business
American opinion concerning the efficiency and value of huge corporations is divided and, furthermore, has changed many times since these mammoth organizations began to change the course of our life. The attitude of the man who works for such a corporation is likely to be entirely different from the man who controls one, although few persons except those in the larger foreign communities with great economic strength occupy these latter positions. Such opinion as is expressed is generally influenced by the theories of society held by the individual. (See I E)
Please note that this section of the outline and the one following are much more specific than I E (Social Organization). Sections I D 1 a and I D 1 b apply to discussions of large or small business in general or to lessons drawn from specific examples.
Include under this heading any expression of opinion on the value of trusts, cartels, large corporations, as well as federal and state laws enacted to promote competition. For the purposes of this study, any corporation or firm doing a gross business of more than one million dollars a year will be considered big business.
I D 1 b Small Business
Thousands of those immigrating to America were independent artisans and were used to a type of economic organization which gave great freedom to the individual. These artisans had their own traditions and standards, which often were at variance with those of this country. Such people had a stake in small business; therefore, their attitude toward it is important.
In this country there has long been a group which supported small business on the theory that it was a healthier form of organization for American society. How have the foreign-language communities of a large city such as Chicago been influenced by this view; to what extent have they brought about modifications in such theories? On this subject uniformity of opinion will be a rarity. But the press will show the currents that have flowed through the communities.
Bear in mind that the last two paragraphs of the explanation of I D 1 a (Big Business) apply to this section of the outline as well.
I D 2 Labor Organization and Activities
Labor organizations have wielded great influence in most of the foreign-language communities since their members are strongly represented in industry. Sometimes in national unions, oft-times in locals of their own nationality, the immigrants have fought for better working conditions and higher wages. Of course, there are sections in some communities, particularly the older and economically stronger, which oppose unions in the same fashion as the "American" bourgeoisie. Some groups, however, are simply not interested in them. But, on the whole, the labor union plays an important part in the foreign-language community.
I D 2 a Unions
I D 2 a 1 Company
I D 2 a 2 Craft
I D 2 a 3 Industrial
These sections of the outline are devoted to various types of unions whch have been developed in this country. It is possible that all three may be discussed in the same article; if that is the case, code the article under that item which is most thoroughly developed and cross reference it to the other subsections. Bear in mind that attitudes may be shown by action, in the case of both unions and strikes (the next subsection).
I D 2 a 4 Strikes
Although strikes are generally connected with labor unions, such is not always the case. Code references to strikes of any sort under this subsection, remembering that people's actions are often the best expression of their attitudes and opinions. Actions against strikes and expressions of opinion hostile to them should also be coded under this subsection.
I D 2 b Cooperatives
Various groups in the foreign colonies have from time to time set up cooperative organizations in many fields. Food stores, printing presses, and other types of cooperative enterprises have functioned for longer or shorter periods and with more or less success. Ofttimes the precedent for these organizations has been similar cooperatives in the homeland (for example, the Scandinavian countries). Whatever may have been the cause for their establishment (social philosophy or merely the desire to reduce the cost of living) they are a significant social phenomenon.
In some cases it may be necessary to cross-reference articles on this subject to attitudes toward big and little business and various other subsections.
I D 2 c Unemployment
One of the most vital problems facing that large class which works for wages or salary in a capitalist economy is recurring unemployment. In foreign-language communities, where an extremely large percentage are employed on this basis, lack of work and its accompanying social and economic consequences are most important. For this reason, the attitudes of persons in these communities toward this problem and its possible solutions are significant.
This section of the outline was set up because the economic crisis which began in 1929 has aroused an intense interest in similar crises in the past. How have the vocal elements of the foreign-language communities reacted to the large scale unemployment which accompanied the panics of past decades?
Some of the material coded here must, of necessity, be cross referenced to the subsections concerning unions and attitudes toward business. In other cases it will be necessary to give this as a cross code for articles which have been given a main code in one of the sections just mentioned.
I E Social Organization
Varying theories of the proper organization of society are widely held in many foreign-language communities. Also, such beliefs tend to change with time, becoming more or less radical. Thus, in the thirty years following the Civil War there was a strong socialist movement, mixed with anarchist elements, among the Chicago German community. The Russian community has experienced socialist, anarchist, and communist movements of varying intensity during the past fifty years. We must not make it appear that any one community held one point of view. Many currents ran through each. But we can assemble our material so that the varying theories of social organization in each commmunity can be for different periods of time.
Evaluations of capitalism should be coded or cross referenced here. This section is not to be devoted to radical or reactionary principles exclusively. Also, phases of social organization other than the economic may be included.
I F Politics
The participation of immigrants in American politics is a significant aspect of our development in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. What has been their influence on our government, particularly in the large cities? Has it been good or bad? Are they bringing "alien" concepts into American political life? These questions have been vigorously debated throughout the nation.
This section of the outline has been set up to show the reactions of these communities to American political life. Note that this does not include general issues of national scope; rather it relates to the ways in which they have made their influence felt and to the programs (generally local or state) put forward by the communities themselves. Note also that this section applies primarily to Chicago and Illinois , with the exception of the subdivision on graft.
I F 1 Voting as Blocs
Attempts are made at each election to swing foreign-language communities as for one party or the other. Under this section of the outline should be all material which reflects the opinion of the groups concerning bloc voting. Of course, opposition to such voting should be included as well.
I F 2 Part Played by Social and Political Societies
In every group societies have been formed which were frankly devoted to politics, or which had a social "front" but pursue political aims before elections. Some are firmly established; others are the property of ambitious men anxious to dip into the campaign funds of the great parties. What is their relation to the political set-up within the community; what do the people think of them; do they exercise real leadership? This subsection of the outline is devoted to these problems.
I F 3 Programs and Purposes
The political aims of the community, primarily as they relate to the city and state, are to be placed here. Often the question may arise as to whether the group or its leaders has had any integrated program at any given period of the community's history. Any program which the community is asked to adopt as its special interest, such as opposition to prohibition among Germans and Czechs, can be considered a group program.
Please note again that this subdivision relates to the aims and purposes of local foreign-language communities, not to the policies of prominent political figures outside the groups or political parties in general.
I F 4 Extent of Influence
We wish to discover all evidence of the extent of the political influence of various communities. For example, the Poles have become so powerful that both of the major parties invariably nominate Polish candidates on their city and state tickets. Street names have been changed to suit the wishes of the Polish community (Pulaski-Crawford Avenue controversy). Over a period of years it should be possible to trace the development of the influence of various communities. On the other hand, some of these have little or no political power and care must be taken to code (or cross reference) under this subsection all opinions regarding this lack of influence or other material bearing on it. This subdivision also has reference to the political influence of individual members of the community.
I F 5 Political Leadership
Here we desire to assemble material showing the political leadership (or lack of it) exercised by the community or its individual members in city and state affairs. Thus, Anton Cermak is the outstanding example of a Czech political leader. By political leadership we mean the ability to conduct public affairs a course which seems desirable to the groups, or to individuals within it.
I F 6 Graft and Corruption
This subsection is the widest in the section devoted to politics. It includes graft in city, state and national governments. What is the attitude in the community toward the "fix", the stealing of public funds, or the use of public office for private gains? Naturally, opinion on these matters differs widely within each community and we want to show the varying shades of thought on these issues. Actions are important here. If Zintak, a Pole, can admit the theft of city funds and still keep a large part of his political influence, there must be a section of that community in which the man himself outweighed hid deeds.
Under this subsection should be coded all notes showing an attitude toward honesty in public office.
I G War
Place under this heading all references to war in the abstract and individual wars in particular. Thus, the attitudes toward the Franco-Prussian War and the World War which might be found in the German community would carry this code. Aid and succor rendered to war-torn countries by various communities must carry a cross reference to this code, even though the main code is different. Also, code attitudes toward the Russian Civil War (1918-23) here, or cross reference them if another code is the main one. References to the American Neutrality Act should carry this code, or be cross referenced to it. Accounts of the participation of foreign-language communities in wars carried on by the United States should also be cross referenced here, carrying III D as the main code.
I H Social Problems and Social Legislation
This section is a most difficult one and care must be exercised in order to keep it from becoming a catch-all. Only broad problems of a social character and laws or regulations to correct them, or to bring about needed changes, are to be placed in this section. Such problems may refer to city, state, or national life, although the latter will predominate. By social problems reference is made to child labor, the Wagner Act, the shorter working day, slavery, etc. Be certain that the note fits this section before you give it this code or cross reference.
I J Interpretation of American History
Almost every immigrant community will offer its own especial interpretation of the history of the United States . Often they are influenced by the environment of the old country and show the mingling of the two cultures. Sometimes the interpretations show a startling break with the old memories. Thus, the Chinese declared, "After signing the Declaration of Independence our forefathers adopted the constitution." A German paper, the Abendpost, claimed German ancestry for Abraham Lincoln . A Polish writer stated that atheism is forbidden by our constitution.
This section is the complement of III F, Special Contributions to Early American Development, but covers more ground than that division. Here the emphasis is on interpretation of the broad range of American history, not specific contributions to the nation in its younger years.
I K Position of Women and Feminism
Women in America occupy a position which is almost unique in the world today. Their struggle to achieve this status is a most interesting phase in the development of our nation in modern times. Immigrant women coming to the New World found themselves in the midst of a bewildering series of changes. The struggle for women suffrage, the increased importance of this sex in business and industry, and efforts to remove legal disabilities under which they had labored in the past were things which, except in the case of a few intellectuals, had not entered the sphere of the immigrant's interests. Tradition, and in some cases religion, shut women out of the man's world.
As economic conditions, accelerated by the World War, began to change the traditional status of the sexes the immigrant communities found themselves faced with new problems. The experience of seeing his wife and daughter enter business offices and factories, through economic necessity or the desire for more spending money, was something new to the head of the household, and sometimes it was a rather frightening experience to his womenfolk. The reactions of the varioius peoples to this new (to them) phenomenon are significant. Their discussions of this questions, their judgments of its effect on family life, morals, and the female sex are valuable material for an understanding of this sociological change.
I L Agriculture in the United States
The American farmer has always had, and has today, an overwhelming significance in national political and economic life. Therefore, his relation to the city dweller and the opinion of the latter regarding American agriculture are of national importance. Many of the members of our foreign-language communities were peasants in the old country. How much have the traditional peasant attitudes influenced the city man's consideration of farm problems? What does the immigrant in our cities think of American agriculture? Bear in mind that this section related not only to the politics of the farmer but to the problems of American agriculture as a whole.
I M Health and Sanitation
The question of health is a vital one to the man living in the over-crowded sections of our city. Many of the immigrants live in slum areas, with consequent high mortality rates. The great mass of these people work in industries where they face the hazard of occupational diseases. Unfortunately, most of them do not appreciate this problem, but much has been done by members of the various communities who have struggled (sometimes almost alone) to ameliorate these conditions.
This section of the outline is designed to include opinions and attitudes on this problem, as it applies both to general living conditions and to specific industries. Discussions of such conditions as dirty streets, contaminated drinking water, and venereal or occupational diseases should be given this code or cross referenced to it. All attempts to prey on the credulity of the naive and ignorant in the communities in matters of health should carry this as the main code or be cross referenced to it, depending upon the content of the note. However, routine health information is not to be included; in fact, no translations of health columns are to be made, and if they come to your attention should be rejected.
II Contributions and Activities
The activities of the Chicago foreign-language communities have been multifarious and their contributions to the life of the city almost too numerous to catalogue. Their activities are even more significant than their attitudes, since they are of a more positive character, affecting every phase of life. The term "contribution" must not be misunderstood; it applies to activities generally considered undesirable as well as those looked upon with favor. Criminal activities are as much contributions to the life of Chicago , albeit not regarded as favorably, as work in music or the organization of schools.
Newspaper records of the enterprises of these communities are of prime importance for historical and sociological studies. Indeed, newspapers are the principal source of information concerning the foreign-language colonies. In no other place is the life of the close-knit community so well portrayed.
The activities of the groups will demonstrate their economic position in the city, the cultural levels of their members, their intellectual interests, and, to some degree, the extent of demoralization and crime among them. From such raw material we can reconstruct, in part, a connected record of the history of each foreign-language community of Chicago.
II A Vocational
Under the subdivision of this section should be placed references to the activities--trades and professions--by which members of the community earn their living.
II A 1 Professional
The participation of members of the communities in any of the recognized professions, such as medicine, law, and teaching, are to be coded here. If the editor is in doubt as to whether any activity is a profession he must get a ruling on the question from his supervisor.
The material under this code is important since it gives significant data on the economic and social position of the community at various periods. Most immigrants, upon arrival in America, went into the ranks of common labor or small business. It was only after their economic position was more firmly estalbished that they were able to enter the professions. In this country professional status has always carried a certain social prestige. Therefore, many immigrants were anxious to gain this position, which made them of even more importance within their own communities.
II A 2 Industrial and Commercial
All items concerning the participation of immigrants and their children in American business and industry, in the capacity of skilled and unskilled labor, as white-collar help, or in executive capacities, should be coded or cross-referenced here. The same code should be given to businessess and industrial establishments owned and operated by members of any community. Material concerning the construction of factory buildings, business buildings (stores, offices, etc.), and two or more dwellings by the same person should be given this code as cross reference. They will be given II F as the main code.
II A 3 Aesthetic
Contributions made to the artistic life of Chicago by the foreign-language communities have been extremely significant. Exhibits, All-Chicago Music Festivals, dance recitals, and concerts have brought to the people of this city the native art of many of the communities within its borders. That this rich and variegated display is not better known is a serious indictment of our cultural pretensions, and is partly the fault of the communities themselves since they have not always tried to attract the interest of the remainder of the city.
Only items dealing with professionals--persons who make all or part of their living these pursuits--should be coded in the subsections under II A 3.
II A 3 a Arts and Handicrafts
All references to occupations involving a high degree of artistic skill, other than those mentioned below, should be coded here. Wood-carving, embroidery, and fine sewing are examples of some of the items to be placed in this subdivision.
II A 3 b Music
Concerts and recitals given by professional musicians, singers, opera companies, orchestras and bands, including dance bands, which are full-time organizations are given this code. The activities of instructors in music, both private and organized in schools, are also to be placed here.
II A 3 c Painting and Sculpture
Artists and sculptors, while not as numerous as musicians, are to be found in many of the communities. Be certain that any artist coded in this subdivision is a professional.
II A 3 d Theatrical
II A 3 d 1 Drama
At various times several of the immigrant communities, among them the German and Jewish, have maintained professional theatres to present plays in their own languages. Such theatrical companies are an important element in the cultural life of the city and are an index of the cultural and economic strength of the various communities.
Individual and professional performances should have this as the main code or cross-reference.
II A 3 d 2 Dancing
Here reference is made to professional dance groups, ballets, schools of the dance and individual artists. Ballroom dancing and dance halls are not to be included.
II B Avocational and Intellectual
Many avocational and intellectual interests are to be found in the immigrant communities. Music has been an especially important factor in leisure time activities. All of these pastimes are connected with the cultural background of the foreign-language group and, therefore, exercise a tremendous influence, not only on recreational activities but on the aesthetic life of this city.
II B 1 Aesthetic
II B 1 a Music
Music is an important factor in the life of most immigrant peoples; not jazz or popular tunes, but the folk music which has been a part of their lives for generations. The more serious forms have been such cultivated. But the greatest influence has been exercised by the choruses and choirs which, for the pure enjoyment of it, have gathered to sing the music of their homeland.
All musical entertainments of a nonprofessional character, as well as articles on the importance of musical expression to the people, should carry this code, or be cross-referenced to it.
II B 1 b Painting and Sculpture
Reference is made here to painting and sculpture which is not professional in scope, and which is pursued as an avocation or recreation.
II B 1 c Theatrical
II B 1 c 1 Drama
Amateur theatricals, whatever may be their deficiencies from the point of view of dramatic criticism, have proved of great recreational and cultural benefit to actors and audiences alike. They are also an important means of raising funds for any causes since every type of organization produces plays, revues, and musical comedies
Such nonprofessional efforts should be coded here. In some cases, when the emphasis in the note causes it to be coded elsewhere, it should be given this cross-reference.
II B 1 c 2 Dancing
This subsection has been set up to provide space for the activities and interests of nonprofessional dancers. Only such amateur groups (and individuals) are to receive this code. Bear in mind that ballroom dancing and dance halls are not to be included.
II B 1 c 3 Festivals, Pageants, Fairs and Expositions
Many organizations and groups organize festivals and pageants to celebrate jubilee and important events in the life of the community and the old homeland. Frequently churches have processions or celebrations when cornerstones are laid and anniversaries are celebrated. All such items should receive this code, or be cross-referenced to it.
Participation of foreign-language communities in city-wide festivals and pageants or in expositions (Chicago World's Fairs) should likewise receive this code.
II B 1 d Literary Societies
Intellectual elements ofttimes combine to promote literary expression and appreciation in their community. Although these societies are generally little known and are rarely of great significance, they do show a striving for self-expression and a love of culture which is worthy of consideration.
Only societies which are purely literary in their aims should receive this code.
II B 1 e Literature
This subsection is designed to include material on the literary development of the foreign-language colonies. All items relating to litarary interests, and the development of writing in the various communities, with the exception of items given the preceding code (II B 1 d), should be given this code.
II B 2 Intellectual
II B 2 a Libraries
Every type of foreign-language organization has furthered the creation and improvement of libraries for the benefit of its members or the community at large. Radical parties have organized collections of books on their social, political, and economic theories; and many clubs and organizations have opened libraries as a service to their group. The more powerful colonies have succeeded in obtaining the establishment in the Chicago Public Library of collections in their languages.
This desire to promote special aims or to organize libraries for general educational purposes has been an important influence in the development and education of the various immigrant communities.
All items relating to the establishment and financing of libraries, as well as statements as to their usefulness, should be coded here or given this cross-reference.
II B 2 b Museums
Museums portraying the history of the homeland and the development of the immigrant groups in America and in Chicago show an awareness of cultural continuity which is significant. Whether it be the collection of a few relics in a clubroom, or a museum and archive such as that of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, the attempt to link the colony to the old country and to other communities of the same nationality in America demonstrates a sensitivity to history which is a most important factor in the development of cultural self-consciousness. Some of the communities, such as the Polish, have collected material to show their connection with this nation in its early years.
Perhaps the best museum in any foreign-language community is that of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, on Milwaukee Avenue. Well-organized displays portray the course of Polish history during the last centuries and the development of Polish communities in Chicago and other parts of the United States. Many objects recalling Poland's relation with the American Revolution and the early years of this country are on exhibit.
Only material relating to museums organized by the communities in Chicago should receive this code. Exhibits and materials sent from Chicago to museums in the homelands must be coded III H (Relations with the Homeland).
II B 2 c Scientific and Historical Societies
All bodies created for scientific research, whatever their nature, are to be placed here. It is necessary to bear in mind that these organizations may not be as "scientific" in their work as some of the more firmly established academic and learned societies with national reputations. Especially may this be true of historical societies, which are sometimes one-man organizations despite their high-sounding names. But we must give them some credit. A few persons, at least, have appreciated the need of such organizations and strove to create them, although the community at large may not have appreciated their efforts.
II B 2 d Publications
II B 2 d 1 Newspapers
This subsection is designed to include information on the foreign-language press as such--the history of individual papers and the whole press of the community, material on the purposes and value of the press, its function in the community and city, and the problems which have faced it.
This code will receive many cross-references since there will be much material concerning the press which will be coded elsewhere but which must be noted here.
The foreign-language press is, perhaps, the most significant institution in the community, with the exception of the church. Therefore, we must pay close attention to all material concerning its development and role in the colony.
II B 2 d 2 Periodicals
A community which supports periodicals is further advanced intellectually and economically than one which depends upon newspapers alone. Periodicals provide an opportunity for more extended discussions than is given by the daily press and are generally of a higher intellectual level. Those published in the foreign-language communities are generally serious organs, magazines of the "confession" and "pulp" type being virtually nonexistent.
Code under this heading material concerning periodicals of all types, published in the language of the community, or in English but devoted to community or nationality interests.
II B 2 d 3 Books
When a foreign-language community absorbs a number of volumes printed in its mother tongue it has reached a relatively high intellectual and economic level. Comparatively large sums are required to publish and market books and a sufficiently large market must be assured to make such commercial ventures a financial success. Therefore, in colonies where such markets are not available books must be published by subscription or subsidized by individuals, churches, and organizations. It is much easier to publish volumes in Polish than in Russian, since the first community is large, economically strong, and has many intellectual forces. On the other hand, the Russian colony is small, poor, and has no large intellectual group.
Code or cross-reference here all material concerning the publication of books in the native language of the communities, whatever may be the nature of the volumes.
II B 2 e Radio Programs and Cinema
This section applies to radio programs in foreign languages, including commercial radio "hours". Do not include regular radio programs, as these should not be translated.
All material relating to the cinema should receive this code. The opening of motion picture houses for the showing of pictures in the old-country language and the organization of companies in the communities to produce films are examples of available material. Discussions of the cinema as a form of art and its affect on the life of the community and the nation should also be given this code. However, some of the discussions of the effect of motion pictures on children can be more properly coded under I B 3 b (Parent-Child Relationship) or II E 5 (Crime Prevention).
II B 2 f Special Schools and Classes
Many organizations have opened schools and special classes for the education of both children and adults. These should not be confused with the regularly accredited parochial institutions. In general, these schools supplement the child's public school education, and are designed to give him some knowledge of his parents' native language and the literature and history of their native land. Their purpose, in many cases is to prevent the complete Americanization of the younger generation. Although the standard of instruction is uneven, and in many cases is quite low, these schools do perform an important function in the community. To a certain degree, they bring the older and younger generations closer together and help to relieve the strain arising from the rapid assimilation of the children.
Likewise, some schools are devoted to the training and education of adults, teaching them English and, in some cases, trades.
All schools and classes except accredited schools are to be coded here. Accredited schools, secular and parochial, are to be placed in the proper sub-section under the I A code.
II B 2 g Forums, Discussion Groups and Lectures
Educational work in many communities is not limited to formal instruction. Lectures and discussion groups, particularly for adults, are widespread. These talks, often given by well-informed and educated persons (but frequently devoted entirely to propaganda for political and social goals), have a particularly strong hold in communities where, although the level of education is not high, there is a lively desire for self-improvement. The Russian colony is an excellent example. Many persons have sacrificed their time and convenience to help the uneducated peasants who form the majority in the Chicago Russian settlement. The subject matter of those lectures is as wide as human knowledge--philosophy, history, science, health, literature, and a host of others.
All lectures, whatever their content, should be coded or cross-referenced here. If a lecture is, for example, given to raise funds for certain purposes, it may be necessary to give the article another code as the main one, but it should receive this one as a cross-reference. Political speeches and rallies are not to be included.
II B 3 Athletics and Sports
Most foreign communities have completely assimilated the American interest in sports of all kinds. Athletic clubs have been organized to keep the children out of the street, to promote physical well-being, and for pure enjoyment. The young people are particularly influenced by activities of this nature.
All reference to athletics should be coded here. In some cases cross-references will be necessary, since there will be a connection between this code and II E 3 (Crime Prevention). Routine reports of athletics, unless they have especial significance, should be rejected. Opinions of the value of sport activities should also be placed in this subsection.
II C Permanent Memorials
Some colonies have been able to secure memorials to members of their group who have rendered service to the city and nation, or who have been outstanding in various fields. These may be statues or public buildings; sometimes parks and streets are named for such persons. Examples are Riis Park, Pulaski Avenue, and the large number of streets named for individuals prominent in various communities (Cermak, Diversey, Damon). Such memorials are important in tracing the growth of the foreign-language colonies.
II D Benevolent and Protective Institutions
II D 1 Benevolent Societies
The immigrants, particularly those who came to this country for economic reasons, soon realized the insecurity of the American industrial system. Although their wages represented undreamed wealth in the old country, there was no certainty of employment and savings were rapidly exhausted when there was no work. On the other hand, at home the close-knit peasant family had aided its destitute members when misfortune resulted in hardships.
To protect themselves and their families in times of economic stress, the newcomers developed the "Mutual Benefit Society". Such organizations are based on the principle of the strength of numbers. If each member, when he is able, pays a small sum at regular intervals into a central fund, then when he needs aid the fund can render assistance through lump-sum or periodic payments. Such organizations have had tremendous influence in almost every immigrant community. A large number of organizations, created for other purposes, have added this feature; others have been created for this purpose alone. They render every type of aid: Burial assistance, sick benefits, and payments at the death of members. In the latter instance the organization resembles an insurance company (see next code). In some instances members make specified payments; in others they are assessed when funds are needed. Some organizations make lump-sum payments, others make payments periodically for a stated time.
It must be remembered that these bodies quite often engage in other activities--educational, political, and social, etc. In order to make available all the activities of mutual aid societies notes on these other phases of their work should be given this cross-reference. For example, a play presented by the "Russian Independent Mutual Aid" should receive II B 1 c(1) as a main code and II D 1 as a cross code.
II D 2 Insurance Companies
As communities gained in numbers and strength insurance companies organized within the groups began to take over some of the functions of the mutual aid society, although they have not ousted this type of organization. Sometimes considerable research may be necessary to discover whether the organization is an insurance company in the true sense of the term or a mutual benefit society. In general, insurance companies must be firmly established bodies, incorporated as such (although mutual aid organizations also are usually incorporated), operating under the insurance statutes of Illinois and employing recognized actuarial practices.
Again, it should be remembered that organizations pursuing other aims have recognized insurance sections. The Polish National Alliance is an excellent example. Be careful to distinguish between the insurance company and the mutual aid or burial assistance society.
II D 3 Hospitals, Clinics and Medical Aid
All types of medical assistance which the groups have developed should receive this classification. Frequently the more formal types of medical aid--hospitals and clinics--are beyond the community's financial power. But in many such colonies physicians make a special effort to improve health standards and do a tremendous amount of charity work. A good illustration of this is the Russian community, where the physicians, who are high among the leaders of the group, have done much to help the pitifully ignorant immigrants. Some religious denominations have organized hospitals and nursing orders.
Emphasis here should be placed not on prevention of disease (for this see I M) but the organization of medical aid, whether for charity or for profit.
II D 4 Orphanages and Creches
Considerable effort has been made to provide care for orphans, especially by organizations and religious denominations. Many of these maintain large orphanages which care for the children of their deceased members.
Creches where working mothers can leave their children have been set up in a few instances. Such institutions are important in a community where many wives are forced to seek employment.
II D 5 Homes for the Aged
Such institutions, as well as orphanages, are an evidence of a sense of social responsibility and a sign of economic strength. Old people's homes, as is the case with institutions for orphans, are usually financed and administered by societies and churches. In some cases organizations are set up for this specific purpose.
II D 6 Settlement Houses and Community Centers
Efforts have occasionally been made to establish a center where members of a community could read, play games, hold study groups, exercise, and give entertainments. Such centers, in order to be successful, require financial support and group cooperation. Note that only material on settlement houses and community centers established in whole or in large part by group funds are to be coded here. Such institutions as The University of Chicago Settlement and Northwestern University Settlement receive their support chiefly from outside the communities they aid and are, therefore, not to be given this code.
II D 7 Organizations for Legal Assistance
Immigrants in a strange land or poor persons unable to pay for assistance are at a great disadvantage when dealing with the courts and police. When the individual is unfamiliar with his rights and does not have the money to hire legal talent grave miscarriages of justice may result. In many foreign-language communities legal aid organizations have been formed which furnish assistance free or for a nominal charge.
Editors must be careful not to include in this section articles devoted wholly to legal aid bureaus established outside the community (newspapers, settlement houses).
II D 8 Employment Agencies
Difficulties in obtaining employment have been partially smoothed out by employment agencies established in the colonies. These are sometimes private enterprises, but more often are sponsored by organizations as a service to their members and the public. If he seeks employment through an agency directed by persons of his own nationality, the applicant avoids many of the troubles arising from lack of familiarity with the English language, American industrial life, and national prejudices.
II D 9 Extra-Legal Organizations
Among certain nationalities there has developed a type of extra-legal organization which has wielded great and often illegal power. An excellent example is the "Mafia" or "black-hand" in the Italian communities in this country. This organization, imported from the homeland, at one time exercised such influence as to be considered almost an invisible government. However, do not confuse the Italian organization with the Czech "mafia", which was a revolutionary organization set up during the first World War.
Gangs and other criminal groups are not to be considered as extra-legal organizations but are to be coded II E 1.
II D 10 Foreign and Domestic Relief
Foreign-language communities in Chicago have raised and expended huge sums for the relief of distress in their old homelands and among persons of their nationality in the United States. The Polish colony collected money to aid in the restoration of Poland after the World War; Jews have raised millions to help their people throughout the world; and Russians have helped their compatriots who were driven into exile after the Revolution. Sometimes these contributions have been expanded through the Red Cross; on other occasions it was given through organizations in the homeland or directly to the needy.
Many kinds of such assistance--relief of war devastation, famine, disasters, and many others--will be coded or cross-referenced here. Editors should bear in mind that such contributions need not necessarily be large. They may be made for the assistance of single individuals or small groups as well as for a whole people. An excellent illustration of such assistance is the fund raised by Chicago Swedes to assist Swedish and other victims of the San Francisco earthquake.
II E Crime and Delinquency
Crime and delinquency are a "contribution" that no one wishes to acknowledge, yet they are important factors in the life of Chicago. Juvenile delinquency is a particular problem in many foreign-language communities. The children of these communities, sometimes living in depressed areas, are often "Americanized" more rapidly than their parents since their roots in the old culture are not as firm. At the same time, however, in their homes they are subjected to the influences of the old country--its language, customs, and mores--which are considerably at variance with those of the school, the street, and the playground. Conflict between parents and children is the inevitable result. The young people, often deprived of proper guidance, drift into crime and anti-social practices.
American individualism, which is in strong contrast to the closely-knit social organization of many European communities, has often been an influence for the deterioration of the individual. In the homeland (for example Poland) the individual was usually kept in line by the social and economic pressure which a community with traditional standards was able to extort. In America this is not so true; consequently there is less desire or need to conform to accepted standards. Ofttimes the colony here does not interest itself in the demoralization of its members. As a result, the prevalence of crime and delinquency is frequently quite high.
II E 1 Organized Crime
Gangs, syndicates, and similar organized criminal groups are to be given this code. Do not use this code unless you are certain that the note concerns organized groups. Crimes committed by several individuals are not necessarily organized crime. Organized prostitution should be given this code, but individual cases receive the next code.
II E 2 Individual Crime
Crimes committed for whatever reason, if they are not the result of the activities of especially organized bands, are to be given this code.
Naturally, we cannot list every crime committed, but particular attention must be paid to those which are spectacular and significant. Great care must be exercised, however, in cases involving juvenile delinquency. We are particularly anxious to get all available information on juvenile delinquency prior to 1905, when the reports of the Juvenile Court were first published.
II E 3 Crime Prevention
Much of the material receiving this code will have to be cross-referenced elsewhere--under subsections of I B 3 (Family Organization) for example. Crime prevention activities among young people will often involve construction or playgrounds, supervised recreation, etc. Parents will also be advised by the press how to help their children avoid the pitfalls of the city. Especial care must be exercised to make certain that all items dealing with the prevention of crime, either through training, change of environment, or otherwise, receive this code or cross-reference.
II F Real Estate Transfers and Building Activities
Many newspapers report periodically the building activities and real estate transactions of members of their communities. Although the method is far from infallible, a study of real estate transfers and building permits will give considerable information concerning the legalities in which the various nationalities have settled and their economic status and the businesses in which they have engaged.
All notices of permits for the erection of buildings or purchase of real estate for business purposes must be cross-referenced to II A 2 (Industrial and Commericial). A similar cross-reference must be made for permits granted to the individual to erect two or more dwellings since in most cases such are built for sale and hence are business ventures.
The problem of the assimilation of the foreign-language groups living in the United States is a most important and difficult one. Those Americans whose people came to this continent many generations ago, who have forgotten that their forbears were originally foreign or who keep alive a pride based on the nationality of their immigrant ancestors, are quite likely to view this question with misgivings.
In the communities composed of recent immigrants two general tendencies, on the whole, can be distinguished. The desire to become "American" in every sense of the word, to become completely identified with this nation, is very strong. This wish (coupled with the desire to avoid the prejudice often shown to things foreign) has led many to Anglicize their names. On the other hand, among those who grew to maturity in the homeland there is a strong desire to save inherited cultural values and many of the old customs. Severe strains result from the conflict of these tendencies.
Assimilation in the sense of the disappearance of the foreign-language communities in a sea of "Americans" will never take place. The mores of many of these communities are becoming a part of the American tradition; this fusion of cultures, mellowed by time, will produce an "American" culture unlike any one of those which entered into its composition.
It is to provide for an analysis of source material on the question of assimilation of immigrants that this section of the outline has been set up.
III A Segregation
Almost always immigrants of the same nationality and language have settled together in communities on their arrival in this city. The strangeness of American life, the difficulty of making themselves understood by strangers, and the problem of finding employment have caused new arrivals of the same language and nationality to live in the same area when possible. The location of these settlements was determined by many factors: type and availability of employment, the price of land, and previous settlement in the same region by persons of the same nationality. As the immigrants and their descendants are assimilated these communities often lose their national quality. But even today certain parts of the city are considered German or Scandinavian, although these groups in Chicago have lost most of their distinctive features.
All material which shows a tendency toward community segregation or the opposite should be coded or cross-reference here. This may consist of detailed accounts of individual communities, attempts at community self-sufficiency, efforts to promote a study of the language of the homeland, emphasis on religious differences, etc.
III B Nationalistic Societies and Influences
III B 1 Effect upon United States Government and State Policies
In many communities there have been formed societies whose purpose, in whole or in part, is the aggrandizement of their particular nationalities. This may be accomplished through publicity, education, propaganda, or direct pressure upon governmental bodies. Such pressure may be used for many purposes: to secure legislative approval for projected monuments and memorials, obtain changes in the immigation laws and statues affecting aliens, or in an attempt to bring about changes in internal policy (national prohibition of alcoholic beverages). Persuasion has been exercised by petition, personal appeals, and the ballot. The power of the foreign-language communities and their nationalistic organizations is shown by the care with which they are treated by all politicians.
Editors should note that material relative to the interests and influence of the foreign-language communities in city affairs will receive an appropriate code or cross-reference in the I F section. Sometimes items coded I F 3 will be given this code (III B 1) as a cross-reference, or vice versa (when reference is to state policies). Material showing the effect upon national and state policies of societies with nationalistic aims should be placed here. "Nationalitistic" is interpreted as a primary devotion to a particular national or language group, although it is not meant to imply disloyalty to the United States.
III B 2 Activities of Nationalistic Societies
This subsection is designed to include all source material on the activities of nationalistic societies other than that given other codes, and shall be used in other cases for cross-references.
It must be remembered, however, that all societies and organizations in the foreign-language communities are not nationalistic. Bodies whose aim is assimilation are not likely to pursue such aims; organizations whose purposes are international in scope in all probability will have little interest in nationalistic goals. Some political groups whose philosophy would appear not to be nationalistic, are such in fact. Thus, the Polish and the Lithuanian Socialist Parties, branches of parties in the homeland with little interest in American politics, were definitely nationalistic in character. Many Zionist bodies have a philosophy of Jewish nationalism.
Many items - for example, collections for relief of destitution in the homeland - which will be given other codes, including subdivisions of the assimilation section, should be cross-referenced to this one.
III B 3 Commemoration of Holidays
III B 3 a National
The extent to which the national holidays of the homeland and of America are celebrated in foreign-language communities will give some idea of the degree of their assimilation. Many will celebrate the national holidays of both countries, or observe the festivals of the old country in a sentimental fashion. The ideas expressed on such occasions are often important. Such American holidays as July Fourth and Thanksgiving Day are to be classed as national holidays. This code shall also be given to Illinois state holidays.
III B 3 b Religious
The preceding paragraph applies to this subsection. It should be remembered that, although the religious holidays of some nations have a national significance, if the festivals are primarily religious they should receive this code. Christmas and Easter should be classed as religious holidays. In some cases it may be necessary to make an investigation to discover the nature of the festival.
III B 4 Conventions and Conferences
All conventions and conferences of nationalistic societies, purely local or nation-wide bodies with branches in this city, should receive this code or cross-reference. It includes the actual business of the meetings as well as the fact that such were held.
The purpose of this code is to permit the segregation of source material on conventions and conferences of all nationalistic organizations.
III C National Churches and Sects
Of course, none of the foreign-language communities has an established church. But certain denominations have become identified with various peoples to such an extent that they may be considered national churches. Thus, most Poles are Roman Catholic and the majority of Russians are Greek Orthodox. But we must not neglect other denominations identified with various nationalities, such as the Polish National Catholic Church and various protestant groups among the Russians. "National Churches and Sects" is to be interpreted as meaning church groups which are identified with various nationalities and language groups - churches which have been brought to America by immigrants or religious denominations which have gained a foothold in the immigrant communities here.
III D Participation in United States Service
Every community is proud of the service given this government by persons of its nationality. They consider--and rightly--that such service identifies them with the United States. Data relative to participation of any individual in the civil or military branches of our government is to be coded or cross-referenced here, as seems appropriate. Service rendered the United States during the Civil War and since by individuals and groups is included in this code. An example of such early activities is General J. B. Turchin, a Russian resident of Chicago, who commanded various units of the Federal Army in the Civil War. There will be much material relative to the participation of members of immigrant communities in the World War. References to posts of the American Legion among foreign-language groups should also be given this code or cross-reference.
III E Youth Organizations
Organizations of young people are an important element in each community. The youth feel most strongly the American influences which are shaping the foreign-language colonies. It is they who are synthesizing the old and new cultures. For this reason, a special section devoted to youth activities of all kinds has been set up. Sometimes non-national settlement houses, such as Hull House, organize youth groups in the various nationalities. This information is of great value for our file. All data relative to youth organizations and activities in every sphere is to be coded or cross-referenced here.
III F Special Contributions to Early American Development
From the colonial period some foreign nationalisties have been associated with American life. The activities of General Casimir Pulaski and Baron von Stueben are well known. Some Croatians have claimed that the word "Croatian" carved on a tree near the site of Sir Walter Raleigh's lost Roanoke Island colony was proof that a Croatian ship picked up the colonists. Most immigrant nationalities have made special efforts to show an early connection with the United States.
For this project, "Early American Development" will include the period from the first settlement in what is now the United States to the beginning of the Civil War.
III G Immigration and Emigration
It is only natural that problems involved in immigration and emigration should be of considerable concern to the foreign-language communities. This was especially true before the virtual suspension of immigration after the World War. Increased immigration meant greater strength for each colony. Many community businessmen dependent upon the patronage of the immigrant, such as employment agences, newspapers, and steamship agencies, had a real interest in promoting the settlement in America of persons of their nationality.
All expressions of opinion regarding immigration and emigration, the value of the immigrant to America, and similar material, should receive this code or cross-reference.
III H Relations with Homeland
An old interesting feature of community life is the relations which are maintained with the old country. These may be active and close or merely sentimental in character. In some cases they may be more or less negative, as among Russians forced to leave their country for political reasons. Occasionally the connection is maintained to promote revolutionary activity.
Such relations are quite varied. They may involve exchange of students, financial aid to persons in distress, lecture tours, and many other forms of intercourse. All material concerning ties with the old homeland should be given this as the main code or cross-referenced if the note relates primarily to other subjects.
IV Representative Individuals
Each community has developed leaders in every phase of human activity, men and women whose careers are worthy of notice. In order to segregate all information concerning these persons this special code (IV) has been set up. Such a practice makes readily available to biographers or others interested in the career of particular individuals that material concerning them which is in our files.
In setting up a section such as this one great care must be exercised to make certain that truly representative individuals are included therein. Only those who have achieved an important place in community affairs can be given such space. Such a file cannot be allowed to grow to unwieldy proportions through the inclusion of every person who has made any sort of contribution. For this reason the translators, who are charged with the task of selecting the names to be placed in this file, must exercise especial care in making their choice.
Translators and editors must make certain that the initials or first name of everyone selected for this file are in the note, so that they may be reproduced on a cross-reference card. If the translator has not given them the article must be returned to him for this additional information. In cases where this material was not included originally, the editor must enclose it in brackets. The following is an example: [J. M.] Konkowski. Such common titles as Doctor, Professor, Reverend, etc., must be given.
If editors doubt the advisability of including certain names in this file they are at liberty to question the article and return it to the translator for justification. Such a procedure should be followed when a large number of names is underlined, unless it is clear that the translator was justified in his selections. Editors are also entitled to ask translators why certain persons, who appear worthy of this designation, have not been included in this category. If the translator requires advice it can be obtained from a cooperating sponsor in his language group.
Great care must be exercised at all times by translators and editors to make certain that this file includes all individuals of sufficient importance, but it must not be overloaded with relatively insignificant names. From time to time revised lists of the persons whose names are in this file will be issued to translators in each language group and to all editors, to aid them in selecting individuals to be included. Translators must watch for cases where names have been Anglicized, so that duplication may be prevented.
V Miscellaneous Characteristics
Under this heading are included material on foreign origins of immigrant communities in Chicago and a few items which fit nowhere else. Editors are warned that this section is not to be made a catch-all for matter difficult to code.
V A Foreign Origins
V A 1 Geographical
All material relative to the particular areas within their old homeland from which immigrants came are to be given this code or cross-reference. Thus, articles which show that the majority of Russians in Chicago came from the Russian Ukraine or the greater part of the Jews from Russian Poland would be placed here. Please note that this subsection does not refer to countries of origin but to localities within those countries.
V A 2 Social and Occupational
This subsection is designed to include source material concerning the social classes and occupational groups in the country from which the immigrants came. Most of the Russians in Chicago were peasants; therefore, material bearing on their social class in the old country receives this code or cross-reference. Similar material relative to any other social class or occupational group furnishing immigrants to this nation should receive this code.
Occupational groups will generally be found to be subdivisions of a social class. Many Russians, classified as peasants under Russian law, were in actuality factory workers, either on landlord's estates or in the cities.
Source material on this subject and the one preceding is most important and care must be taken to provide necessary cross-references when another code is made the main one.
V B Picturesque Miscellanies
This subsection is designed to include interesting and picturesque details of life in the foreign-language communities which are worthy of translation and preservation but which cannot be fitted into any other subsection of the code.
Editors must be extremely careful in using this code. It should not be used as a cross-reference. The supervisor must be consulted before a V B code is placed on any article.