The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Chicago Times -- October 14, 1878
    Poor Poles, They Find in America the Free Home Denied by Europe

    The Polish Residents In This Country Are About To Hold Their First Regular Convention......Natives Of Poland In This Country, Nearly All Of Whom Are Exiles.....

    A curious people, springing from one of the savage tribes that occupied central Europe at the time of the downfall of Rome, they advanced rapidly in arts of peace and war until they became one of the greatest powers of Christendom.

    The Poles are of Slavic origin. In consulting the ancient maps, it will be found that a tribe called the Polani dwelt in a small space between the Oder and the Vistula rivers.

    2

    In Chicago there are over 7,000 families of Poles and five societies. There are three Polish churches in Chicago.

    In the matter of education, the Poles of Chicago are not behind other nationalities. There is a school connected with St. Stanislaus Church, taught by nuns, or "Sisters" as they are uniformly called. Here, besides the usual branches that are taught in public schools instruction is given in the Polish language and literature. There is a Polish newspaper published in Chicago called the Gazetta Polska.

    Among the projects to be laid before the convention will be the establishment of a half-orphan asylum and a college for instruction in the Polish language.

    The Polish Residents In This Country Are About To Hold Their First Regular Convention......Natives Of Poland In This Country, Nearly All Of Whom Are Exiles..... A curious people, springing from ...

    Polish
    III B 4, III G
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 02, 1891
    Education (Editorial)

    In the last issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), which under its new editor has abandoned its extreme socialistic principles, we find a lengthy article with the above title. The editor evidently desires to engage in a mild and peaceful controversy on the question of the basic principles of education. The editor will probably favor us with other articles. His article refers to the question discussed in Zgoda a few weeks ago, but it differs so much from the one in Zgoda in the expounding of theories that it not only encourages controversy but even makes it very pleasant.

    The article in Nowe Zycie attacks parochial schools. We shall not pretend that the editor of Nowe Zycie has read our discussions with Zgoda, which appeared in our paper; we shall therefore refrain from referring to them, and shall once more answer his arguments very briefly.

    The author points out that it is the duty of every Pole coming to this country 2to become a good American; however, he should also remain a good Pole. Of course, this applies equally to other nationalities such as the Irish, the Germans, the French, the Bohemians, the Swedes, etc. On this point we agree with the author of the article. To prove our stand, we recall the many statements appearing in our paper to the effect that any newcomer who stays here and is not interested in our form of government and has no desire to adopt and defend its principles is unworthy of receiving any benefits from our institutions.

    A person may be a good American and also a good Pole, since it is possible to reconcile being the one with being the other. The author will surely agree with this statement; therefore it need not be argued. We Poles should be good Americans by conviction, because the United States is at present the most advanced country in the world, and because, in addition, we owe this nation a debt of gratitude. We should also be good Poles by conviction because on the one hand it is cowardly to renounce one's oppressed and downtrodden nationality and on the other hand it is honorable to profess allegiance to such a nationality, to take active part in the protests against the most abominable political crimes perpetrated against it, and to try to punish the guilty and 3establish justice.

    According to the opinion of the author, a person may be a patriotic American and still feel that he is a good Pole, or, in other words, being the one does not interfere with being the other. If this is true, then neither the duty to be a good American nor the duty to be a good Pole should stand in the way of those Poles who were brought up as Catholics and who desire to remain loyal to their faith when they come to this country. Only a strong religious influence can preserve morality among those who have freed themselves from bondage, and morality is a very important factor in a country where people rule themselves.

    Let us suppose, for the present, that the author of the article agrees with the theory that our descendants should be good Americans, good Poles, and religious persons. Now, let us take the author's reasoning under our consideration.

    The article reads: "One of the fundamental principles of the United States Government--a principle which is a guarantee of our freedom--is the separation of Church and State. In the parochial schools, especially those which are 4Catholic, church matters and obedience to the Pope are the most important subjects, and they are driven into the young minds of the pupils. Other subjects are considered as less important and as secondary to religious matters."

    We cannot understand how anyone can make such statements without presenting some proofs, such as a list of the courses of study taught in the parochial schools, or an account of the system of teaching, or the contents of schoolbooks.

    If the author had looked over the schoolbooks used, or if he had read the outline of subjects taught in the parochial schools, he would not make such statements. If we look at the list of subjects taught in Catholic colleges we shall be convinced that the subjects taught in the public schools are also taken up in Catholic colleges. That parochial schools teach religion in addition to other subjects is true, but for this reason the study period is prolonged by one hour. Of course the study of religion does not occupy a secondary place in Catholic colleges, but neither are other subjects regarded as secondary to the study of religion.

    5

    Furthermore, well-equipped parochial elementary schools have the same equipment as well-equipped public schools. That not all parochial schools are properly equipped is true, but on the other hand we must admit that neither are all public schools exemplary. But when a certain principle is involved we must confine ourselves to the well-equipped schools of both sides.

    And now as for "obedience to the Pope." This common objection voiced by the opponents of Catholicism and disproved so many times refers only to the dogmas or the doctrines of faith which are decided by the Pope. These doctrines of faith, especially of the Catholic faith, do not contradict the principles of the Constitution of the United States. Therefore, they cannot be opposed to these principles. One of the precepts of the Catholic Church (and this precept is known and observed by every faithful Catholic) says that we should acknowledge and obey civil authority ("Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's"). Moreover, a priest always prays for the ruler of the country at every mass.

    The author asks: "Will a child educated in these schools know the difference 6between the Church and the State?" Indeed, such a child will know this because he has learned it, whereas in the public schools nothing is taught on the matter. The indifference with which a child is educated in the public schools inoculates his mind with a false conviction that the country will not permit him to profess any particular religion, whereas in the parochial schools the child learns that State and Church are two different things, and that we should obey both the State and the Church in their different spheres. The child also learns that one may be a good Catholic and a good American at the same time.

    The author continues: "Can such a child be as liberal as the Constitution of the United States, after he has grown up and become a citizen?" Certainly, because the Constitution of the United States does not permit atheism, and allows the citizen of this country to profess the faith which he considers as the best. The parochial schools have actually adopted the principles of the American Constitution, which they put into practice by teaching us principles of religion, thus protecting us from atheism. The public schools, on the other hand, have no opportunity for teaching or applying these principles.

    7

    These and similar questions are answered by the author himself as follows: "It is not necessary to answer these questions for history has already answered them. It suffices to mention the history of the Polish National Alliance in the United States."

    The history of the Polish National Alliance has not, as yet, come to an end. The next convention will reveal how sad its condition is. Its history, however, has nothing to do with the question of schools and education.

    The following statement is evidently a conclusion reached by the author of the article: "Only public schools can provide us with the assurance that our children will at least learn what is taught in the parochial schools and, in addition, how to understand and properly appreciate the institutions of our country."

    The textbooks, the courses, the satisfactory results of entry examinations taken by the pupils of the parochial schools at higher institutions of learning, among them the United States Military Academy at West Point--all of these prove that in the parochial schools the students learn at least as much as 8pupils do in the public schools, and that they do learn how to understand and properly appreciate our institutions.

    But the foregoing statement may be reversed to read: "Only the parochial schools can provide us with the assurance that our children will at least learn what is taught in the public schools, and, in addition, will learn the principles of religion and their native tongue." The author should not maintain "that no one prohibits the establishment of special schools at which only the Polish language and Polish history, but no religion, would be taught." Should we send our children to two schools?

    Let us accept the principle that the study of religion, of the native tongue, and of the language of the country are not secondary subjects. We will then recognize the importance of the parochial schools, because if any of these subjects is considered to be of secondary importance in the upbringing of our children, then the latter will not grow up into citizens of whom we should be proud.

    In the last issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), which under its new editor has abandoned its extreme socialistic principles, we find a lengthy article with the above title. The ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I J, III G, III H, I A 1 a
  • Chicago Tribune -- June 08, 1891
    Polish Residents Celebrate Twenty-fifth Anniversary of St. Stanislaus Society Observed

    The twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the society of St. Stanislaus was celebrated by the Polish people at St. Stanislaus Hall last evening. This was the first Polish society organized in the United States. The Polish colony in Chicago then numbered forty-five families and Peter Kiobassa brought together a group of twenty-five persons for literary and religious culture. Father Szulak, a Jesuit-priest, was chosen spiritual adviser, and he soon organized a church. The Polish population of the city is now 100,000 and St. Stanislaus Church has 20,000 communicants.

    The exercises began yesterday morning, solemn high mass being celebrated at 10 o'clock, accompanied by an orchestra of seventy-five pieces.

    2

    In the afternoon the society paraded the streets in the vicinity of the parish. An elaborate program was carried out at St. Stanislaus Hall in the evening. The hall was decorated with flowers and American and Polish flags. Jacob Towaszewski, President of the society, delivered an address of welcome which was followed by local and instrumental music under the direction of A. J. Kwasigroch. Addresses were delivered by Peter Kiolbassa and the Rev. Father Vincent Barzyuski, rector of the parish.

    The program ended with the presentation of the Polish play "Blayek Opetany," by members of the choir.

    The twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the society of St. Stanislaus was celebrated by the Polish people at St. Stanislaus Hall last evening. This was the first Polish society ...

    Polish
    III B 2, III G
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 11, 1891
    Fair Judgment (Editorial)

    A certain German tailor who lived in New York City almost twenty years and accumulated a small fortune decided to return to his native land that he might enjoy the fruits of his labor and live there comfortably for the remainder of his life.

    He made thorough preparations, packed his belongings, and purchased his passage. Before departing, however, it occurred to him that it might be advisable for him to return to Germany as an American citizen, and since during his stay in America he had not been impressed with the idea of becoming a citizen, he had only his first papers lying somewhere. Therefore, he decided to rectify his negligence at the last moment. Perhaps it occurred to him that he would be safer in Germany as a citizen of the United States. Consequently he took his first papers and went to the proper office for his second, or naturalization papers.

    2

    There he was asked the usual questions and the surprised clerk asked him why he had not tried to get his naturalization papers and had neglected his duties as a citizen for so many years. The tailor made a most naive answer; he said that he did not care much about the citizenship, but now he wanted to return to his fatherland and there he would like to pose as an American citizen. Then the clerk told him under such circumstances he could not give him his naturalization papers and dismissed him.

    The clerk is right. Only a person who is interested in the American government, considers it good and desires to live according to its laws should have the right to be an American citizen. Whoever fails to understand this is not worthy to be a United States citizen.

    A certain German tailor who lived in New York City almost twenty years and accumulated a small fortune decided to return to his native land that he might enjoy the ...

    Polish
    III A, III G, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 14, 1891
    Audiatur Et Altera Pars (Editorial)

    In the last issue of Zgoda, [Organ of the Polish National Alliance in America], we read a reprint of an article which had appeared originally in Kuryer Lwowski (Lemberg Courier), and to which was attached the signature of a Lemberg attorney, Mr. Joseph Maczewski.

    The article was answered by a Polish priest from Chicago, whose communication we are publishing below. We are publishing their answer verbatim, although on a few minor points we do not exactly agree with our esteemed correspondent. These are, however, unimportant details which, in view of the importance and courage of the answer as a whole, we see no reason to discuss.

    From the nature of the letter which was attached to the answer, we sense a certain doubt as to whether the Lemberg attorney could actually have written 2such an article. We, however, have no doubts. That a journal like Kuryer Lwowski was pleased to publish such an article can be easily comprehended by every one who has read the Kuryer lately. That a Lembergian should write such an article is nothing unusual, if we take a certain circumstance probably connected with it into consideration. The entire article indicates very clearly that its author obtained his knowledge of our conditions from only one journal--Zgoda--to which he has probably subscribed for a number of years. All statements made in his article had previously appeared in Zgoda and have been refuted and disproven hundreds of times, in spite of which, however, they have never been withdrawn. The reader of this one journal must have formed a one-sided opinion, which he himself probably believes to be true.

    If, before writing the article in question, "Mr. Attorney" had been guided by the principle "audiatur et altera pars," if his attitude, in other words, had been that of a judge rather than that of a lawyer, and if he had read 3other journals besides Zgoda--especially Wiara I Ojczyzna, which explains these very matters--he certainly would have been more careful in writing articles on overseas conditions. As an attorney, Mr. Maczewski defends only one side and has gathered material necessary only for that side. In a short time a wise judge will undoubtedly be found among our countrymen in Poland who will give an impartial judgment on this matter.

    The answer sent by a Chicago priest reads as follows:

    "Our Quarrels: An Answer to Mr. J. Maczewski

    "According to Zgoda, No. 32, Mr. J. Maczewski, an attorney of Lemberg, Poland, has published in Kuryer Lwowski a lengthy article describing conditions in 'American Polonia,' as the Polish element in the United States is called. We will present the article as it is written.

    4

    "I. In the first place, Mr. Maczewski praises the emigrations which took place after the Polish insurrections in Russia in 1831 and 1863, and maintains that 'these insurrectional emigrations constitute a noble and very patriotic foundation for further Polish emigrations.' Our esteemed attorney even states that large Polish settlements are being established in Virginia, etc.

    "The foregoing statement is not true. No evidence of such settlements, large or small, or of any existing foundation of Polish insurrectional emigration, can be found in the United States. If there is such evidence, we would like to be informed as to the state, the county, the post office, the number of settlers, and the fruits of the ardent patriotism.

    "2. The esteemed attorney further maintains that Polish immigration in America, amounting to at least a million and a half souls, consists of common 5people, and that they emigrated for economic reasons and on account of religious and linguistic persecution in their native land.

    "If we look at the facts we will discover that there is some truth and much falsehood in this assertion. I know from experience that a very small number of common people crossed the ocean on account of religious persecution. This also applies to linguistic persecution. Polish emigrants, with the exception of Uniats (United Greeks), never suffered religious persecution, and if there was any linguistic persecution they never felt it.

    "The principal, and indeed the only factors stimulating emigration are poverty, a desire for material gain, a dislike of military service, and a fear of imprisonment for a political crime, this last being confined chiefly to the so-called intelligentsia. Visit the sections inhabited by the Poles in Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Cleveland; visit Polish farm settlements; contact every person, and make a statistical record of the causes of emigratiom. Then 6you can estimate the part played by religious or linguistic persecution.

    "Our esteemed attorney is also misinformed as to the number of Poles in America. I have at home Hoffman's Directory, which, among other things, gives the exact number of Polish parishes and priests in the United States. Finally, I know personally almost all the Polish priests in Chicago. I know more or less exactly the size of Polish settlements, and I maintain, leaving the exact figures to future investigation, that there are only half a million Poles in the United States. These half-million Poles will assimilate; they will remain in the United States forever. These half-million Poles do not live here for any sentimental reasons, but because they can gain a better livelihood. To this Mr. Attorney may say, 'They are lost in materialism.' I answer, 'No!'

    3. Although Polish-Americans are perhaps a little too much concerned with 7money, they have no lack of loyalty either to their religious faith or to their nationality. Though they have no desire to return to their fatherland, they decorate Polish settlements in America with Catholic churches and Polish schools, in order that these settlements may resemble their native land. This emphasis on religion and education, coupled with the fact that a proportionately small number of priests emigrated, accounts for the great shortage of Polish priests in America.

    "4. And now, a few words about priests. No one can expect that out of the Polish population in America, which amounts to half a million people and is made up of various and distinct elements, united only by language, there could arise an exemplary and perfectly disciplined clergy, especially when the clergy came from many parts of the world and was under the jurisdiction of many different bishops. Such a demand is beyond the power of human strength to fulfill. That there were intrigues among the Polish clergy, sometimes for good and sometimes for evil, is quite natural. Mr. Maczewski surely knows that a priest 8does not sin by trying to get a better parish. Finally, everyone, clergyman or layman, who is acquainted with our conditions, knows very well along what thorny road a priest must pass during the organization of a parish.

    Any assertions about the stunned peasant, frightened by fire and brimstone and horned devils, are fiction. Our peasant may properly be said to be afraid of the devil, in the sense that he fears God and believes in eternal reward and eternal damnation. The 'educated' people, however, ridicule the devil while they live, and only when their last hour comes do they call for the priest that he may save them from the devil's grasp by prayers, sacraments, and an aspergillum. I earnestly beg our attorney friend to prove by statistical records a single case in which a Polish parish priest in America has dishonestly squeezed money from a peasant, by threatening him with fire and brimstone, whether he wanted the money for the Church, for a school, or for himself. Our attorney friend should know that our people make contributions 9because they are convinced of the truthfulness of their faith and the necessity of their schools.

    "5. 'Woe!' said Jesus to those who set a bad example, but bad examples have always existed and always will exist; they will of necessity be found even among the Polish clergy in America. Where Mr. Attorney gets his information about the excesses which he describes, such as broken ribs, etc., is a mystery to me. It is possible, but I would rather be a Doubting Thomas and say: 'I will not believe till I put my finger on the broken ribs!'

    "The principal accusation of Mr. Maczewski is his allegation that an extreme greediness characterizes the Polish priests in America. To this I reply: (1) Many Polish priests in America live in great poverty, and all of them experience hardships when they are organizing a new parish. (2) Polish priests in America receive less for religious services then other priests, and also less than is prescribed by the Baltimore Council. If this statement is 10not true, please refute it statistically. All our priests receive a rigidly prescribed salary, and as far as other income is concerned, most of them carry unselfishness to an almost sinful extreme. Exceptions to this are very few.

    "6. Concerning the freethinkers, I wish to state that experts acquainted with our conditions confirm the fact that there are many freethinkers among the members of the Polish National Alliance, not defined as such by the fancy of a naughty priest but by the regulations of the Roman Catholic Church. If necessary, I can supply the name and the address of a lodge of the Polish National Alliance in which freethinkers are particularly prominent. To demand the silence of the priests on the activities of the Polish freethinkers among the faithful Catholic people would be equivalent to demanding a denial of the value of the Catholic faith.

    "The statement that a Catholic priest and the Catholic faith are one is true.

    11

    Faith cannot exist on earth without priests, and, although a priest is not an embodiment of faith, he is always its best defender and propagator. In the circles favorable to the Polish National Alliance it is permissible to treat the Catholic faith with great respect and at the same time blaspheme against the priests abominably.

    "7. I will not discuss the assertions made by our esteemed attorney regarding the good will of the Polish National Alliance towards Polish schools, etc., because these institutions are under the exclusive protection of the clergy. The priests organized Polish people into societies, religious, fraternal, educational, etc., before any lodge of the Polish National Alliance existed. The Polish Roman Catholic Union, under the protection of the [order of the] Sacred Heart of Jesus, is the outcome of these societies, and has, not four thousand, but seven thousand members. No one can say anything definite about the number of members of the Polish National Alliance,because a few weeks ago Zgoda itself, apparently for the purpose of covering up a theft committed 12by a certain Mr. Morgenstern, who was formerly in charge of the organization's funds, admitted that its previous statements as to the number of members had been fictitious.

    "Therefore, all nonsense about poor, ignorant people being oppressed by the priests, or about the ideal, angelic love for the fatherland and the Roman Catholic Church attributed to the members of the Polish National Alliance, is an insult to human intelligence. Has any one in Poland ever heard about the results produced by the work and sacrifice of the members of the Polish National Alliance for our fatherland? I beg the esteemed attorney to point out to me any beneficial effects, in the old country, of the activities of the Polish National Alliance.

    "The Polish National Alliance must base its claims to prestige on two facts: first, that some widows and widowers, most of whom had left the Church, have received a few hundred dollars toward their support; and second, that, when 13disorders have occurred in various parishes, the members of the Polish National Alliance and their journals have distinguished themselves by their hatred of the Roman Catholic Church."

    In the last issue of Zgoda, [Organ of the Polish National Alliance in America], we read a reprint of an article which had appeared originally in Kuryer Lwowski (Lemberg Courier), ...

    Polish
    III G, I C, III H, III C, III A, V A 2, III B 2, I A 2 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 04, 1892
    Contributions

    The following is a report of the contributions received by this paper from the 24th of December 1891 to January 1, 1892, which is to be added to the total donations received.

    For the Home of Polish Orphans on Division Street the following have sent in donations:

    Stanislaus Szwajkart $2.50
    J. I. Migdalski .50
    Wladyslaw Burda 5.00
    Andrew Wesolowski .50
    Total $8.50
    2

    For the Immigration Home in Brooklyn, the following have mailed their contributions:

    Stanislaus Szwajkart $2.50
    Adam Szwajkart 2.00
    J. I. Migdalski .50
    Ignacy Machnikowski 1.00
    Andrew Meger .50
    Chester Wesolowski, from Sacramento, Calif 1.00
    Total $7.50

    The money has been received, accounted for and sent to the headquarters of the designated offices. Any further contributions will be greatly appreciated.

    The following is a report of the contributions received by this paper from the 24th of December 1891 to January 1, 1892, which is to be added to the total ...

    Polish
    II D 4, III G
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 25, 1892
    Polish Population Falsely Represented by 1890 Census (Comment on an article in the Chicago Times)

    The Chicago Times has published population statistics of the various nationalities residing in Chicago based on the census of 1890. A first glance reveals that the total number of Polish people in Chicago is falsely stated. It must be remembered that a great number of Poles born in Chicago have given themselves the title of Americans. There is also a great number of Polish people who have given their nationality as German, American, or Russian. This is possible for we have come across this many times. A certain Pole will say that he is a Russian-Pole, a German-Pole, or an Austrian-Pole, or of that extraction. The census taker did not bother about the Polish as much as the German or whatever the prefix was and listed them in that category.

    2

    When will the Poles realize that no Russian-Poland or German-Poland exists but only a Poland under the rule of the Austrians or Russians? There is a great difference.

    The following is a list of some of the nationalities residing in Chicago, according to the census of 1890:

    German 394,958
    Irish 215,534
    Czech 54,209
    Poles 52,756
    Swedes 45,867

    The Chicago Times has published population statistics of the various nationalities residing in Chicago based on the census of 1890. A first glance reveals that the total number of Polish ...

    Polish
    III G, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 08, 1892
    Polish Welfare Association Holds Important Meeting

    Fifty-five Poles joined the ranks of the Polish Welfare Association yesterday [during the latter's meeting] at the Polish Hall, Bradley street near Noble. A large crowd had gathered at this meeting to hear the proposals of the Welfare Committee. The new members volunteered their help after the committee explained the conditions prevailing among the Polish poor of Chicago.

    The Lord Christ said: You shall always have the poor among you. These words have come to pass over and over again everywhere. In hamlets and cities, the poor are always found. However, the number of needy families is always greater in large metropolitan areas, and our beloved city of Chicago is not an exception to the rule.

    Kind-hearted people cannot remain indifferent to the hardships of their brothers; therefore, they join forces to assist the poverty-stricken fight the dark, lean days. The Poles in this city have not stood back, but have 2organized their own forces to solve this problem. A committee was chosen to draw up plans, meetings were held, and the problems were presented to the people. This activity brought out the fact that, through collective cooperation by voluntary donations of money, goods, and services, and through the spreading of cheer and hope, much can be accomplished to wrest the people from the clutches of uncertainty. Mothers, children, and widows, the sick, and the aged will be spared the shame of begging in the streets.

    Yesterday's meeting showed a gratifying response. The enlistment of fifty-five members is only a beginning, just an impetus for others to join.

    Publication of the activities of this organization will bring those unable to attend this or the previous meeting in contact with the crying need of our less fortunate people. This appeal for help, this effort to quiet the uncertainty of the poor will soften the hearts of our prosperous element. The ranks of the generous will swell from a hundred to a thousand, possibly into thousands. Having no multimillionaires or millionaires in our files, 3we do not expect any large sums of money to fill the empty coffers of this welfare organization. But our people are rich in Christian love, tenderness, and hospitality. They are fond of the words of Christ: whatever you have done to the unfortunate brothers in their need, you have done unto me.

    What we need now is to have all the kind-hearted gather at the next meeting, to be held this coming Sunday at 4 P. M., so that they may join the ranks of those who have offered to help this cause.

    The help of the businessmen, property owners, and our prominent citizens will be valuable to our cause. The dollar that they may contribute to the fund for the poor is not so important as their vote and opinion. On February 14, the meeting will finish a discussion on the constitution [of the society], and a vote will be taken concerning the adoption of certain amendments. The suggestions of our prominent citizens, therefore, will be of great help in this respect.

    4

    This meeting is not being held for the sole purpose of obtaining money. A matter of greater importance, the continuation of this work and the materialization of plans to put this association on a sound foundation is the main issue. The money contributed will serve a two-fold purpose to the donor: it will be a sacrifice of money to help save the needy, and a sacrifice to God, Who places this upon the altar of love for the poor.

    Let us all join this noble cause. Remember the words of Jesus: Come, blessed children of my Father, and share the kingdom set aside for ye since the dawn of time.

    Please bear in mind that the pockets of the indolent, false beggars, parasites, and traveling hoboes will not be bulging with these donations. Only those in urgent need will get assistance. In order to get this help, the recipients must be residents of this city.

    5

    A committee is needed to warn the people against misleading advertisements in which the claim is made that Chicago is a Mecca for those in need of work. Chicago, like any other city, is facing an unemployment crisis. People of long standing in this city and familiar with the English language, who besides being skilled tradesmen are intimate with influential people, have difficulty in getting work. The many beggars and unemployed that fill the streets are a good example [of the crisis now prevailing in Chicago].

    It is hoped that the Poles living in the Northwest Side will set a memorable example by joining this cause and offering their aid without being asked. In a short while, as the number of good-hearted people be increased on the rolls of the welfare association, the poor will be salvaged from their penurious state. The donations will be recognized by God as a token of good will to all men. The honor of our Polish people in this rapidly growing city will be saved. Their cooperation will long be remembered and the Poles will become a fine example of immigrants.

    6

    There is no charge to attend the meeting next Sunday. To become members, those desiring to help the poor will contribute a dollar to this charitable organization. Members will have their name published in the paper. At this meeting, to be held in the new Polish Hall, a board of directors will be elected.

    Fifty-five Poles joined the ranks of the Polish Welfare Association yesterday [during the latter's meeting] at the Polish Hall, Bradley street near Noble. A large crowd had gathered at this ...

    Polish
    II D 10, I H, III G, III B 2, I B 3 c
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 22, 1892
    The Poles a Survey of Chicago's Polish Population

    The Poles, as a part of Chicago's population, belong to those nationalities which are especially outstanding, like the Bohemians, Danes, Swedes etc. The Polish population of our city numbers not less than 60,000. A peculiar characteristic of this nation is their tenacity in sticking together in their different colonies. They live in seclusion as a people, more than any other Europeans, and one feels like a stranger passing through their colonies.

    The most extensive Polish settlement is located in the Sixteenth Ward, Noble Street, Elston Avenue etc. In this neighborhood live not less than 30,000 Poles. Almost as large is the Polish colony on Seventeenth Street, Paulina, Laurel and vicinity. The chief factor of their seclusion is the Catholic Church. The largest congregation is the St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, located at Ingraham and Noble Streets.

    The Polish immigration to Chicago started thirty-eight years ago. Anton Schermann, J. Niemezewski, J. Dziewior, who are still alive, and are honored like patriarchs, were among the first settlers....

    2

    The immigrants of those early years were almost exclusively poor working men; but nearly all of them became well-to-do. The colony grew very slowly until 1873, when large numbers of Poles from Russia and Prussia came to Chicago. At that time the colonies on the south side and in South Chicago were founded. When in 1884 twenty-thousand Poles were banished from their old country, the largest portion came to America, and of these the majority settled in Chicago. The largest Polish population of American cities is in Chicago.

    The Poles have eight churches in Chicago, and the largest among them is the St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, which has thirty thousand members. The church, the school, the home for the nuns and the priests cover a whole city square. The school is a four story brick building and more than three thousand pupils attend. Eight men teachers and twenty nuns comprise the staff.....Two high schools were also erected by the church recently...and an orphanage.

    The two largest associations of the Polish population are the Polish Roman-Catholic National Union and the Polish National Alliance. The interests and activities of these organizations are closely allied to eccleciastical and national purposes. They have branches all over the United States and are also 3active in works of charity. P. Kiolbassa is the president of the Union, and its office of administration is at 141 - 143 West Division Street. This building belongs to the Polish Publishing Company.

    The above mentioned company publishes two Polish newspapers, Dziennik Chicagoski, a daily, and the Wiarai Ojczyzna (Faith and Fatherland), a weekly, and is the organ of the Polish Roman-Catholic National Union, which has a membership of about 8,000. The National Alliance was organized twelve years ago. It has 4,500 members, and their slogan is; "Poland is not yet lost."

    Besides the already mentioned papers, others are published: the Gazeta Polska, established 1873, the weekly Tygodnik Powiesciowy, the Gazeta Katolicka and the Dzien Swiety.

    At present there is a movement on foot among the Poles to erect a monument in Humboldt Park to that great Polish champion of liberty, Kosciusko. The Chopin Choir and the dramatic Club of young people contribute to their entertainment.

    4

    They also have two athletic clubs, and a number of small societies which are active in charitable endeavors under the supervision of the clergy.

    The Poles, as a part of Chicago's population, belong to those nationalities which are especially outstanding, like the Bohemians, Danes, Swedes etc. The Polish population of our city numbers not ...

    Polish
    III A, II B 3, II D 10, II C, II B 2 d 2, II B 2 d 1, III B 2, II D 4, IV, III G, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 03, 1892
    A Picture of the Polish Press in America (Editorial)

    Once a week, or perhaps every other week, we will endeavor to publish an article which will give in concise from a cross-section of the Polish press in the United States. The aim of these articles will be twofold to acquaint the public with some of our outstanding developments in the field of literature, and to add impetus to the advancement of journalism.

    The articles, which will be treated with exactness, will impart a pleasant point of view, and only those of interest to the reader will be printed as an example of Polish effort. In addition we will publish 'Sine ira et studio' articles, 2that is, articles without anger or partiality, intended to better the mental horizon and spirit of sportsmanship of our younger generation.

    We do not intend to play the mentor. Not being infallible, and our indigence being already known, we will limit ourselves to articles touching upon religion and customs as concern Catholic principles. Lay subjects of popular discussion will be handled as logically as possible, in accordance with the opinion of prominent persons, who will be freely quoted. Ideas contrary to popular belief will also be given notice, as long as they are of a peaceful nature and not too radical, and provided they meet with the respect of the public. All articles will be treated objectively.

    Commentaries will be gladly accepted if they are objective and impersonal. We are interested in what a person writes, not in what he is.

    3

    The Pole in America, edited by S. Slisz and published in Buffalo twice a week, has taken a definite step forward in the field of journalism. The emulation of this publication has brought many fine results.

    The publication by this paper of anonymous stories is decreasing and each day there is less copying from other papers, which results in a greater amount of original material. These original articles have a style of their own, a style belonging to the writer, who may be the editor himself or a correspondent of the paper. At times these articles may be long or condensed, but whatever their form, they have sense and substance, particularly those the object of which is righteousness instead of personal interest. It is true that we all cannot agree on the same thing. Sometimes it happens that an article that is not very clear or authoritative has to be re-written by the editor from top to bottom before it is published. We have hopes that someday all this will be changed; that an awakening will envelop the Polish press, an awakening 4from which will evolve better understanding, peace, and harmony both in religious and patriotic matters. The Pole In America will then be able to progress more rapidly and serve its native and adopted countries better.

    Of one of this paper's correspondents, from St. Paul Minnesota, we can say that he writes with sagacity, clearness, zeal, and a bit of humor, irony, and satire. Although he claims not to be a subscriber of Wiara I Ojczyzna (Religion and the People), or familiar with the Dziennik Chicagoski and the Zgoda, he can figure out something to write about them. When he begins to read these papers, his hypochondria, which often seeps out of his writings, will leave him, and his pen will be of greater advantage to the Pole In America.

    However, we must point out to the editors that advertisements of saloons, cafes, breweries, and distilling companies do not harmonize with the nature of Catholic writing. It is bad enough that a drunkard finds his way to the source unaided, let alone giving him directions on how to reach perdition. This is also true 5in the case of the Toledo publication. This policy should be abandoned.

    Zgoda (Harmony) is the organ of the Polish National Alliance. Noble as its title is, does Zgoda adhere to it? The late Bishop Krasicki said, "To bellow freedom is to silence freedom." What has the Zgoda done in this direction?

    The Zgoda is actually adding "liar" to its title. Quarreller' should be its true name. For the past three years this weekly has been setting examples and showing us how not to write in the Polish language.

    This publication, according to its constitution, is intended to be educational; a guardian of the pure Polish tongue, a model for style, and a pioneer in the elevation of the spirit of the Pole. Does the Zgoda follow these precepts? This may be possible, because the members of the Alliance keep silent and delight in its literature, particularly those who are as concerned about the 6purity of the native tongue as we are about the change of cabinet for the queen of Honolulu.

    We will remain silent about the retrograding, anti-religious and anti-nationalistic policies of this paper and center our attention in its style, Polish language, logic, grammar, and even orthography, in which it is a true monster. This, however, does not cause much harm, as the average member of the Polish National Alliance who receives this weekly does not understand the articles anyhow. An intelligent person must toil long over the contents before he can grasp the meaning of this monstrous publication. At times he must fill in the gaps himself. As to its editor, it would not be amiss to say, "No one will give anything, if there is not anything to give," for he exemplifies the biblical saying, "Minus habens," that is, in order to write, one must know how to write.

    We will not offer this weekly any suggestions because we know that they will be disregarded entirely or accepted with insults. We would rather have the 7articles as they are than to put up with polemic editorials so written as to make a colored person blush.

    All we ask of the Zgoda is to print verbatim articles it gets from other papers, that is, facts after facts, without distorting them or treating them with insulting criticism. As to the correspondents of Zgoda, no matter where they may live, we can only thank them for defending us, and we ask them to continue this support. We also ask Mr. Tomasz, of this city, and Mr. K. F., who do not share the beliefs of the Polish Catholic priests, to respect the Catholic religion and those practicing it.

    Having a great deal of patience, we will await the end of the play "Goddess" (Bozenna), which has been fabricated and patterned after a Chinese drama.

    The people's weekly, Wiarus, published at Winona, Wisconsin, has managed to 8acquire a wide following in the country during its three years of existence. Its readers are varied: both the intelligent and the spiritual-minded emigrants have become subscribers. Adherence to the policies of the Catholic Church has brought this paper unlimited rewards. All the articles, editorials as well as news, are free from prejudice and always exact. Papers such as this, with this type of journalism, are valuable to the people and the Church.

    However, it would be much better if the Wiarus would devote more space to the road of Faith than to sensational articles, especially as less publicity to scandals and dubious stories will do more good than too much of it. One bad article can do more harm than a hundred good items can do good.

    Great sadness overcame us a few weeks ago when we came upon an article of this kind in the Wiarus. The article was entitled "Chamy" (Peasants), and was illustrated with the picture of a gallows for debtors. Pictures such as this 9should be kept out of a paper, for their publication will destroy rather than promote good will. To indulge in this, throws a paper out of the road of stars of the path to fame and popularity for poking fun at others has never brought any laurels to anyone. One can operate on a boil only with a delicate instrument, not with a rod or a mace. A boil can be burst open with a stick, but the patient runs the risk of being mortally wounded. Such procedure would not be a medical feat,-it would, be murder. And what about the rod that has been wielded by the author of 'Chamy'? What will be its result? Since hatred and scandal follow vengeance and dishonor, the author's reward will be nothing but disgrace.

    The only remedy is to forgive and to forget these mistakes. We entertain the hope that the Wiarus will alter its policies in the future for its own good and the good of its readers, its crude rod to be replaced by the delicate pen as an instrument of operation. Not until then will the evils of society be treated successfully. Providence has given editors more than one measure of talent. Let them use it in the name of God, for the profit of their 10readers and the betterment of the people.

    There are two Polish dailies in the United States: the Dziennik Chicagoski [in Chicago] and the Polish Courier in Milwaukee. About the first we will not try to write any comment, as we hope the day will come when some Polish person of authority will write to the editors of this paper stating his opinion, pointing out the bad and giving us credit for the good. We shall be grateful for any criticism, provided it is just, for we know that a few editors pattern their style of news after that of Mr. Slisz.

    The Polish Courier, although small in size, plays an important part among the Poles of Milwaukee. Its literary style is comparatively good, and it follows its aims and policies to the letter. In our opinion, this paper deserves the support of the Poles, Its editorial section shows maturity; its style is bright and understandable; its criticisms not severe; its writings impersonal, even though at times the bitter truth has to be told 11about some papers and individuals. But all this is done without insult to anyone.

    The Courier's editorials, which appear daily, are intelligently written. Their meaning is understood by the average reader. The popularity of its editorial section and other features is well deserved and worthy of mention. The road to this editorial page has not been an easy one, but one full of hardships and freelancing. Important articles from other papers are given and reference made to their sources. A publication that treats everything with fairness, as well as the men who represent it, not only deserves support but also merits praise for its efforts.

    In order to give the readers an example typical of the treatment the Courier gives to various important questions, we will cite excerpts from one of its articles.

    12

    The article in question deals with the work of Father V. Barzynski, whose efforts to bring the Poles closer together have brought many jeers from some papers of importance. The Polish Courier in Milwaukee treats the matter as follows:

    "The benefits of the attempt of the Poles to share the olive branch are so apparent that no one is trying to distract his neighbor from that direction. The results of the protest against Russia are so outstanding that it would take an abnormal person to disregard them. For they flow with the understanding of Polish hearts and patriotism. Truly it is something to be regarded as good.

    "Yet, the efforts of Father Barzynski are considered fancy creations of the mind; the protest question being taken as an undertaking doomed to failure, despite the fact that the Polish press, even the liberal New Life (Nowe Zycie), 13has accepted and recognized both.

    "This kind of propaganda fails to succeed because it lacks observance of formality on the part of the initiators, who injure the pride of those who control the right of patriotism. The seed of this propaganda fell upon unfavorable soil, a soil overgrown with the weeds of private warped views full of low ambition and culpable selfishness. The idea of peace was interpreted as a desire to fuse various groups, to discontinue the struggle for certain rights and to put fire and water together. The protest was taken as a move harmful to the good will of our people and unsuitable to the task of rehabilitating Poland. Manifestoes filled with fancy phraseology which could hardly gain a single applause began to appear. Pobudki (Inciter) and Wolnego Slowa (Free Word), papers which are not read by anyone in this country, became in the eyes of some of our leaders the last word in patriotism.

    "This situation is sad but true. Some men like to become great through their ideals alone, and in the attempt they necessarily clash with others. Soon 14heated arguments result, and out of them chaos, from which nothing of value will come."

    In order to show with what fairness the Polish Courier treats certain news, we will give another example.

    In the every day routine of an immigrant, many situations arise. Many times it happens that the revelation from the immigrant's own judgment, conviction, or mere opinion, carries with it many unpleasant consequences.

    We live in a country where lies and sophisms are more favored than truth and sincerity. When a person of our Catholic faith makes a conservative statement relative to a popular question of the day, he is immediately showered with criticism from all sides, including the liberal, the non-religious, and even the anarchical factions.

    The affair, or rather scandal, of the apostasy of the Holy Trinity parish of 15Chicago is well known to all. A majority of our people are familiar with the entire situation and many of them lament the outcome because they see and feel the kind of fate, verily disgrace that awaits our immigrants. But as soon as someone from the conservative side raises his voice against this disgraceful schism, or just permits someone to mention a favorable word or a word of admonishment, he is received with a barrage of blasphemous insults, which pagans even avoid to use. He will be called narrow-minded; a servant and a slave of the priests. This same thing happens to the priest who tries to voice his opinion; he will be greeted with epithets of obstructor, greedy, parvenue, and extortioner. Therefore, it is laudable that the Courier, which has no affiliation whatsoever, keeps to the road it now follows, i. e., that it continue treating delicate subjects not only with sincerity but also with the power of conviction and truth.

    The Zgoda, organ of the Polish National Alliance, has made public a scandalous 16announcement about some kind of non-religious parish committee, alleged to be the source of a Protestant questionnaire. The committee's headquarters were closed by the authorities of the Holy Trinity Parish, but the body operates without the latter's knowledge and permission. The purpose of this committee is to get a new pastor for the church. While making a bid for priests, the committee at the same time stipulates as a conditions that the priest to take over the parish must be independent from other priests, especially from the church authorities of Kolasinski, in Detroit.

    We did not say a word about this because we do not want to be open to any new attacks and intrigues, but the Polish Courier of Milwaukee comes to our assistance as follows;

    "The parishioners of Holy Trinity Church in Chicago are looking for a "Catholic" pastor. They are advertising in certain Polish newspapers that belong to the association of Polish editors. The Zgoda, which received the blessing of a Catholic bishop at the last diet in Detroit for its work, belongs in this group 17by also carrying the advertisement. Among the requirements demanded of a candidate, we do not see the one requiring that he be installed by the authority of the Church. Parishes get their priests through the mediation of a bishop, not by public vote. Because of this, we have reason to believe that something unpleasant is brewing in Chicago, especially since we have been informed that the parishioners are contemplating legal action in the Chicago courts to force the Archbishop to relinquish his title to the church and grounds of the Holy Trinity Parish. No light is thrown upon this situation by any of the Chicago papers. What is this all about?"

    We have already explained the reason why the Polish papers of Chicago have kept silent about this matter.

    A reply to the Polish National Alliance by "The will of the people," has also been left alone. No mention has been made of the affair because the manifestos given to the people by Zgoda have been written in the spirit of Slisz and Malek. This style of writing moves us to laughter and pity, for we are used to usurpers and their empty idiotic phrases. The Courier, upon commenting on this question 18says: "We do not agree with the Alliance's idea that it is 'the only organization formed by the will of the Polish people in America,'

    As we cannot see how we could deny the same right to the Polish Roman-Catholic Union or other organizations.

    "We also do not agree with the type of treatment given to the European political situation by the Central Committee.

    "It is true that we stand on the cross roads and that European relations can change any minute the entire course of the situation, as it is, we lack sufficient data to substantiate rumors about the rebuilding of Poland. The small number of Poles scattered in France and Switzerland can not exert enough pressure to alter the present political set-up.

    "For Poland the days of conspiracy, rebellion and insurrection are gone forever.

    19

    The Polish people will not be sidetracked from their present road of organization by the Knout of the Tsar, the lofty promises of Wilhelm and Franz Joseph, or the latest suggestion of the Central Committee of the Polish National Alliance.

    "This suggestion, lacking in intelligent action and abounding in empty phrases, does not bring any laurels to the Polish people in America, for it does not tend to unite those who have been guided by a spirit of patriotism. In other words, it is not in line with the conservative faction, which has agreed upon a resonable method of protest against Russian violence, a method formulated by the Polish Catholic societies and supported by all Polish papers of importance."

    In another article of the Courier, written in a pleasant style and under the title "The Polish People and Immigration," this paper deals in the following manner with Polish revolutionists who desire to create new revolts by propaganda and uprisings in the ranks of our already unfortunate people:

    20

    "What right have we to determine the fate of our people? What right to take interest in a political policy that will only bring bloodshed to the people of Poland? Is it because we have a large group in the ranks of the Alliance, the Union, and other similar organizations? Do these organizations expect to boast of a strong character just because they have incorporated in their constitutions the rebuilding of Poland?

    "It is evident that we must do something. In view of this, we are doing everything within our power, but we are not prepared to tackle anything unfamiliar that spells inevitable failure and that will only bring ridicule upon us. Our ship in America is too weak to withstand the elements of the raging sea; we must protect it from falling apart and forget that it is iron-clad.

    "Our fortresses are our Polish churches, schools, reading-rooms, books, and periodicals. Let us protect these strongholds and unite for greater protection 21by banding together in organizations, church or national, as long as they are Polish.

    "Whoever is making declamations about rebuilding the Polish nation and at the same time discredits the efforts of the priest or teacher, performs no public good. The person who supports the church and at the same time despises activity in the cultural field or other national endeavor, also serves no good. And the one who serves only his own clique and ridicules the efforts of his neighbor, sows the seed of weed upon the place where hardy seeds of fruit and clover should sprout."

    In concluding this critical study of the Polish Courier in Milwaukee, we can only thank its editorial staff for shouldering the responsibilities of telling the bitter truth to our adversaries. This ought to serve a much better purpose because not one faction made an attempt to disclose the truth, although they were familiar with the situation.

    Once a week, or perhaps every other week, we will endeavor to publish an article which will give in concise from a cross-section of the Polish press in the United ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, I C, II D 1, I B 1, I B 4, III G, III H, III C, III B 2, I A 2 a