The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Chicago Tribune -- December 15, 1879
    Relief for Starving Poles

    Yesterday morning's Tribune contained an announcement to the effect that all Poles were requested to meet at the parochial residence of St. Stanislaus Church, corner of Ingraham and Noble Streets, four o'clock yesterday afternoon, to devise ways to assist their countrymen in Upper Silesia, one of the provinces of Prussia, who were perishing from starvation, brought about by floods and famine.

    Subsequently, it was determined to hold the meeting directly after the morning mass, when more people would be likely to attend. Accordingly, the announcement was made directly after the religious services, and the meeting was attended by fully one-thousand people.

    The Rev. Father, Vincent Barzynski, called the assembly to order and stated the object of the meeting. A permanent organization was then effected with Father Barzynski as President; Joseph Niemczemski as Vice-President; Peter Kiolbassa as Secretary; W. Smulski as Assistant Secretary; and John Arkuszewski as Treasurer.

    Yesterday morning's Tribune contained an announcement to the effect that all Poles were requested to meet at the parochial residence of St. Stanislaus Church, corner of Ingraham and Noble Streets, ...

    Polish
    II D 10
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 30, 1891
    Hunger and Destitution (Editorial)

    On February 7, 1891, under the title "Hunger and Destitution," we published an article in which we called the attention of our countrymen to the fact that among the Poles there are many families and individuals who need help, help that the County Welfare Bureau is unable to give in an adequate manner. We pointed out at the time that other national groups had their own benevolent institutions and that since the Poles had not done anything along this line, despite the growing need among their poor, it was high time that they consider the matter.

    In the article in question we also told our readers that the Poles had considered the necessity of establishing an institution of this kind but 2never had succeeded in arriving to a definite understanding. We concluded with the remark that we hoped that the Poles who had taken this matter up on several occasions, as well as others who were willing to support it, would in the very near future get together for the purpose of deciding on this urgent necessity, dictated by our heart, our conscience, and our honor. In fact, we predicted that it was not going to be long before we could be able to announce in our paper the formation of a committee to begin the work. And our prediction came through as expected, for now we learn that this idea is beginning to take shape.

    County Commissioner Victor Bardonski, our well-known countryman, is the reviver of the idea. As a county commissioner, Mr. Bardonski is in a position to estimate the extent to which the County Welfare Bureau can help.

    3

    He is, moreover, aware of the fact that many of our countrymen need Polish assistance because the county Bureau cannot tend to all their needs.

    Mr. Bardonski will hold a conference next week, the exact date to be announced later, to which will be invited all those who are interested in this important undertaking. At this meeting, ways and means of forming a welfare committee will be discussed.

    This is such an important matter that we are releasing this information ahead of time. Influential and practical Poles should take this matter under consideration. Up to now, no one has any idea of how to tackle this problem so that it is necessary to concentrate on the matter, lest the whole project go to pieces.

    4

    Our paper is willing to co-operate with those desiring to make any suggestions in this direction. Perhaps the solution to this problem lies in these suggestions, since they may furnish a clue to the realization of the plan.

    In our opinion valuable information could be obtained from German, Irish, and other institutions. Poles connected with members of these institutions should inquire from them how their institutions are managed. The members of these organizations are qualified through experiences to point out the benefits and faults of these institutions and as a result they can give valuable information. Not only because of their benevolent character, but also because of the load taken off their shoulders, these institutions will be more than willing to give the information required.

    5

    The success of the new institution will depend, of course, on the generosity of its founders and members.

    Contributions may be made in cash or in goods, such as food, coal, etc. Cash donations will be sent directly to the treasurer's office, which will dispose of them in accordance with the decision of members. Signed pledges intended to Maintain a fixed income that will enable the management to issue regular orders to those who need help, will also be accepted. Not only those who are willing to support the institution financially, but also those who wish to support it morally, should be welcomed as members. Sound advice, as well as any other activity in behalf of the institution will be credited as financial help. It is for this reason that no one who is able to help should shirk this patriotic duty.

    The foregoing suggestions are provisional and general; their purpose being 6to create a desire towards the consideration of this matter. Should our suggestions give rise to a controversy, so much the better. After all, opposition is better than indifference.

    On February 7, 1891, under the title "Hunger and Destitution," we published an article in which we called the attention of our countrymen to the fact that among the Poles ...

    Polish
    II D 10, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 11, 1891
    St. Stanislaus Kostka's Society

    We have received a copy of the constitution of St. Stanislaus Kostka's Society which celebrated its silver jubilee last Sunday. The document was printed in Paris in 1869.

    This constitution is a very important document because it is the first constitution of a Polish society and has served as a model for drawing up other constitutions.

    The title of this constitution adopted in Chicago, Illinois, in North America, on June 1, 1866 is: The Constitution and Bylaws of St. Stanislaus Kostka's Brotherly Aid Society. The introduction to this constitution reads:

    In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, amen.

    Introduction

    In order that the Polish Roman Catholic people may be united by the bonds of 2brotherly love; in order that charitable deeds such as visiting and helping the sick, burying the dead, and helping the widows and orphans may prevail in this brotherly group; and in order that brotherhood, harmony, unity, and moral habits of body and soul may be found among us, we have founded a Brotherly Aid Society under the patronage of Saint Stanislaus Kostka.

    Titles of articles containing the bylaws:

    I. Name and emblem of the Society. II. Principles of the Society. III. Officers. (These are: a president, a vice-president, a secretary, an assistant secretary, three advisers, a cashier, a marshal, and a doorman.) IV-XI. Duties of officials. XII. Membership and dues. XIII. Election of candidates. XIV. Religious ceremonies. XV. Conducting of meetings. XVI. Taking care of the sick. XVII. Funeral ceremonies. XVIII. Unforeseen incidents. Article XIX. reads as follows:

    Article XIX.

    Section one. The constitution and bylaws cannot be changed, amended, or 3suspended without the consent of three-fourths of the members of the Society, and such changes, etc. can only occur at an annual meeting.

    This constitution and these bylaws have been unanimously adopted by St. Stanislaus Kostka's Brotherly Aid Society in Chicago, Illinois, on June 1, 1866.

    President: Peter Kiolbassa

    Secretary: Marcellus Ziomkowski

    Advisory Council:

    Lawrence Stasz

    Joseph Dziewior

    Thomas Nowicki

    Anthony Bok

    Anthony Matysiak

    We have received a copy of the constitution of St. Stanislaus Kostka's Society which celebrated its silver jubilee last Sunday. The document was printed in Paris in 1869. This constitution ...

    Polish
    II D 1, II D 10, II D 3, III A, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 09, 1892
    From St. Casimir's Parish

    The parishioners of St. Casimir's Church have contributed $25 for the Immigration Home in New York. Rev. Father Kroll has sent this money to the New York office.

    Since the organization of this parish fourteen months ago, the various expenditures have totaled $7,127.66. The debt of the church has been cut down considerably, only $9,288 is outstanding. A complete financial report of the church will soon be published in this paper.

    Since there are over one hundred Polish families residing within a three mile radius of the church in Hawthorne, Reverend Father Kroll is making plans to build a school for Polish children.

    The parishioners of St. Casimir's Church have contributed $25 for the Immigration Home in New York. Rev. Father Kroll has sent this money to the New York office. Since the ...

    Polish
    II D 10, II B 2 f, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 13, 1892
    Charitable Organization to Help Unfortunate Poles

    Sunday afternoon at 4 o'clock, the elder members of St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish will meet to organize a committee to aid the destitute in the vicinity of the parish.

    The first duty of the committee will be to investigate the condition of the poor and then follow a definite program for the solution of their problems. Every effort will be made to help the Poles who are poor.

    Almost everyone knows how little the few outlying private social organizations help. Their chance assistance is very meager, and those needing relief do not know where to apply for the necessities of life nor how to change their predicament for the better. Many do not even know what is waiting for them the next day. In many cases, those who give assistance to the poor do not know whether they are helping the right person or not.

    As a result, the poor have no alternative and turn to begging in the streets, and soon become habitual beggars. Those who hand out a few 2pennies to these unfortunate souls never get the satisfaction of knowing whether or not they have done the right thing, for many beggars are nothing but parasites.

    Unorganized charity creates a class of false beggars, parasitic leeches, and others who under the guise of poverty prey in the streets upon the people who help the poor. At every opportunity they fool and even rob the kindly donors. Such condition tends to create barriers for the really destitute. The generous givers become aware of the fact that they are being taken advantage of and become indifferent to their pleas. It is not enough to give to the begging poor: one must know the person whom one gives to, whether or not he is actually in need of help. The how, what, when, and who of giving is very important. The mere giving to the poor is a weak charitable substitute. What about the person who is ill in bed and not able to beg? What about those who need something to eat? Is it the proper food? All this only helps to break the morale of the destitute.

    This condition is pointed out to inculcate in the mind of our fellow citizens the gravity of the situation. Something must be done to alleviate 3the sorrowful plight of many of our people. The mere giving of alms, be it in pennies or dollars, does not solve the problem; on the contrary, it complicates it. What is mostly needed in many cases is the personal supervision of each unfortunate family. Through this means, the people will not only be helped materially but spiritually as well. Here personal attention can be given; sincere hope and hospitality imparted.

    I raise my head heavenwards and pray to the Lord for assistance. I do not ask for diamonds or gold to fall upon us, only for the hope the He will step on earth garbed in the cloths of man and direct the charitable work for the poor and bring to them everlasting joy and peace.

    (Signed)

    Father Vincent Barzynski

    Sunday afternoon at 4 o'clock, the elder members of St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish will meet to organize a committee to aid the destitute in the vicinity of the parish. The ...

    Polish
    II D 10, I C, I H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 14, 1892
    Letter to the Editor A Favorable Response to Father V. Barzynski's Plea for Organized Charities

    "Chicago, Illinois,

    Jan. 14, 1892.

    "Dear Editor: I read the account of Father Barzynski's plea for organized charities in yesterday's issue. His efforts are executed in the true style of a priest. His duties are not only performed in pro Deo et ecclesia but also in et pro hominibus, for thousands of his kind deeds have dried the tears of many a poor widow and unfortunate waif.

    "Allow me the privilege of making a proposal. My suggestion is as follows: Let a reliable committee be chosen and be called 'Polish Red Cross Charities.' The aim of the committee would be to look after the funds with the express purpose of providing for the proper distribution for the needs of the poor. Proper 2administration and the finding of generous donors would also be in line with the duties of the committee. Whether this suggestion is favorable or not, I am enclosing five dollars towards this noble cause. I realize the severity of winter and the needs of the many who are destitute.

    Your servant,

    Zygmunt F. Czaplinski

    and

    Pearl Czaplinski."

    The five dollar contributed by Mr. and Mrs. Czaplinski is greatly appreciated. The money will be set aside until the organization of a society or a committee be made, pending the results of next Sunday's meeting at St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish Hall, which will take place at 4 P.M.

    The Editors.

    "Chicago, Illinois, Jan. 14, 1892. "Dear Editor: I read the account of Father Barzynski's plea for organized charities in yesterday's issue. His efforts are executed in the true style of ...

    Polish
    II D 10, III C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 05, 1892
    Polish Welfare Association of Chicago (Editorial)

    The readers of the Dziennik Chicagoski are familiar with the earnest activity going on to help to solve the urgent needs of our less fortunate brothers.

    We have been accused by fellow-citizens of other nationality groups of having our citizens beg out in the streets and criticized for falsely representing the Christian faith because we do not practice Christian doctrines.

    It has been announced and explained that a Polish Welfare Association has been organized and a committee chosen. This committee has been appointed 2two weeks ago to make plans for this project. If the plans materialize, this organization will place the Poles on the same level with other nationalities relative to aiding its poor. Those that have any doubts about the intentions of such a plan are welcomed to examine the statements of the committee.

    We are concerned about those who can understand the principles of such an organization, for they can become actual members or founders of this great work, and give it impetus. It could enact rules and regulations that would be strong enough to endure all difficulties and elevate the Christian honor and position of the Poles living in this great city.

    Without ardent Christian supporters and active honest members, an association 3of welfare cannot materialize. In the presence of nearly one hundred thousand Poles in Chicago the maintenance of this kind of society under intelligent arrangement and wise administration can be possible, although it will not perform extraordinary things. However, without certain moral and material offerings, no organization can exist.

    It is well known that no conscientious Christian turns his eyes from the sight of an unfortunate situation. He is always willing to offer assistance to those stricken with poverty. It is a different thing entirely to recognize a situation of this kind and deny it assistance. It is also another matter to help someone occasionally instead of everyone in a like predicament; and another matter to offer persistent assistance to all the poor.

    4

    Therefore, during Apostolic times when help was carried out on a large scale, it was necessary to form a special order of deacons for this particular work. The history of the Holy Roman Catholic Church shows evidence of organizing and maintaining such institutions for the aid of the unfortunate.

    This could not have been any different for the Holy Ghost gave them all the same hearts.

    "The multitudes were of one heart and everything was shared in common." (quoted from the Bible). The early Christians well remembered the words of their Lord and Savior: "Come my blessed friends of my Father and share the Kingdom that has been prepared for you since the dawn of time. When I 5was hungry you gave Me food, when I was thirsty you offered Me water, when I was a guest you have quartered Me; when I was naked you have garbed Me, when I was ill you visited Me, when I was in prison you came to see Me."....Then he will say to them who have been collected on the left side: "When I was thirsty you denied Me water" ...and they will answer: "When did we see You, O Lord, thirsty, hungry, or unclad... and did not serve You?"

    And He will answer: "As long as you have not helped those unfortunates within your surroundings (My brothers) you have not helped Me, but denied Me!" 25th Gospel of St. Matthew.

    6

    Therefore, the entire civilized Christian world is outstanding for its help to the poor.

    Because there was no official welfare organ organized in any of the parishes, various societies have undertaken this work in part. The churches through the sponsorship of special donations and collections have also managed to participate in helping the poor. But the growing ranks of the poor necessitated the formulation of a society to cope with the situation. Today, there has been a formal announcement made of this kind of an organization called "The Polish Welfare Association," which has spread its wings over all the Polish parishes of Chicago. Since St. Stanislaus Kostka parish is the oldest and the largest in this city, it has undertaken the pioneering work of this project.

    7

    Whoever is a Christian, whoever has a kind heart, whoever is rich in patriotic feeling, and whoever persues happiness and success in this free country and great city, let him not deny a helping hand.

    We implore the present Polish population of Chicago, who are citizens of honor, to give a helping hand with an open heart to this noble cause. In this respect, they will become the founders and builders of a strong foundation of this organization. Through this kind of action, we will help to elevate the standard of those of our brothers who have been economically stricken, and show to other nationalities that we are not beggars, but a homogeneous group of progressive people willing to lend its unfortunate brothers a hand.

    In the name of Jesus Christ, we beg of all of you to attend the meeting to be held at the Polish Hall Sunday, February 7, at 4 P. M.

    The readers of the Dziennik Chicagoski are familiar with the earnest activity going on to help to solve the urgent needs of our less fortunate brothers. We have been accused ...

    Polish
    I C, II D 10, II D 1, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 08, 1892
    Polish Welfare Association Holds Important Meeting

    Fifty-five Poles joined the ranks of the Polish Welfare Association yesterday [during the latter's meeting] at the Polish Hall, Bradley street near Noble. A large crowd had gathered at this meeting to hear the proposals of the Welfare Committee. The new members volunteered their help after the committee explained the conditions prevailing among the Polish poor of Chicago.

    The Lord Christ said: You shall always have the poor among you. These words have come to pass over and over again everywhere. In hamlets and cities, the poor are always found. However, the number of needy families is always greater in large metropolitan areas, and our beloved city of Chicago is not an exception to the rule.

    Kind-hearted people cannot remain indifferent to the hardships of their brothers; therefore, they join forces to assist the poverty-stricken fight the dark, lean days. The Poles in this city have not stood back, but have 2organized their own forces to solve this problem. A committee was chosen to draw up plans, meetings were held, and the problems were presented to the people. This activity brought out the fact that, through collective cooperation by voluntary donations of money, goods, and services, and through the spreading of cheer and hope, much can be accomplished to wrest the people from the clutches of uncertainty. Mothers, children, and widows, the sick, and the aged will be spared the shame of begging in the streets.

    Yesterday's meeting showed a gratifying response. The enlistment of fifty-five members is only a beginning, just an impetus for others to join.

    Publication of the activities of this organization will bring those unable to attend this or the previous meeting in contact with the crying need of our less fortunate people. This appeal for help, this effort to quiet the uncertainty of the poor will soften the hearts of our prosperous element. The ranks of the generous will swell from a hundred to a thousand, possibly into thousands. Having no multimillionaires or millionaires in our files, 3we do not expect any large sums of money to fill the empty coffers of this welfare organization. But our people are rich in Christian love, tenderness, and hospitality. They are fond of the words of Christ: whatever you have done to the unfortunate brothers in their need, you have done unto me.

    What we need now is to have all the kind-hearted gather at the next meeting, to be held this coming Sunday at 4 P. M., so that they may join the ranks of those who have offered to help this cause.

    The help of the businessmen, property owners, and our prominent citizens will be valuable to our cause. The dollar that they may contribute to the fund for the poor is not so important as their vote and opinion. On February 14, the meeting will finish a discussion on the constitution [of the society], and a vote will be taken concerning the adoption of certain amendments. The suggestions of our prominent citizens, therefore, will be of great help in this respect.

    4

    This meeting is not being held for the sole purpose of obtaining money. A matter of greater importance, the continuation of this work and the materialization of plans to put this association on a sound foundation is the main issue. The money contributed will serve a two-fold purpose to the donor: it will be a sacrifice of money to help save the needy, and a sacrifice to God, Who places this upon the altar of love for the poor.

    Let us all join this noble cause. Remember the words of Jesus: Come, blessed children of my Father, and share the kingdom set aside for ye since the dawn of time.

    Please bear in mind that the pockets of the indolent, false beggars, parasites, and traveling hoboes will not be bulging with these donations. Only those in urgent need will get assistance. In order to get this help, the recipients must be residents of this city.

    5

    A committee is needed to warn the people against misleading advertisements in which the claim is made that Chicago is a Mecca for those in need of work. Chicago, like any other city, is facing an unemployment crisis. People of long standing in this city and familiar with the English language, who besides being skilled tradesmen are intimate with influential people, have difficulty in getting work. The many beggars and unemployed that fill the streets are a good example [of the crisis now prevailing in Chicago].

    It is hoped that the Poles living in the Northwest Side will set a memorable example by joining this cause and offering their aid without being asked. In a short while, as the number of good-hearted people be increased on the rolls of the welfare association, the poor will be salvaged from their penurious state. The donations will be recognized by God as a token of good will to all men. The honor of our Polish people in this rapidly growing city will be saved. Their cooperation will long be remembered and the Poles will become a fine example of immigrants.

    6

    There is no charge to attend the meeting next Sunday. To become members, those desiring to help the poor will contribute a dollar to this charitable organization. Members will have their name published in the paper. At this meeting, to be held in the new Polish Hall, a board of directors will be elected.

    Fifty-five Poles joined the ranks of the Polish Welfare Association yesterday [during the latter's meeting] at the Polish Hall, Bradley street near Noble. A large crowd had gathered at this ...

    Polish
    II D 10, I B 3 c, III B 2, III G, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 16, 1892
    Polish Welfare Association's Membership Continues to Swell

    The Polish Welfare Association, officially organized last Sunday to aid poverty stricken Poles, has finally completed a program to be followed during the present year. A committee of twenty-one directors has been elected to execute the resolutions adopted at a meeting held Sunday after-noon at the New Polish hall. The board of directors have already chosen the assistants to aid them in their work. Out of the large crowd that came, sixty people joined the welfare organization.

    The organization of this society is an important step forward. The execution of the adopted resolutions did not end with the first few meetings; therefore, it is necessary to continue these gatherings over a period of time. The problem of alleviating the critical situation of our poor will be discussed at future sessions, when solutions will be offered.

    2

    Sunday's meeting has placed this organization on a good footing. The road for its success looks very bright.

    Important resolutions passed at the gathering are as follows:

    1. The name of the society shall be:

    Polish Welfare Association No. 1 of Chicago, Illinois, located at St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish.... The organization will be placed under the guidance of St. John.

    2. The aim of the society will be to practice Christian kindness among the unfortunate, especially our own people in the vicinity of St. Stanilaus Kostki's parish. The activities of the association may be extended to other Polish parishes and neighborhoods in Chicago by the organization of groups sanctioned by the central board. Polish societies in the city can do their share by following the example of this organization, that is, they can name a committee to enroll members at a dollar per person. Members may pay a dollar every quarter, or four dollars for the whole year.

    3

    Those not wishing to belong to this welfare association, or those not having the means to pay, are urged to contribute as much as they can afford. Money, food, and clothing will be welcome at all times.

    The Intelligence Bureau is working on plans to find employment for the able-bodied needy. As soon as this department completes its study of the needs of the poor, it will be ready to offer assistance. The time will be announced.

    By the aid of ballots, Father Vincent Barzynski was elected president; Victor Bardonski, first vice-president; Thomas Krolik, second vice-president and financial secretary; Stanislaus Szwajkart, secretary; Jacob Mucha, cashier; Paul Ratkowski, visiting case worker; and Wladislaus Nowaczewski, guardian.

    The next meeting of directors will be held February 24 at 8 P.M. at the parish hall. The question of a permanent place for the financial office will be decided.

    4

    At the present time, the twenty-one members at the board of directors do their work without pay.

    The Polish Welfare Association, officially organized last Sunday to aid poverty stricken Poles, has finally completed a program to be followed during the present year. A committee of twenty-one directors ...

    Polish
    II D 10, III B 2, II D 8, I B 4
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 22, 1892
    The Poles a Survey of Chicago's Polish Population

    The Poles, as a part of Chicago's population, belong to those nationalities which are especially outstanding, like the Bohemians, Danes, Swedes etc. The Polish population of our city numbers not less than 60,000. A peculiar characteristic of this nation is their tenacity in sticking together in their different colonies. They live in seclusion as a people, more than any other Europeans, and one feels like a stranger passing through their colonies.

    The most extensive Polish settlement is located in the Sixteenth Ward, Noble Street, Elston Avenue etc. In this neighborhood live not less than 30,000 Poles. Almost as large is the Polish colony on Seventeenth Street, Paulina, Laurel and vicinity. The chief factor of their seclusion is the Catholic Church. The largest congregation is the St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, located at Ingraham and Noble Streets.

    The Polish immigration to Chicago started thirty-eight years ago. Anton Schermann, J. Niemezewski, J. Dziewior, who are still alive, and are honored like patriarchs, were among the first settlers....

    2

    The immigrants of those early years were almost exclusively poor working men; but nearly all of them became well-to-do. The colony grew very slowly until 1873, when large numbers of Poles from Russia and Prussia came to Chicago. At that time the colonies on the south side and in South Chicago were founded. When in 1884 twenty-thousand Poles were banished from their old country, the largest portion came to America, and of these the majority settled in Chicago. The largest Polish population of American cities is in Chicago.

    The Poles have eight churches in Chicago, and the largest among them is the St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, which has thirty thousand members. The church, the school, the home for the nuns and the priests cover a whole city square. The school is a four story brick building and more than three thousand pupils attend. Eight men teachers and twenty nuns comprise the staff.....Two high schools were also erected by the church recently...and an orphanage.

    The two largest associations of the Polish population are the Polish Roman-Catholic National Union and the Polish National Alliance. The interests and activities of these organizations are closely allied to eccleciastical and national purposes. They have branches all over the United States and are also 3active in works of charity. P. Kiolbassa is the president of the Union, and its office of administration is at 141 - 143 West Division Street. This building belongs to the Polish Publishing Company.

    The above mentioned company publishes two Polish newspapers, Dziennik Chicagoski, a daily, and the Wiarai Ojczyzna (Faith and Fatherland), a weekly, and is the organ of the Polish Roman-Catholic National Union, which has a membership of about 8,000. The National Alliance was organized twelve years ago. It has 4,500 members, and their slogan is; "Poland is not yet lost."

    Besides the already mentioned papers, others are published: the Gazeta Polska, established 1873, the weekly Tygodnik Powiesciowy, the Gazeta Katolicka and the Dzien Swiety.

    At present there is a movement on foot among the Poles to erect a monument in Humboldt Park to that great Polish champion of liberty, Kosciusko. The Chopin Choir and the dramatic Club of young people contribute to their entertainment.

    4

    They also have two athletic clubs, and a number of small societies which are active in charitable endeavors under the supervision of the clergy.

    The Poles, as a part of Chicago's population, belong to those nationalities which are especially outstanding, like the Bohemians, Danes, Swedes etc. The Polish population of our city numbers not ...

    Polish
    III A, III C, III G, IV, II D 4, III B 2, II B 2 d 1, II B 2 d 2, II C, II D 10, II B 3