The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 20, 1879
    The Poles in Chicago

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about twenty-five thousand. The first Polish pioneers arrived in Chicago as early as 1852; they lived in various sections of the city, virtually strangers, since there was no specific Polish settlement in the city at that time. As most of them were of the Roman Catholic faith, they became affiliated with the German Catholic churches, although a desire prevailed to build a Polish church. In 1869 a club was finally organized to raise funds. Within a short span of time several thousand dollars had been gathered and the erection of a church commenced in earnest. The site was at Noble and Bradley Streets. When the fact became known, hundreds of Polish families from all parts of America and particularly from the Kaschubei in Germany flocked to Chicago. The Kaschubes are of Polish origin. Their language shows much borrowing from the German. These people live in the vicinity of Danzig, Berend, and Neustadt in Upper 2Silesia, Prussia, and represent a low cultural level, due to the Prussian school edict whereby all Polish children must study the various school subjects in German, a language which is strange to them. The Kaschubes are fervent Catholics, frugal and economical. Many of them have ten thousand to thirty thousand dollars.

    The first wooden church, later converted into an elementary school, was dedicated in 1869; Reverend Jaskowski was the first Polish priest.

    It is generally conceded that most of the foreign people founding a new home on these shores lose all sense of discretion in so far as the word liberty is concerned, due to a rapid change from monarchical to democratic surroundings involving the abolition of class consciousness. Therefore, the new arrivals practiced no self-restraint; self-interest ran rampant, and this fault also manifested itself occasionally among the Poles. A Polish priest sits on a volcano, as it were; every member of the parish intends to rule, and gives 3advice to the priest on how to conduct himself within and beyond the confines of the church. Anonymous letters are a daily occurrence; the Lord have mercy on [a minister] who transgresses and lacks energy--that man is lost. Many of the sixty-five Polish communities of this land could give their own interesting versions of certain peculiar incidents, but in so far as these internal affairs are concerned, I shall enshroud them in secrecy.

    The people had conscientious scruples, because they could not order masses to be read for their deceased relatives. Money for masses poured into the church coffers in copious quantities and the impecunious priest became affluent. [Translator's note: This is a literal translation. Possibly the apparent meaninglessness is due to the omission of something from the Staats-Zeitung.] But this egotistical ambition [of the minister] to amass wealth had its repercussions and created enemies. Besides, he had the misfortune of being encumbered with a charming and beautiful "cousin," who today would be called ciotka (aunt).

    4

    Dissatisfaction [in the parish] became rampant; finally a horde armed with cudgels visited the unsuspecting priest and returned with broken weapons. The maltreated disseminator of the gospel fled at that very hour, and a Polish settlement in Minnesota provided a sanctuary.

    His successor was the Reverend Bakanowski, an erudite gentlemen well versed in Polish, German, French, Italian, Latin and English. Besides being endowed with a sympathetic sonorous voice, he was endowed with exceptional talents in rhetoric, and his general conduct inspired friendship. To all these mental attributes must be added, unfortunately, bodily perfection. Like Alcibiades, he was the most beautiful specimen of his race. Attendance at his sermons was large; all nationalities congregated at his distant church on Sundays, to listen and admire the "Beautiful Polish priest". Naturally, the fair sex was most numerous. Invitations galore were sent to him, requesting his presence here and there for the purpose of holding religious meetings and consoling beauteous ladies in their parlors. Would it be reasonable to 5condemn the pious man for yielding to his desire to save souls and accepting such offers? Of course not. Among the mass of Polish penitents was a charming, intelligent, lovely lady, wife of a local physician. Above all, it became increasingly important to save her soul. And while religious solace was given here, the sick, and children in need of baptism, waited vainly at home. The doctor's residence was in another part of the city. The oft occurring absence of the priest aroused antagonism. The burden of his duties in the parish induced the priest to obtain an assistant. This brings to the scene the Reverend Wolowski, a suspicious, conniving man, who had lost one arm during the Polish Insurrection against Russia in 1863, according to his version. Scandalmongers assert, however, that Wolowski, caretaker of the war chest of his regimental division, made a trip to somewhat remote regions, supposedly to protect the precious property from Russian marauders; but the Polish patriots protested against the pretext, and as punishment cut off the pernicious arm. With the officiating of this gentleman the halcyon days of Aranjuez came to a sinister end. Envious of his colleague's success, the 6assistant sent a voluminous denunciation directly to Rome.

    Reverend Bakanowski was called to the Holy City to defend himself and did not return. Like Niobe, the not fully converted beauties pined away from secret sorrow, remembering only the past exhilarating moments while hiding from human scrutiny the grief that engulfed them. But vengeance was in the offing for the insolent schemer who so rudely curtailed clandestine bliss. His attempt to found a Polish school--a measure calculated to bolster his waning popularity--proved unavailing. He was doomed, in so far as Chicago was concerned.

    The following priest, Reverend Zwiardowski, shortly after taking the reins of the parish, dismissed the sinister chap. The school was not to be abandoned, however.

    As dissension arose at the time among the then functioning teachers and the 7priest, and as there existed an absolute dearth of other suitable pedagogues, Reverend Zwiardowski decided to let nuns manage the school. The sisters were mostly Germans and expressed German nationalism in no uncertain terms; it brought a remonstrance. The dissenters found a leader in Mr. Dynsewics, editor of the liberal Polish paper, Gazetta Polska, a publication in existence for the last ten years. Their slogan or, may we say, "the war whoop," was the terse sentence: "In Germany Bismarck Germanizes us, and here a Polish priest!"

    The people were so incensed, that the priest, whose health was none too good, considered it advisable to leave his field of activity. The vacancy thus created provided a berth soon after, in 1874, for the Reverend Vincent Barzynski, who still functions in his ecclesiastical capacity. Few leaders faced greater difficulties. There were more than fifteen thousand people of Polish extraction in Chicago at that time, representing every part of the former great nation (in the period of a bygone century--1667 to 1772--this 8former kingdom represented an area of 21,334 geographical square miles), and everyone was imbued with the ruling complex, insistent on telling the minister what to do.

    Father Vincent was thirty years old at that time; he came from a highly respected family living in the Russian part of Poland. He attended the best schools in his native land and continued his studies in Rome. He is very eloquent--capable of exacting admiration from his adversaries through his powers of persuasion. He is intelligent, pious, but not a hypocrite, and has an excellent reputation. He is fully aware of the traits of his countrymen and his plans take cognizance of them. In many respects his conduct reminds one of Octavius Augustus: If various efforts meet with indifferent success, then he threatens to leave the parish, whereupon every request is promptly granted, and upon urgent entreaties from the congregation he condescends to stay for a while. Various business matters incident to such a large congregation he has placed in the hands of several committees; but, 9basically, he is the sole leader. "Roma Locuta Est, Causa Finita Est," he tells an occasional opponent who cannot be reconciled to the priestly views. He is on a par with Gregory VII, a man of tremendous will power who would rather perish than relinquish a plan designed to elevate the community spiritually and materially. But, Facta Loquuntur.

    Under his capable leadership the Polish school attained increased attendance; six hundred children are at present enrolled and given instruction in their native language by Polish nuns. Music, which in former years induced Polish youths to leave the path of rectitude and seek dance halls, taverns, and other libertine diversions, is now mute.

    Since the small church proved inadequate for the large congregation, an additional house of worship was built: The Church of the Holy Trinity, near Milwaukee Avenue. The Poles, living in the immediate vicinity, virtually surrounded the structure with stores, mostly saloons, and this contingent 10later asked the bishop that their connection with the old church be severed and a priest of their own choice be installed. The antipathy of certain Poles toward Father Vincent is attributable to the fact that he hails from Russian Poland and belongs to the Order of the Resurrectionists. Almost the entire Polish Liberal Party, here and abroad, maintain that the priests of this Fraternity show insufficient patriotism, and that their interests are only centered on Catholicism. While this assumption may be partly justified, it is entirely inappropriate in so far as Father Barzynski is concerned. His sermons express fervent patriotism, and the well-edited, ultramontane Polish paper, Gazetta Polska Katolicka, which is published under his direction, always defends Polish interests. Moreover, the numerous changes he inaugurated and, above all, the founding of a Polish high school, give conclusive evidence of the priest's patriotic sentiments.

    Bishop Farley did not accede to the wishes of the Poles desiring an independent church, as Father Vincent and his assistants proved sufficient.

    11

    Increasing dissatisfaction became apparent, resulting in an eventual rift and at long last two parties, steeped in bitter animosity. Church meetings developed into a replica of the Polish Congress, and a threat was made to apostatize. Time and time again Father Vincent advocated reconciliation but to no avail; he was even insulted and, on one occasion, arrested at the behest of some depraved creature.

    When all efforts in behalf of peace proved fruitless, the Reverend Father carried the "sanctissimum" to the mother church and left his church to the dissatisfied element. Thus the house of worship remained forsaken for almost a year, when a Polish priest, Mielcuszny, appeared. Many Polish people knew him when he lived in the Grand Duchy of Posen, (Germany). He had been active in New York, but was compelled to resign. Cardinal Closkey objected to the priest's wordly activities, because the latter fitted out a saloon, combined with a dance hall, in the basement of the church; this proved a lively place after church services. Mielcuszny, an accomplished dancer, 12usually opened the festivities.

    This priest proved most welcome to the recreants and, contrary to the bishop's wishes, was installed. Intense enmity now involved the two factions, but this is not the place to adjudge theological principles. Suffice it to say, therefore, that according to church canons the installation of priests is one of the ecclesiastical duties delegated to bishops, and this community, in the strict sense of the creed, is not Catholical. After the disgruntled element had affiliated itself with the long-closed church, now given a new lease on life under the leadership of the Polish priest from New York, the parochial domain of Reverend Barzynski again enjoyed the blessings of peace. As the available space provided by the church proved inadequate, a new church was built. Thus far eighty thousand dollars have been spent on construction, and an additional thirty thousand dollars will be required to complete the edifice.

    The not overly large mortgage is being paid by voluntary contributions and 13pew rentals, which amounts to approximately eight thousand dollars per year.

    The paintings for the church have been entrusted to a talented Polish artist, Zabinski, who came directly from Rome (Italy). His studio is at the parish house. A visit will prove very interesting. Several splendid sketches and the full-size, partly completed painting, "The Death of Stanislaus Kostka," give eloquent proof that a genius conceived them.

    For some time Father Vincent considered founding a Polish high school, and to realize that goal he spent large sums of money; however, serious difficulties were encountered. Indifferent success did not deter him, however. Repeatedly he admonished his congregation, and spoke in stentorian tones about public indifference. Finally, the community decided to build a higher institution of learning, and to defray the cost. The school was opened this year, January 2, [1879], and two eminent instructors were secured.

    14

    Professor Stein, thirty years old, passed his examinations with flying colors at the gymnasium in Thorn, on the River Weichsel, and the seminary in Posen. To complete his studies he traveled throughout the greater part of Europe. [In the interim] he taught in Posen and Bromberg at public schools, and academies for young ladies. In America he taught successfully in New York and Detroit. Here, he will give instructions in the German and Polish languages, as well as mathematics.

    Professor Wenslow studied at the Jesuit College here; later he studied philosophy.

    The institution [the Polish high school] accepts students regardless of religion or nationality. At present forty-three students are enrolled; the evening school register shows seventy-two have matriculated. The future of the school is assured, as attendance increases daily.

    The community now entertains the highest regard for its spiritual leader; it 15feels convinced that no personal ambition or selfish interest motivated his action; he was concerned only in the true welfare of his countrymen. Since the storm subsided and outstanding success crowned the priest's efforts, it is expected that the majority of the estranged members will return to the mother church soon.

    This brief sketch does not pretend to give all the details which, after all, would be superfluous. I have merely stated facts, because Chicago has many Polish families, and a large number subscribe to this paper. Perhaps I may have an opportunity at some future time to give an account of the Polish community of the South Side, its church, the Polish press, clubs, and, possibly, some interesting details of prominent Polish people who live in our city.

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about ...

    Polish
    III C, IV, I C, III A, I A 2 b, I A 2 a, II B 2 d 1
  • Zgoda -- March 30, 1887
    From Our Press

    Chicago Courier, the first Polish daily in the United States, has stopped its presses forever because it was not supported, It is very sad to say that a paper of this calibre, dealing with Polish politics and the welfare of the Polish people, could not be supported by true Poles.

    The editor of the Courier, Mr. Sadowski, takes this opportunity to thank the people for their best efforts to keep this newspaper in circulation, and he is very sorry that in spite of the large number of Poles in the United States, this paper had to stop its publication due to lack of support.

    This paper supported all the Polish movements, their enterprises, their very lives; still it didn't do enough to exist among their own blood. I hope that everyone who contributed to its downfall is satisfied, because our existence was not one road strewn with flowers.

    It is hinted that Mr. Sadowski will be the editor of the new Polish 2newspaper, Poles in America, which will soon be put in circulation in Buffalo.

    We do not think that we need a horoscope reading in regard to the value of this new Polish newspaper or the articles appearing in it, because we know the record and the good work of Mr. Sadowski. Therefore we feel that his work will be honest and sincere.

    We feel that Mr. Sadowski is broad-minded and can go far in bringing before the eyes of the Polish people the news that interests them most.

    In this belief we wish the Poles of America a success, and we send our heartiest wishes to our colleague, and hope that he meets with less misfortune than he did while in the services of the Courier.

    Chicago Courier, the first Polish daily in the United States, has stopped its presses forever because it was not supported, It is very sad to say that a paper of ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 15, 1890
    The First Number (Editorial)

    How is the appearance of this new journal? Everyone will take it, read it from A to Z with great interest, and cast his judgment more or less favorably. There will be sharp criticism, very little praise, and much censuring; certain persons will object to this, and others to other things; defects will be found, and comparison with other journals will bring unprofitable results.

    Such is the fate of every new publication, and we are prepared for such a fate.

    However, we hope that this condition will not last very long. Perhaps the first numbers will not satisfy the needs of our readers, but gradually we will learn about what they like and adjust ourselves to them 2so as to make our journal a favored newspaper. Criticism, if not malicious or groundless, will be useful to us and gladly accepted. We will try to adjust ourselves to it, and eliminate the defects.

    Our program will not be the subject of a long discussion. The policy of the paper can be enunciated thus:

    "A political newspaper devoted to the interests of the Poles in the United States." These words explain the program. We have no intention of serving any party, either political or social; we desire to be impartial, pointing out the merits and demerits of different parties.

    If we defend at present the principles of the Democratic party in the United States, which we intend to do in the future as long as its principles remain unchanged, we do so not because we are merely blind tools of that party, but because its principles are advantageous to the Poles living in the United States. This does not mean that our journal is positively Democratic or that 3we have a definite political leaning; nor does it mean that we are subservient to any political party. Let us suppose that the platform of the candidates of the Republican Party improves before the next election and becomes more profitable to our interests; we are willing to support it impartially and we do not intend to justify the faults of the Democratic Party or try to conceal them by silence.

    Matters belonging to the immigration of our people will be treated likewise. We shall have an opportunity to take up many problems in which we are greatly interested, and we will endeavor to give them an impartial consideration, without earning the accusation of elevating or degrading something unjustly.

    The first principles guiding us can be expressed in a few words. Having a great respect for the Constitution of the United States, of which country we are citizens, we judge that we should take an active part in the life of this country. We consider it a great Republic, formed of many freedom-loving 4nations that despise the knout and slavery. We who are Poles should regard ourselves not as guests but as an integral part of this great nation, enjoying the same rights and bearing the same responsibilities as any other nation represented. As such we should take an active part in its political life, care for its development, power, and purity. Therefore, we should try to eliminate evil and introduce instead that which our conscience dictates to us as good.

    Will this prevent us from being good Poles? Not at all. Whoever maintains such an opinion does not know how to examine this matter properly. If the Irish living in Europe are very enthusiastic on the great influence or great success of their countrymen in America, profiting by it quite often, not only materially, but also politically and morally; if the Germans in Europe proudly describe the success of their Kulturtraeger (culture spreaders)in America, then the Poles living in Europe may also profit by our success, if and when we take an active part in the life of this great Republic and distinguish ourselves as citizens; not isolating ourselves as mere guests and becoming lost completely in the sea of the nation. If we serve the United States as good citizens, we also serve 5our own country, and here lies the difficulty of the task: to be good citizens of this country and remain also good Poles at heart. These are our principles, our point of view, which Dziennik Chicagoski will protect and try to explain.

    How is the appearance of this new journal? Everyone will take it, read it from A to Z with great interest, and cast his judgment more or less favorably. There ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, III A, I F 3
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 16, 1890
    A Letter to Dzienrik Chicagoski (Editorial)

    Instead of a regular daily talk, we will share with our readers today a communication which we have just received.

    We do this with a great pleasure, because it has strengthened our confidence in and hopes of a good future. Here is the communication from a kind reader who signs himself "A Silesian."

    "Dear Editors:

    "I do not know whether my writing will please you, but I do know that I write what I feel; it comes straight from my heart.

    2

    "In the first place, I am very glad that we Poles have at last a daily paper. You could not think of a better Christmas present for this year. Every decent Pole rejoices with his whole heart that he will be able to read the latest news in his native tongue. 'Daily paper' also indicates that the Poles are progressing and growing in number and power. I feel that Dziennik Chicagoski will help us immensely. Polish business will improve; Polish people will know what is going on; Polish workingmen will know more about employment and find it sooner; and politics will be enlivened to the advantage of Polish interests. Other nationalities, especially Americans, will have a respect for us and take us under consideration, for they will discover that we are strong. Such a newspaper will also help us in our everyday life. There will be reports of meetings and other activities, and every person will know what takes place at these meetings, even, if he or she cannot attend them on account of business. It would also be nice if the paper would inform us about weddings 3and other social activities, because the citizens are also interested in them. I know that the editors must have thought about these things, but I must write about them because such is my nature that I must reveal what lies in my heart. I warn you not to pay any attention to criticism, for there are always people who condemn everything, no matter how good it is. I will also whisper into your ear that a habitual critic is usually, if you please, a very ignorant person.

    "If the Lord will permit me, and if you desire, I will write about, our undertakings and other matters in which the Poles are interested.

    I am enclosing a one-year subscription for myself, a six-month one for my neighbor Paul, and a one-month one for my neighbor John. The addresses 4are written on the paper in which the money is wrapped. I am closing my letter with the old time Polish 'God Bless You.'"

    Instead of a regular daily talk, we will share with our readers today a communication which we have just received. We do this with a great pleasure, because it has ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, III A
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 24, 1890
    A New Guest at Christmas Eve Supper (Editorial)

    This year, at the Christmas Eve supper, when Polish families, especially in Chicago, will be gathered at their tables for the traditional custom of breaking and partaking of the wafer, a new guest will be present. This young guest that loves all Poles sincerely, and brings best wishes into the homes, is Dziennik Chicagoski.

    "Glory be to God in the Highest and Peace to All People of Good Will."

    This new guest, dear readers, desires to bring, peace, good will, harmony, 2and mutual love into your homes. This new guest desires to be your meditator, welcomed everywhere and by everybody. It desires to remove disagreements and bring understanding among you, to give you an opportunity to know yourselves better. It desires to enlighten you on important matters, to reconcile you, and to establish brotherly love among you.

    We know positively that you will not refuse this guest, that you will welcome it on that day; we have proofs of it in spite of the short existence of our journal.

    Please accept our best wishes. May God bless all your endeavors, lighten your burdens, alleviate your sufferings, and prolong your happiness.

    3

    We also hope that you live to be a hundred years old, own your homes and reap a harvest of gold.

    Tomorrow is Christmas Day, one of the most important holy days of the year. We will observe it. All will have a holiday tomorrow, the whole world has a holiday; therefore, no one will accuse us of wrong doing if we desire to observe solemnly such a holiday. In order to supply our subscribers with something to read, in case they have any time left for that purpose, we are mailing "Wiara I Ojczyzna" (Faith and Motherland) early enough so that they receive it on that day.

    We remarked in the editorial columns of our journal, a few days ago that other 4newspapers ignored us but since that time favorable comments have appeared in several newspapers, therefore, we thank our colleagues very kindly and wish them a Merry Christmas.

    This year, at the Christmas Eve supper, when Polish families, especially in Chicago, will be gathered at their tables for the traditional custom of breaking and partaking of the wafer, ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, I B 4, II A 2, III B 3 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 05, 1891
    Tools of Father Vincent Barzynski (Editorial)

    Not long ago Father Vincent Barzynski, the pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka's parish in Chicago, was supposed to express himself in the presence of his acquaintances in the following manner: "What shall I do? They want to make me famous."

    Whether or not Father V. Barzynski's merits have already made him famous among the Poles in America is only his affair, and we have no intention of questioning him about it, for we trust that in the end, time will show all his good and bad deeds in a true light. However, we are sure of a fact: his enemies, the supporters of the faction that opposes the Polish Roman Catholic Union, are to be thanked for spreading his fame.

    Supported by this undeniable fact, we take the liberty of using, or perhaps 2misusing, Father V. Barzynski's name in this article, for which we wish to apologize to this patriotic priest, so much more as it is not on his account but on somebody else's (perhaps to some extent on our own) that we intend to cut down some of this unwelcome popularity.

    Looking impartially at the bitter conflict between the Polish Roman Catholic Union and the Polish National Alliance, leaving out disreputable questions, and disregarding who is right or wrong, the reader of this fight with the press cannot but notice this: When the Polish Roman Catholic Union makes any charges against the Polish National Alliance or any other organization, group, or individual friendly to or independent of that organization, it always refers directly to the Polish National Alliance as an association composed of many persons and with a constitution; it treats an association as an association and an individual as an individual.

    3

    But, on the other hand, if the Polish National Alliance, or any other organization opposing the Polish Roman Catholic Union, has any objections against the Union, instead of aiming its attacks directly at this organization it aims them at Father V. Barzynski. Any pretext, be it a resolution adopted by any church, society or organization not even connected with the church, is sufficient cause to bring forth an onslaught of insults against Father Barzynski. Even when any individual makes a statement disagreeable to this faction, regardless of whether or not he or she is friendly to or shares the views of Father Barzynski, instead of refuting the party responsible, the cry is that he or she is a "tool" of Father V. Barzynski, following this statement with as many insulting remarks as they can concoct. This is how Father V. Barzynski's fame has spread.

    In the opinion of these persons, only two things are possible for the Poles living here: Either they accept their views blindly, no matter how ridiculous they may be, or else become a tool of Father V. Barzynski. In their 4opinion, there is only the Polish National Alliance and its allies on one side, and Father V. Barzynski on the other. In their eyes it is impossible for any one to disagree with them unless he or she is a blind tool of the father. In other words, the opinion of others is zero as a mathematical exponent, unless it be expanded by Father V. Barzynski. Under these circumstances it is quite natural that a respectable newspaper opposed to their views and, still worse, opposed to the unjust attacks directed against the father, be considered by them Father Barzynski's organ.

    Is this the right thing to do? Is it decent to accuse every one of having no convictions of his own, of not knowing anything, of not understanding anything, of being nothing but a zero, a pawn in the hands of a clever person?

    What would the supporters of the Polish National Alliance say if during a controversy 5all of them and each of them were ignored and called simply the tools of Mr. Frank Gryglaszewski? And what would they say if all attacks were directed only at him?

    They would be indignant, of course; they would say immediately that not Mr. Frank Gryglaszewski but the people rule. Then such acknowledgment on the part of the opponents would be justified and would greatly simplify the fight, because in that case it would be only necessary to state that the tools of the persons who do not bring up their children to be Polish patriots, or the tools of the individuals who belong to non-Catholic associations, have no right to proclaim that they have the welfare of their fatherland at heart.

    It makes us laugh when we read in Zgoda a reply of Father Mozejewski to an article written by the editor in the last issue of Wiara I Ojczyzna. "I recognize the style of writing and I know that it was written by Father V. 6Barzynski and to him I shall reply." And this pious priest is not afraid to defile himself with such a lie! If Father Mozejewski will not recall this statement in his reply, then we cannot comprehend how his conscience permits him to sleep.

    It is a fact that Dziennik Chicagoski has already been proclaimed as the organ of Father V. Barzynski; its editor and his co-workers as blind tools and enemies of the Polish National Alliance, even though our paper has never attacked the Alliance, with the exception of this article, which is just to express the fact that it does not agree with the opinion of these organizations. If we ever objected to their insinuations, our objections met with the old wornout reply, "That's an old story." If it is, let it be so. If Zgoda continues its attacks on Father V. Barzynski, and refers to others as his "tools," then we will reciprocate by aiming a few darts at His Censorial Highness (the censor of the Alliance) in our future argumentations, and no 7one can blame us for that. It would be foolish to defend ourselves with a fancy sword if we are attacked with a heavy saber.

    If it is your desire that individuals should face each other instead of the public, we will grant you that privilege. The future will tell which of us will compare with St. Michael.

    Not long ago Father Vincent Barzynski, the pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka's parish in Chicago, was supposed to express himself in the presence of his acquaintances in the following manner: ...

    Polish
    III C, IV, I C, II B 2 d 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 12, 1891
    Zgoda

    Zgoda, which is edited by a person who is endeavoring very zealously to discredit the Polish National Alliance, states in its last issue that the entire program arranged by the Polish Roman-Catholic Union to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Polish Constitution of the Third of May, and announced by Dziennik Chicagoski, is made for the purpose of misleading the public. We suspected for some time, but now are almost positive, that the editor of Zgoda is either incapable or does not care to support, spread, and explain the ideals of the Polish National Alliance and other national organizations. It seems to us that he is only concerned with his own ridiculous ideas. Even though the title of his paper calls for harmony, it is not strange at all that he be preaching the opposite, causing dissension among 2the Poles.

    "Why didn't we arrange for this festivity earlier?" asks the editor of Zgoda. Yes, we tried to arrange it last year, but the deliberation broke up, not through the fault of the organizations affiliated with the Polish Roman-Catholic Union, that waited for an answer and further deliberation, but through the fault of the delegates sent by national organizations not connected with the Polish Roman-Catholic Union, and who gave no answer, and through the fault of the editor of Zgoda, who obstructed our plans by articles which could have been stopped by the Polish National Alliance.

    3

    The editor of Zgoda implies that it would be impossible to eliminate organizations of nihilistic and unpatriotic tendencies, or those which are soiled with anarchism or czarism, for the simple reason that not everybody could clear himself of such charge if it were made for the purpose of elimination. Yes, then it is true that the independent organizations, and those which are affiliated with the Polish National Alliance, cannot prove that they are not soiled with anarchism or czarism if they were accused of it. And if they cannot prove it and cannot clear themselves of such charge, then it is the fault of the editor of Zgoda, who is degrading the organ of the Polish National Alliance by publishing in it foul articles.

    4

    Zgoda, "The assay, the chemical means that can prove all this," so has expressed himself the sarcastically happy editor of Zgoda, which should be the organ of all Polish organizations, if they have one, has been very badly polluted, but in our opinion it can still be cleansed. So much for the editor of Zgoda today.

    We are not accusing at present the Polish National Alliance or any other organization not affiliated with it or with the Polish Roman-Catholic Union, unless they confirm their sympathy with the editor of Zgoda by silence or open declaration.

    5

    We are of the opinion that the prospect for celebrating the commemoration of this historical event is very good in spite of the opposition of the editor of Zgoda.

    That some organizations will observe this commemoration very solemnly downtown on Saturday, that the church societies will observe it on Sunday, May the 3rd,and that there will be another celebration for school children on Monday, is no reason why we should not get together on some other day in order to form some kind of a constitution for the entire Polish element in America, and by this act conclude the commemoration of declaration of the Polish Constitution a hundred years ago.

    6

    Indeed, we need a special day for consultation, for understanding and for putting an end to quarrels, for it would be impossible to accomplish all this on a day devoted to other activity.

    We hope that our extended hand will be welcomed by all good and sincere patriots; that every organization will elect a number of delegates, - one to every twenty-five members, - and send their names to the secretary of the celebration organized by the Polish Roman-Catholic Union. We hope that all of us will admit that we need a general conference. We also hope that in case someone has any objection to our plan, or a better proposition, or a good suggestion for some improvement, or any question to make, he should come forward without prejudice, without bitterness in his heart, with the conviction that he is serving the national cause and with the desire to effect solidarity.

    7

    Inasmuch as Zgoda will not publish any reconciliatory articles as long as it is controlled by its present editor, we are offering the columns of our paper for such remarks, advice or propositions as may be constructive, peaceful, serious, and not opposed to the principles of patriotism and the Roman-Catholic church, and provided that such articles bear the signature of the writer or organization,which we as editors like to have for our private information.

    Zgoda, which is edited by a person who is endeavoring very zealously to discredit the Polish National Alliance, states in its last issue that the entire program arranged by the ...

    Polish
    I C, III C, III B 2, III B 3 a, II B 2 d 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 12, 1891
    The Polish Nation and How We May Help It (Editorial)

    An article under the title "The Polish Nation and How We May Help it," reprinted from the Examiner, No. 3, New York, an American newspaper, appears in the last issue of Zgoda.

    Why was this article published in Zgoda? The editors of Zgoda evidently share the opinion expressed in this article; otherwise they would make some comments about it. The editors of Zgoda are discrediting again the Polish National Alliance, an organization which they are supposed to represent. Not content with the very unpatriotic article published in Zgoda a few weeks ago, in which this paper tried to prove that it is not right to bring up our children as Polish patriots, the editors now publish another article, without comments, in which they try to prove by distorted facts that Catholicism has always been and still is the cause of the "degradation" of the Polish 2nation, and that the Poles will not be able to advance till they cease to be Catholics.

    Is this really the opinion of the Polish National Alliance whose organ is Zgoda? When we stated some time ago how badly the editors of Zgoda are discrediting the Polish National Alliance by publishing a nationalistic article without any remarks about it, the editor of Zgoda mentioned in the next issue of his paper that he did not share the opinion expressed by us. Now, if we ask the editor of Zgoda whether he shares the opinion expressed in the article, that "the Roman-Catholic Church still follows the old oppressive system" (and this does not mean only priests, as the editor might say trying to evade the question), he probably will say that he does not. If so, then why does he publish such articles?

    How else can the Polish National Alliance prove the assertion that it 3follows its constitution, that it is patriotic, that it never was and is not now against Catholicism or Catholic priests, if not by articles published in its organ Zgoda?

    Let us suppose that someone who does not know anything about the real situation will take in his hand that issue of Zgoda in which the article of Mr. T. W. on the school question appeared. What would be his impression of the patriotism of the Polish National Alliance? Let us suppose that he will also take in his hand the last number of Zgoda. What conviction will he have about the respect for the true Catholic Priests?

    It is no wonder that journals hostile towards the Polish National Alliance, journals which are a black spot in the life of the Poles in America, are profiting by the incapability of Zgoda's editors. Would it be a bit strange if Dziennik Chicagoski, which is not yet hostile towards the Polish National 4Alliance, would be forced to adopt an antagonistic attitude towards it especially if its directors continue to allow the editor of Zgoda to publish articles whereby they admit that they share his opinion?

    An article under the title "The Polish Nation and How We May Help it," reprinted from the Examiner, No. 3, New York, an American newspaper, appears in the last issue ...

    Polish
    I C, III A, III C, II B 2 d 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 31, 1891
    To the Poles in Chicago A Contribution

    Not long ago all Polish newspapers in America spread the news of the great political victory of our countrymen in Milwaukee, Wis. All Polish journals, with no exceptions, acclaimed the solidarity of the Poles in the city called the German capital of the United States. This solidarity gained the Poles a number of the highest offices in the city, county and state. There is no jealousy among the Poles because of this situation, but in Chicago it [has aroused a feeling of]depression. The real Poles and patriots are beginning to ask, What is wrong with us? There are 120,000 Poles in Chicago and yet--we are zero in politics. While other nationalities occupy high positions we are employed as drudges.

    The answer to this problem lies of course in our factionalism. We are ignored because we lack solidarity. Other nationalities [provoked this 2internal discord;] they succeeded in awakening petty, individual jealousies which weakened our forces and [debilitated our political strength.]

    This condition continued until the action taken by the Milwaukee Poles aroused us. The Poles in Chicago realized their potential strength, and when they showed it [in the sixteenth ward by uniting in support of Stanley Kunz, the other candidates withdrew.]

    Immediately our action created a reaction. All the politicians were surprised that after so many years of discord and jealousy, the Poles had opened their eyes. They came to the conclusion that the Polish element in Chicago represents a powerful factor in politics.

    If some one had declared a few months ago that one of the major political parties would offer us a high position in the City Hall no one would have 3believed it, but as a result of our unity, a citizen of Polish descent has been nominated for a high office in Chicago by the Democratic party.

    The great honor of representing the Chicago Poles in the City Hall has been bestowed upon our popular and greatly respected citizen, Peter Kiolbassa.

    Not long ago all Polish newspapers in America spread the news of the great political victory of our countrymen in Milwaukee, Wis. All Polish journals, with no exceptions, acclaimed the ...

    Polish
    I F 1, IV, I C, I F 4, I F 5, II B 2 d 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 24, 1891
    "They Are Revealing Their Will to Us" (Editorial)

    The vice censor of the Polish National Alliance has expressed his opinion about that organization. According to him, the lodges belonging to the P. N. A. are not allowed to make any decisions without the consent, or rather without the will, of the central board of that organization.

    Is this in reality the opinion of each separate lodge? And do sensible members of the P. N. A. share that point of view? The near future will tell.

    As soon as the program of the three-day celebration commemorating the Polish Constitution of the Third of May, arranged by the Polish Roman Catholic Union was announced in Dziennik Chicagoski, a very severe criticism of our article appeared [in the next] issue of Zgoda.

    2

    Every part of the program--the three-day celebration, the memorial service for those who sacrificed their lives for the Fatherland, the plan of holding a general Polish conference--is represented in Zgoda as a farce, an act of treason, an infamy, a disgrace and a deception.

    On the other hand, neither the organ of the P. R. C. U., Wiara I Ojczyna nor Dziennik Chicagoski, supporting the three-day celebration, criticized one point of the celebration arranged by the P. N. A. for the second of May. Angered by this lack of criticism, Zgoda suspected that their celebration would be branded a "masonic rabble."

    In view of the first fact mentioned, let the sensible members of the P. N. A. (if the vice censor's statement does not hold for them) decide who behaved patriotically, who showed more fairness.

    Let us mention another fact. Some P. N. A. lodges sent their delegates to Rev. V. Barzynski last year to arrange a general celebration in honor of the 3Polish Constitution of the Third of May. A conference was held at which Father V. Barzynski's remarks provoked those delegates and later angered the lodges to such a degree that they refused to come to an understanding with the P. R. C. U. societies or to negotiate with them. Immediately Zgoda attacked Rev. V. Barzynski. Quite naturally the attack aroused the indignation of the societies which respect Father Barzynski as a patriot and exemplary priest. This of course made a reconciliation almost impossible. At that time, that is after the return of the delegates from Father V. Barzynski with their proposal, every impartial person, including some of the delegates and Father V. Barzynski himself, thought that after the presentation of the proposition to the P. N. A. lodges, an attempt would be made either to modify the stipulation or to make a counter proposal. Nothing of the kind occurred although there were violent attacks upon the priest because he dared to give his conscientious advice.

    This mutual indignation manifested itself in violent eruptions of abusive language on one side, and anger on the other. At that time these undignified 4attacks could be explained and justified by the "hot Polish temper".

    Some reflection should have taken place, at least after some time. The P. N. A. lodges should have made an attempt at reconciliation with the societies affiliated with the P. R. C. U., and these societies should have shown their willingness to reach an understanding. And they did, for they sent letters to the P. N. A. lodges in which they proposed a general conference after the second of May. Zgoda, however, prevented the P. N. A. lodges from participating in that conference; it ridiculed the program of the societies affiliated with the P. R. C. U. and insulted Father V. Barzynski as the adviser of the P. R. C. Union. It tried to provoke criticism of the celebration arranged by the P. N. A., and being unsuccessful, began to fabricate stories about that celebration. Finally, the censor of the P. N. A. announced that its lodges would comply with the decision of the central board of the P. N. A. This decision was not to participate in the conference.

    Let sensible members of the P. N. A. suggest what more could have been done 5by the societies affiliated with the P. R. C. U. They expressed their desire for an agreement. Could these societies, after what took place, after the insults heaped upon a respected counsellor, declare that they were willing, for the sake of holy peace, to give up their spiritual adviser and ask permission to participate in the P. N. A. celebration?

    Every sensible person will admit that these societies did more than was expected. Not being invited, they are not criticizing the P. N. A. celebration, and having no desire to interfere with it, they have arranged for their own to take place the following day. They are extending a friendly hand in spite of the insults of Zgoda and of malicious tongues. They are charitable although they are twice as strong. And you--that is your correspondents in Zgoda--ridicule their generous actions. You sneer at every statement, at every step taken, and you increasingly anger their spiritual counsellor by your vicious attacks. Finally your vice censor makes a proclamation stating that you can take no steps until your executive committee reveals its decision.

    6

    How ridiculous are some of the reasons invented by Zgoda for not participating in the proposed general conference. According to Zgoda this conference is a deception. How can it be a deception when you will have an equal voice in it? You presume that your celebration of May 2 will be criticized anyhow, and so you continue to criticize viciously the program of the P. R. C. U. although there is no criticism made of your own program. You state that Father V. Barzynski, and not the societies, is arranging the celebration. While this statement has never been confirmed, not even by one of the societies, you yourselves declare very clearly that you are acting on the decision of your executive committee.

    Your censor has made an ironic remark that there is no necessity of sending delegates to Chicago as though it were some kind of Mecca. Now if we are going to hold a general assembly, then there must be a suitable place for it. Is it strange that the city of Chicago which has the largest Polish population was chosen, or that the P. R. C. U., the largest Polish organization in America, is extending the invitation?

    7

    Wherever there is ill will, there is always faultfinding in everything, no matter how small; where there is good will, small mistakes are overlooked, and necessary sacrifices made for the good of the cause.

    The vice censor of the Polish National Alliance has expressed his opinion about that organization. According to him, the lodges belonging to the P. N. A. are not allowed to ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, IV, I C, III B 4, III B 2, II B 2 d 1