The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Chicago Tribune -- October 09, 1879
    Denial That Any Poles Are Socialists

    Chicago, Oct. 8, 1879.

    To the Editor of the Tribune:

    In your editorial of this morning, I see that you class the socialistic organization as being made up of know-nothings, Germans, Scandinavians, Bohemians, French-men, and Poles.

    Now, I do solemnly protest against you, or any other paper, slandering the Polish people as socialists. The Poles of this city, or of any other city or town in this union, have nothing to do with socialism, and challenge you to point out one Pole who has anything to do with that organization.

    Peter Kiolbassa.

    Chicago, Oct. 8, 1879. To the Editor of the Tribune: In your editorial of this morning, I see that you class the socialistic organization as being made up of know-nothings, ...

    Polish
    I E
  • Zgoda -- January 12, 1887
    Attempts to Organize Polish Clubs and Societies in America

    Dear Editor:

    We hope that the writer of this article has in his heart some of the true feelings Polish people in this country received after reading his article. When I receive letters from different parts of our city, telling of organizing new church societies and political clubs, I am surprised that no attempts have been made to organize a Polish national club in our country for the benefit of all Polish people.

    Sooner or later all Polish immigrants in this country will concentrate on the organizing one big Polish club, which will take care of all Polish affairs pertaining to the welfare of the Polish immigrants in this country.

    It is assumed, that the Polish National Alliance will take full charge of this great movement, but the disinclined will have to change their attitude about this movement; otherwise it will be dropped because one club cannot take care of this alone without the support of all the Polish people.

    2

    This Polish national club will take the utmost interest in all Polish affairs and be of great help to the Polish immigrants.

    I haven't any doubt that no matter where we go this land of freedom will give the Polish people the opportunities they have been seeking.

    In about 30 or 50 years, the population of the Polish immigrants in this country will be a few millions. Our hardships in our native land, and our faith in the Lord are well known, but our main ambition won't be realized any too soon. Judging by our intentions and hard work, we have one thing that means everything to us, freedom.

    Let us always bear in mind that Poland was our native land, but now in the land of freedom, let us all learn to speak a new language, let us not lose faith that some day our native land will fight against its rulers and be a free country. Then we can return to her and have riches and good luck, which are awaiting us.

    3

    All this will not happen unless the poor class of people defy the treacherous rule of the rich. Before the rich will consent to this change and agree to be treated as equals with the poor, the blood of many patriots will flow in our native land.

    In this land of freedom we need many churches where we can receive our daily bread or communion, and we ask that all Polish people take part in this religious obligation, the same way as they have done in Poland.

    We should have a committee to see that the Polish children attend school, that they have books published at a reasonable price, have intelligent teachers, maintain and run the old schools, and build new schools, and organize Polish libraries in the neighborhoods inhabited mostly by Polish people.

    A committee of finance, consisting of trusted and intelligent men of high standing, should take it upon themselves to see that the Polish soldiers and the Polish churches are kept in the best of conditions.

    4

    I am interested in only one thing; that the Polish papers and the employees take the utmost care in publishing articles concerning the welfare of all Polish people. Almost daily we hear of Polish societies and churches being started, which is a good sign that soon we will be a strong group, united as one.

    Let this idea of unity remian deep in our hearts, so that the new Polish immigrants may profit by our sincere and hearty efforts. I hope the editor can place a few of these words in his paper.

    A. Patriofil.

    Dear Editor: We hope that the writer of this article has in his heart some of the true feelings Polish people in this country received after reading his article. When ...

    Polish
    III A, III B 2, III C, I A 1 a, I E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 23, 1890
    The Chicago World's Fair (Editorial)

    The Chicago World's Fair has so many obstacles that it is not necessary to be a pessimist to consider them a bad omen. As soon as one obstacle is removed and overcome, another will appear unexpectedly. Meanwhile, the time for the opening of the Fair is drawing closer.

    Even now, the President is delaying his invitations to foreign governments, in which he will ask them to take part in the Fair. This hesitation, of 2the President, has created an unfavorable attitude in foreign countries and it was already unfavorable enough since Mc Kinley's Bill became a law. At that time, the European papers openly declared that it would not be profitable to take part in the American exposition, because there will be no market for the goods shown in the United States, on account of the high tariff also at that time, a committee formed in Italy for the purpose of arranging an exhibition of Italian goods at the Chicago Fair, was dissolved because it decided that Italy should not and would not, have any reason for participating in the exposition.

    There are rumors that the governments of other countries are of the same opinion. Mr. Christman, a great diplomat and former American consul to Germany, was asked for his opinion. He replied:

    3

    "I am afraid that the World's Fair, in Chicago, will not have the cooperation of the European nations. The United States will probably have a splendid American exposition, but Europe will stay aloof."

    Incidently, I know that there exists a mutual understanding between Germany, Great Britain, Austria and Italy on to the answer these countries will give, when asked to take part in it. These answers will be very polite but negative. They will excuse themselves by saying that insufficient time has elasped since the Parisian Fair.

    "They will argue that two years is not enough time for a proper preparation; 4but they will be silent about the true cause. The true cause is, of course, Mc Kinley's Tariff bill, or perhaps the way it is enforced as prescribed by Mc Kinley. Some of the paragraphs imply that all European manufacturers are dishonest, without honor; that they are public enemies, almost criminals, and should not be trusted under any circumstances. One of these paragraphs provides that every article imported from Europe must be marked, very plainly, where it came from. For example, on every pair of stockings from Germany, there must be a mark, "Made in Germany." This is very exasperating.

    "There will be many European visitors at the Fair, and even some manufacturers might send their goods, but it is probable that no European government will be represented officially with the exception of Russia. When I was leaving Berlin this matter was definitely settled, "Mr Christman concluded.

    The Chicago World's Fair has so many obstacles that it is not necessary to be a pessimist to consider them a bad omen. As soon as one obstacle is removed ...

    Polish
    II B 1 c 3, II A 2, I J, I E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 14, 1891
    America and Poland (Editorial)

    Come to me all you who are oppressed and enslaved. You, who are not allowed to act, speak, feel, and think, according to the dictates of your heart in your own land; come under "protecting wings of freedom." Here you may profess your religion, express your emotions, and love your country openly, for here we have freedom and independence.

    Free America appeals to the Irish, Poles, and all similarly oppressed nations. Those who have lived in bondage can seek freedom here. Here they breathe freely, and rest in peace, and here, with pride, they become citizens of a free country, which is not ruled either by the Czar or knout.

    To this country have come the Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, Spaniards, Englishmen, and Swedes, whose fatherland they will always cherish, but 2their government was a burden to them. To this country have come all nationalities for the purpose of creating a great Republic of the free, and unfortunate; here also have come those who are unworthy of freedom and liberty, and for this reason the right kind of citizens must make laws which will protect us against the evil influence of the undesirables.

    However, a person does not cease to be a son of his motherland on account of becoming a naturalized citizen of this country. His presence and exemplary life in this country are a living protest against conditions created by a certain clique in his native land. It is an example of a life which he desires to see in his fatherland. It is an endeavor to introduce these conditions in a country which he left.

    If we wish to make this example affective, if we wish to open the eyes of the blind, or of those who abuse authority, we must enact practical laws and obey them.

    3

    This example is workable, for it operates in all countries which have introduced democratic constitutions, except in Russia.

    These reforms in the democratic countries have been affected by the good example of the United States. This example has opened the eyes of the oppressed, and also of the oppressors; the first demanded more rights, and the second granted them. If the governments of those democratic governments do not function properly, it is because the example was not, and is not yet perfect. Let us improve this example. Let us make it worthy of imitation, and the results produced by its influence in the next hundred years will be more apparent.

    In order to accomplish this, we must have, above all, good schools, for "knowledge is mother of wisdom, and ignorance is mother of bondage. We must have good schools, schools that educate mind and heart, because one is incomplete without the other; schools which teach knowledge and morality; schools that are not below the standard of those in Europe, 4if we wish to bring up good citizens, an example for Europe.

    Freedom does not mean giving up the faith, language, or traditions, of the fathers. Only the Czar's government is depriving its people of these things by means of the knout. Democratic governments do not do that.

    The English language has been adopted as a medium of thought exchange in the United States, because the English originally, were predominant in this country. As good citizens, we should know the language of the country, but this does not mean that this country is forcing any one to give up his native tongue. A country must have a common language for the good of the whole nation, and every good citizen should know it.

    Come to me all you who are oppressed and enslaved. You, who are not allowed to act, speak, feel, and think, according to the dictates of your heart in your ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 1 a, I A 3, I F 2, I F 4, I F 6, I E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 13, 1891
    Political Parties in America (Editorial)

    Besides the two major political parties in the United States, that is, besides the Republican and the Democratic parties, there is also a newly organized Farmers Party, or third party. This party is getting more and more supporters every day; in other words, it is becoming important. This importance is strengthened by the circumstance that the two old parties are at present equally strong. It is quite true that here and there one of the major parties predominates over the other, but this predominance is so insignificant in some places that a third party, even if small, may very often precipitate a victory for one of the major parties. Sometimes, on account of discord or antagonism between the two old parties, the third party may, by stubbornness or solidarity, gain a complete victory over the old ones.

    This was almost the case at Springfield, Illinois, during the last United States senatorial election, for, during the first few days of this week, 2it seemed as if Mr. Streeter, a representative of the Farmers' Party, would be elected United States Senator. Even though the Farmers Party had only three candidates running for the Legislature, an insignificant number if it is considered that the Democrats had one hundred and one and the Republicans one hundred, there was the danger that the farmers might win, even when Mr. Streeter was abandoned because of betraying his own party by yielding to the Republicans in order to gain their support. The Republicans have promised to give all their votes to Mr. Moore for not voting for Mr. Palmer, but Moore resisted the temptation and was honest enough not to break his promises and Mr. Palmer was finally elected.

    In this particular case the candidate of the majority has been elected, but there are instances in which a very small group of people may gain a victory over a very large party or over a large majority representing the entire nation.

    3

    It is apparent that the system of electing a United States senator, who is a representative of the entire state (and we would add: and the system of electing the President of the United States; because some day we may have a similar experience at a presidential election), is fundamentally wrong and ought to be changed. Such an important representative of the State should be elected by the citizens themselves and by a majority of votes as it is only then that we may rightly say that he is elected by the will of the people. Senator Palmer is planning to change this system.

    We know from the history of the United States, that some of the Presidents were elected by a minority of votes from the people, just because this minority had a bigger representation in Congress.

    Adams, Polk, Taylor, Buchanan, Lincoln, Hayes, Garfield, Cleveland, and Harrison did not get half of the popular votes. Besides, Hayes and Harrison received less votes than their opponents. In other words, if our presidents were elected by a majority of the popular votes, Tilden, a Democrat, not Hayes, a Republican, would have been elected in 1876, for Tilden received 4more votes than all his opponents. Also instead of Harrison, we would have Cleveland as president now, for he received 107,438 more votes than Harrison.

    We are not going to discuss the platform of any political party or try to point out which party has a better policy, for this is not time for it. However, we wish to point out to every conscientious citizen that a party cannot be judged by its name. It is an established fact that the policies of political parties change so much in the course of time that they degenerate into something different from our convictions.

    The principles adopted by the Democratic party are accepted later on by the Republican party, and vice versa. Consequently, there is nothing steady about a political party, with the exception of its name.

    It is not a good policy to adhere to one political party all the time just because we are affiliated with it. It is not true that it is treason to abandon one political party to join another. However, it 5is very important to know the platform of a party before making our decision to join it.

    The most respectable people, the most honorable citizens, and the most brilliant statesmen have left their parties and joined the opposite camp as soon as they realized that the principles of the opposite party was better and more useful to the country. They should not be condemned for such an act; on the contrary, they deserve admiration for their good sense and courage, because such an act could only be condemned by ignorant masses or unscrupulous politicians.

    Such example of good judgment and wonderful courage was given to our nation by Mr. John M. Palmer, who has been just elected United States Senator from our State. He is seventy-three years old now. Originally belonging to the Democratic party, he took an active part in it; but when the Republicans took very vigorous measures against slavery in the United States, a thing which once was favored by the Democrats, John M. Palmer left the Democratic party and, as a Republican, joined the ranks of the Union Army against the Democrats, fighting so bravely that he was made a major-general. After 6the Civil War, when the Democratic party changed its policy in respect to slavery, John M. Palmer, then a Republican governor, seeing weak points in the Republican party and better principles in the opposite camp, left the Republicans and joined the Democrats. By this decision he displayed his great courage, good judgment, and his firmness of principles even under the presence of the unsteady principles of his former party.

    The example given to the citizens of the United States by John M. Palmer is worthy of imitation, and the state of Illinois should be congratulated for electing him United States Senator and for not electing Streeter, who proved by his conduct to be unsteady in his principles.

    Besides the two major political parties in the United States, that is, besides the Republican and the Democratic parties, there is also a newly organized Farmers Party, or third party. ...

    Polish
    I F 5, I F 3, I E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 08, 1891
    Ameryka (Editorial)

    One of our readers has asked us to comment on the statement, made recently in St. Louis by the editor of Ameryka, to the effect that "Ameryka is the best Polish newspaper in this country". The reader asks if it is true, as claimed, that Ameryka aids in the intellectual development of its readers, that it publishes only the truth, that it is entirely patriotic, and that other newspapers are supported by millionaires for the purpose of oppressing the poor people and keeping them in ignorance. He asks us also to verify the allegation that Ameryka is a socialist journal.

    That Ameryka is a socialist journal is quite true, and we are certain that the editor will admit the fact himself. Not long ago, this journal published a series of articles written from a viewpoint of extreme socialism, a viewpoint rightly considered dangerous by people of deep religious convictions.

    2

    That the journal in question publishes fables and clumsy falsehoods which no one can believe, can be proven by an article which appeared in Ameryka recently, and to which we replied in our paper. In that article, there was a false statement concerning a publishing company which publishes a daily newspaper, a large weekly on Sundays, and many books. The article claimed that this company employs in its printing establishment only orphans from the orphan asylum, and keeps them under the supervision of a person who "does not know how to hold a stick in his hand" and who works every day, including Sunday, till 11 P.M., at a salary of eight or ten dollars a week.

    That Ameryka is not a Polish patriotic newspaper but rather Russian in its sympathies can be substantiated by the fact that, not long ago, Ameryka offered its readers portraits of the czar and czarina of Russia as a premium for a subscription to a certain Russian newspaper. This indicates very clearly to what extent this journal is "the most intelligent and the best".

    Furthermore, Ameryka has no respect for our laws, for it sends indecent stories 3through the United States mail, in direct violation of the law. For a long time after laws had been passed forbidding lottery advertisements in the press, Ameryka continued to publish such advertisements, until the law finally intervened and put a stop to it.

    It is evident that Ameryka has no respect either for the laws of the United States or the feelings of the Poles.

    One of our readers has asked us to comment on the statement, made recently in St. Louis by the editor of Ameryka, to the effect that "Ameryka is the best ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, I D 1 a, III H, I E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 04, 1892
    Continuation of the Polish "Filaretow" Society Written by Helen Sawicki (First article printed in January 2, 1892 issue.)

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful movement for liberty was soon put to a stop by the Russian government, yet the seed of fraternity was well scattered.

    Soon after a reorganization took place in Thomas Zan's ranks, and a new order was founded. This time it took on the name of "Filaretow" (Lovers of Virtue). This new body undertook the same platform of the former society, nevertheless there were a few changes. A new unit was added, bearing the name "Lovers of Education." At the beginning, there were only seven virtues, but this figure reached twenty later.

    2

    The "Lovers of Virtue" were headed by the following: Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, Adam Michiewicz, Onufry Pietrowicz, Ignacy Domejko, and several other outstanding Polish notables. This new organ carried the banner of the previous one, but its doors were guarded with secrecy. This was done in order to avoid interference of the university and government. Whoever could pay, contributed a monthly fee, which amounted to about two and a half dollars in American money. These dues were converted into many useful means. Books were purchased, a reading room was kept, and many other incidentals were bought.

    This organization was composed of groups. Each group met separately. At the head of each was a president, secretary, and treasurer. There was a circle of lawyers, authors, mathematicians, medical authorities, etc. The election of officers was open, and those that received the most votes were 3chosen for the respective offices. Each group held separate meetings at which the by-laws were read, the progress discussed, and plans for future programs were made out. At times, delegates from other units were invited. These representatives would tell of their work. During these sessions, the members would not only be instructed in the art of rhetoric, but open discussions were held and vital subjects were frequently presented. Exact interpretations of what went on were given. Public speaking was practiced to a great degree.

    Besides these educational and instructive gatherings, parties of a social nature were held. Various affairs were held at which singing, reading, drama, and speech were given an open range. There were also annual Maytime festivals. These parties served a twofold purpose. They not only enlightened the burden of the hard work, but also instilled gaiety and friendship.

    4

    Several organizers of this organ were responsible for these social functions. The backbone was composed of Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, A. Michiewicz, and Mr. Wolowicz (no first name given). Zan represented beauty and morality over which he exerted great influence for he had high respect for his office, and his zeal for these virtues was limitless. Mr. Czeczot was the agent of sincerity and happiness. Brotherhood was representative of Mr. Wolowicz. A. Mickiewicz, one of the later prophets of the people, brightened and added life to the parties by his songs and his poems. Oratory and poetry were under his banner. He devoted his entire life to help his people. He wrote many verses primarily to bolster the spirit of his brothers. These poems in turn were memorized by many, and passed by word of mouth to others. One of the many poems written by him is the following, which reflects the spirit of the organization he so devotedly worked for:

    5

    Let your eyes with gladness shine,

    And garlands of joy cover you,

    And in new hope entwine,

    For we are friends - one and two,

    One for all and all for you.

    Lift your poor heart from sorrow

    Fill up with hope and glory -

    Holy this will be tomorrow;

    Pride, greed, and luxury

    Sweep it away in hurry.

    6

    This you should gladly do:

    For our people guard the life

    Of learning and of virtue

    At home, at work, or in strife;

    And keep it sharp as a knife!

    Be sure that this in your mem'ry stays:

    Your people --- learning and virtue --- always!

    All of the flowering youth of the University of Vilno gave itself to the purpose of this brotherhood. They studied and passed on what they have been taught to others. The shroud of greed, hatred, and selfishness, was gradually shed through this brotherly atmosphere. Many individuals, after grasping the full purpose of this noble fraternity, devoted all of their 7lives to furthering its cause. They realized that through the education of the masses to the conditions, the Poland of yesterday could only be restored.

    Propriety and decorum reigned throughout every unit. A watchful eye was kept on those that did not regard the by-laws to the fullest extent. Those that lost interest or were endangering the cause were expelled. This was generally considered a disgrace. Through cooperation, all of the spare time of the members was used to a good advantage.

    It was believed that through more strict reorganization the continuance of the fraternity would be possible. However, this budding flower did not get an opportunity to come to full bloom. The despotic government cut down its growing stem once again. When all the units of the central organ were forbidden, all of the books of the organization were destroyed, and its members 8scattered over the entire country. These actions did not stop their mistreatment by the Russians. Despite persecution, this society existed in the hearts of every member.

    In the junior year group at the Vilno University, Michael Plater wrote on the blackboard of his classroom: "Let the constitution of the third of May live." This was more or less a child's prank, yet it was taken as a sign of revolution by the Russians. The right hand men of Constantine, the Russian Tsar in Warsaw, began an investigation concerning this matter at the University. The investigators seized a student by the name of Jankowski, who tried to get into Warsaw through a false passport. Jankowski was a former student of the "Filaretow" Society, but was expelled for his lack of interest. A thorough search of his belongings revealed a pamphlet of the by-laws of the organization. Although he was 9under oath never to reveal any of its secrets, Jankowski, under pressure and with the promise of freedom, told everything he knew. After this, followed a general purge of the already crumbled fraternity. Riots and unjust violences prevailed.

    Further persecutions of those connected with this organ can be found in the third part of Michiewicz's poem, the "Beggers" or "Dziadow."

    This is the history of the origin of the "Filaretow" society. To us, they represent a great symbol of respect, our ideals. For at the present time, we are existing amidst trying conditions. It is difficult for us to uphold these ideals while we are struggling to earn our daily bread. But these traditions that have been brought with us to this country still flourish..... We must remember that there are many of our people abroad that would gladly 10leave their forced drudgery, but cannot because the hope and strength of their struggle has been sapped. They would gladly leave the soil to which they are imprisoned, but have no opportunity to leave. Though this has been true for over a hundred years, the fight for liberty is still being waged.....Although we are in a free country, we are facing many obstacles. Our struggle to be classed on the same level with the other people here is very great, and can be compared with the hardships of those young people that organized the society of "Filaretow" many years ago.

    We are facing new problems here. It is for our own good that we organize and educate our people so that they can orient themselves to their new surroundings. We can take up the banner of the "Lovers of Virtue" here without any fear and blaze a trail for our people. Only through organization and work can we accomplish these aims. The curtain of ignorance can be substituted for one of culture.

    11

    The purpose of the first public meeting at this society here is to restore hope in our once oppressed people. Plans, platforms, and programs, were discussed openly, and an outline of activity was adopted. Therefore, in order to restore hope and position in our people, we must get to work and organize.

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, II B 1 e, II B 2 g, III B 2, I C, I E, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 05, 1892
    The Liberty League (Editorial)

    The Liberty League can be of great service in the future and perform a great deal of good if it proves itself not to be a hindrance, in which case it will endanger its fundamental principles. Before joining it, a society should consider the principles upon which the league is founded, to the inclusion of its by-laws and immediate objectives, because although today there are many leagues which are outstanding in their field, there are also others which are poor imitations only.

    The Liberty League announces that it desires the cooperation of those societies the efforts of which are towards the promotion of patriotism, Christian endeavor, temperance, woman suffrage, a better political system, and a higher standard of living.

    2

    What is the hidden meaning of these words? The most sublime ideas are expressed alongside the most ridiculous. Woman suffrage, for example, was propounded by Christianity, which has given woman an immortal soul and equal rights with man. But the apostolic emancipators of woman go to ridiculous extremes. They place woman above man, thus disrupting the most suitable division of duties in the family in the most absurd manner and contrary to natural law.

    The work carried on for the betterment of political systems is taken up by all the political organizations, each formulating its particular platform. They begin with the Republican party and end with the extremist, anarchist, and nihilist. Each one of these organizations believes that its "ism" is the best.

    Under the banner of temperance there are those who believe in moderation and those who deny themselves the minutest drop even for medicinal purposes.

    3

    Among the Christians there are those who observe Christian doctrines and traditions in detail and those who have adopted this religion under some peculiar form, such as the Mormons, Baptists, Russian Orthodox, etc.

    For the promotion of better citizenship there are many organizations which, sponsored by various factions, are already in this field, each having its particular system for this purpose.

    What does all this mean? In reality, it all means that all the societies that join the Liberty League, though they realize that they are fording the River of Darkness, gather to one common fold where the majority decides what system is best to recognize and which policies they are to follow and protect. Although each society keeps itself within its original aim, all submit to the majority rule, which governs the fundamental principles of the entire organization. From today on the Polish National Alliance will be subject to these conditions, made possible by the good graces of the Central Committee.

    4

    The Alliance, which has been primarily instituted for patriotic purposes, will lose all its independence to the majority rule of the Liberty League, which without doubt will join other radical organizations. Can anyone say today who will definitely gain superiority? Will this be agreeable in any degree to the Polish people? Will this fulfill their treasured dreams, or will it burst like a fancy bauble? Undoubtedly, the Alliance will have to accept the League's present platform.

    The League, in one of its statements to the press, said that it adheres to the policy of vox populi, vox Dei (The voice of the people is the voice of God) and that it believes it does more common good for the common people than Dei Gratia (grace of God), for up to the present time, the close of the nineteenth century, Dei Gratia has not as yet fulfilled our most necessary needs and desires.

    From this day "Vox populi, Vox Dei" will be recognized by the Polish National Alliance because "Dei Gratia" does not accomplish enough for the organization. "Vox populi" is the voice of the people, the voice for a greater League. It 5would not be so bad to adhere to the voice of the people, but to deny the grace of God is an entirely different matter. This is exactly what the Alliance is doing. It is now going to listen to the voice of the people, because it is the voice of God. This has been demonstrated during the French Revolution. In Paris the people avowed that there was no God, for the people were God. Anarchists, nihilists, and communists pay homage to this maxim. The Liberty League and the Polish National Alliance have now joined these ranks.

    For what further purpose will these remarks serve? What is the use of making these assertions? What has been said will serve for the present. However, we will repeat that although the League would show that it is the most advantageous and accommodating organization for the people, which is shown by its previous accomplishments, the Central Committee was not justified in its action; it should have informed its constituents of its plans instead of acting independently, Had the Committee been concerned in presenting the Polish issue before the present Republican Congress, it would have refrained from joining the ranks of the Liberty League as yet. If the entire membership of the Alliance wanted to become a part of the League, a vote should have been cast. Nevertheless, the committee joined hands with the League on its own volition, just for publicity's sake.

    The Liberty League can be of great service in the future and perform a great deal of good if it proves itself not to be a hindrance, in which case ...

    Polish
    III B 2, II D 1, III A, III C, I B 1, I F 2, I C, I E, I K
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 11, 1892
    Dreadful Signs of Our Times (Editorial)

    Anarchism is one of the most dastardly scourges of our times. Sometimes it disappears only to come back stronger than ever. With its flowing pen and its brilliant front, it spreads a wreckage of Moral and physical strength.

    Many times it has been associated with socialism and at times it has been treated on the same basis as the latter. Today, however, these two have been definitely segregated.

    Socialists have been seated in the parliaments of many countries as representatives chosen by the people; they have attacked their governments, just like other political factions, but their attacks have been 2made by friendly and legal means. Some of them, as Hasselmann and other fiery wranglers, have been thrown out from the legislative body by fictitious faults and left on the frontiers of forgetfulness.

    Only on Russian soil did nihilism spread rapidly. This phenomenon can be easily explained by the numerous connections of the tyrannical Tsar. The severe political pressure which oppresses the various nationalistic groups, this horrible act of despotic government, could not but bring about a terrible reaction, a reaction which has taken on the form of the ghastly spectre of nihilism.

    Once it was considered that the root of anarchism would never take hold in civilized political countries, that the perception of the people would not permit it to interfere with equal rights and individual freedom. In spite of this, however, the spectre of nihilism, with a dynamite bomb in its hand, has appeared with all its dastardly 3power in a country which for years has been a leader in cultural and democratic fields, in France and her closely related neighbor, Belgium. It also has made its appearance in Spain, but only on the soil where France has planted the seed of revolution. Here it was taken up by clever instigators of intrigue, who inculcated it into the lower classes for the prime purpose of bringing about a rebellion among the masses.

    Beginning from the time of the unfortunate disaster of Sedan, France has been striving to bring her relations with the Russian Tsar on closer friendly terms. She sought many means of contact and relationship, and these efforts on the part of France made the deal a certainty. The nihilism of the Moscovites is now heartily exchanging bombs with the anarchism of France in the streets of Paris.

    Anarchism was again revived to its full strength. Under the banner of "Mane, Phares, Thekel," it has risen menacingly before the eyes of the 4world. It has come into existence, first, because offensiveness has always been prevalent; second, because it it an inevitable result of the present spiritual trend of the world.

    Every principle proclaimed in the highest spiritual spheres by existing people, must necessarily pass into lower spheres and, like a political system, whether good or bad, be practical in its entrance on the stage of the world.

    Anarchical thought, teaching, and knowledge of the present day were introduced by some of the highest political offices. Anarchism, therefore, is a direct result of the prevailing system of government, politics, and social life.

    In our writings of a few years ago relative to the social question, it was pointed out at times that socialism in its true form does not 5have as its aim any sudden overthrow of prevailing social relations. Contrary to popular belief, it has carefully diagnosed the various negative sides of the societies of the people and an effort is being made to spread this general but closely related question. However, all this is being done by gradual steps. Legislative laws are enacted which somewhat embody its principles for the purpose of bringing about better conditions for the most common good of the people. Christian socialism, which is endeavoring to bring this about by an inward rebirth of the people and by instilling into the individual the comprehension of the rights and obligations concerning God, neighbors, society, and self; along with the socialistic trends of the Government, demands from the government the fulfillment of its laws, proposed reforms, and national institutions.

    Each one of these social forms has its own right to exist. Each can relieve the burden of the people which is trampling them. Not one of 6them, however, will definitely resolve the question and the golden days will always be lying in the land of fables.

    Anarchism, on the other hand, is comparatively different from Socialism. Although, like Socialism, it has taken the stand of removing the abnormal conditions of the people, it wants to achieve this end by violent means, namely, revolution, treason, and overthrow of all existing laws.

    Socialism does not wish to destroy any state; on the contrary, it supports its laws to the last degree. It submits everything to the administration. All individuals, as well as associated groups, are dissolved in the state and disappear like rivers in an ocean.

    Nevertheless, this omniscience of the state, in which the socialistic government is striving to save the people, is one of the greatest constraints against which the spirit of the people must rebel. This 7sovereignty of the state has destroyed the personal freedom of man, yet it did not quiet his ever growing necessities and desires. A strong reaction is called upon to break down any impossibility. This is nothing else but the destruction of all rights.

    This is the step that anarchism took. The liberalism of the state paved the road for it. Anarchism today does not recognize any authority, any law, any sovereignty.

    Anarchism is therefore the last logical consequence and result of liberalism and its fostered maxims. It is the result of liberalism, which from the steps of the parliamentary tribunals and professorial academies preaches atheism and materialism.

    Will this liberalism, Jewry, and Masonry, which is imbedded in the 8state, see the horizon of destruction which is upon its doors and come to the realization that no nation can exist without the recognizance of a higher, supernatural power?

    Anarchism is one of the most dastardly scourges of our times. Sometimes it disappears only to come back stronger than ever. With its flowing pen and its brilliant front, it ...

    Polish
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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 23, 1892
    We Request an Answer

    At one time we were so bold as to ask what was really happening in the renowned "Liberty League." A convention of this League was to have been held at Omaha, Nebraska, about a month ago, at which its principles were to be made known and its platform presented--[the platform]with which it was to take vigorous action before the all Republican congress. All is quiet about the convention and nothing is heard even about the Liberty League.

    It is of consequence to us to know something more definite about this matter because it pertains to the public interest. Nearly all the Polish periodicals defended the League, and only we dared to express a conjecture that perhaps this League as yet is not necessarily the alpha and omega of human intelligence. For this we were covered with abuse.

    Did the Liberty League feel such a need of rest after this victory that it has fallen asleep? And it followers, do they not wish to disturb the League's peace that is so salutary to the nation?

    At one time we were so bold as to ask what was really happening in the renowned "Liberty League." A convention of this League was to have been held at ...

    Polish
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