The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Zgoda -- February 08, 1888
    A Political Ward in Distress

    A new election law, for the first time this spring, will demand that the polling booths be at least 200 feet away from any kind of a business. The 7th ward in our city already happens to be looking for a place, in conformity with the above mentioned law, but just can't seem to find any place, because there is not one block in the whole ward where there is not a saloon.

    A new election law, for the first time this spring, will demand that the polling booths be at least 200 feet away from any kind of a business. The 7th ...

    Polish
    I B 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 26, 1890
    The Chicago World's Fair (Editorial)

    At last the President has issued a proclamation regarding the opening of the World's Fair. It appeared on the 24th day of December, the day before Christmas.

    Better late than never. Undoubtedly, the Fair may yet be a great success. All that is necessary for its success is some good luck. There is no doubt that, as an American exposition, it will be great, positively unsurpassed by any European exhibition. At this fair the United States will have a splendid opportunity to show the world its great development during the last 115 years, and how far it has advanced in the field of inventions, especially in applied sciences. However, there is a doubt whether this exposition will surpass, or even be equal to, European expositions, especially the Parisian, in respect to art. There is no doubt that we have plenty of money, but whether we have enough ability and artistic taste for creating an exposition both great and beautiful, is a question.

    The criticism will be very severe, and we may take it for granted that European 2critics will not overlook even the smallest irregularity or mistake. But let us not judge too harshly. We have a number of able people who know how to put up a fair. They have some experience because they have visited other world fairs, and for American dollars it will be possible to secure a few European experts who have a good taste. Americans are very practical. They will know how to overcome this obstacle.

    Two questions arise, will this exposition deserve to be called a world's Fair, and will other countries participate in it? We wrote about this before and expressed our doubts. However, we are not infallible and hope that this time we will be false prophets.

    There is some consolation in the fact that, at the last election, the American nation opposed McKinley's Bill. Consequently, Europe may be appeased with the hope that the bill had only an ephemeral significance and will be forgotten in a short time.

    The majority of the stockholders of the Chicago Fair are also appeased because they feared that the exposition would not be open on Sundays, and 3that the sale of liquor would not be allowed at the Fair. These two obstacles have been removed by the directors of the Fair, thereby making the financial success of it possible, for experience teaches that fairs bring more profit on a Sunday than during the whole week. The proclamation of the President created a more cheerful attitude toward the matter.

    The proclamation is typically American, - business-like. Because we are very prosperous, we can afford to have a fair. Perhaps such proclamation will invite elegant European formalists to make satirical remarks, but on the other hand, it will encourage business men, for whom we care very much, and which is most important.

    At last the President has issued a proclamation regarding the opening of the World's Fair. It appeared on the 24th day of December, the day before Christmas. Better late than ...

    Polish
    I C, I H, I B 1, I D 1 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 05, 1892
    The Liberty League (Editorial)

    The Liberty League can be of great service in the future and perform a great deal of good if it proves itself not to be a hindrance, in which case it will endanger its fundamental principles. Before joining it, a society should consider the principles upon which the league is founded, to the inclusion of its by-laws and immediate objectives, because although today there are many leagues which are outstanding in their field, there are also others which are poor imitations only.

    The Liberty League announces that it desires the cooperation of those societies the efforts of which are towards the promotion of patriotism, Christian endeavor, temperance, woman suffrage, a better political system, and a higher standard of living.

    2

    What is the hidden meaning of these words? The most sublime ideas are expressed alongside the most ridiculous. Woman suffrage, for example, was propounded by Christianity, which has given woman an immortal soul and equal rights with man. But the apostolic emancipators of woman go to ridiculous extremes. They place woman above man, thus disrupting the most suitable division of duties in the family in the most absurd manner and contrary to natural law.

    The work carried on for the betterment of political systems is taken up by all the political organizations, each formulating its particular platform. They begin with the Republican party and end with the extremist, anarchist, and nihilist. Each one of these organizations believes that its "ism" is the best.

    Under the banner of temperance there are those who believe in moderation and those who deny themselves the minutest drop even for medicinal purposes.

    3

    Among the Christians there are those who observe Christian doctrines and traditions in detail and those who have adopted this religion under some peculiar form, such as the Mormons, Baptists, Russian Orthodox, etc.

    For the promotion of better citizenship there are many organizations which, sponsored by various factions, are already in this field, each having its particular system for this purpose.

    What does all this mean? In reality, it all means that all the societies that join the Liberty League, though they realize that they are fording the River of Darkness, gather to one common fold where the majority decides what system is best to recognize and which policies they are to follow and protect. Although each society keeps itself within its original aim, all submit to the majority rule, which governs the fundamental principles of the entire organization. From today on the Polish National Alliance will be subject to these conditions, made possible by the good graces of the Central Committee.

    4

    The Alliance, which has been primarily instituted for patriotic purposes, will lose all its independence to the majority rule of the Liberty League, which without doubt will join other radical organizations. Can anyone say today who will definitely gain superiority? Will this be agreeable in any degree to the Polish people? Will this fulfill their treasured dreams, or will it burst like a fancy bauble? Undoubtedly, the Alliance will have to accept the League's present platform.

    The League, in one of its statements to the press, said that it adheres to the policy of vox populi, vox Dei (The voice of the people is the voice of God) and that it believes it does more common good for the common people than Dei Gratia (grace of God), for up to the present time, the close of the nineteenth century, Dei Gratia has not as yet fulfilled our most necessary needs and desires.

    From this day "Vox populi, Vox Dei" will be recognized by the Polish National Alliance because "Dei Gratia" does not accomplish enough for the organization. "Vox populi" is the voice of the people, the voice for a greater League. It 5would not be so bad to adhere to the voice of the people, but to deny the grace of God is an entirely different matter. This is exactly what the Alliance is doing. It is now going to listen to the voice of the people, because it is the voice of God. This has been demonstrated during the French Revolution. In Paris the people avowed that there was no God, for the people were God. Anarchists, nihilists, and communists pay homage to this maxim. The Liberty League and the Polish National Alliance have now joined these ranks.

    For what further purpose will these remarks serve? What is the use of making these assertions? What has been said will serve for the present. However, we will repeat that although the League would show that it is the most advantageous and accommodating organization for the people, which is shown by its previous accomplishments, the Central Committee was not justified in its action; it should have informed its constituents of its plans instead of acting independently, Had the Committee been concerned in presenting the Polish issue before the present Republican Congress, it would have refrained from joining the ranks of the Liberty League as yet. If the entire membership of the Alliance wanted to become a part of the League, a vote should have been cast. Nevertheless, the committee joined hands with the League on its own volition, just for publicity's sake.

    The Liberty League can be of great service in the future and perform a great deal of good if it proves itself not to be a hindrance, in which case ...

    Polish
    III B 2, I K, I E, I C, I F 2, I B 1, III C, III A, II D 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 26, 1892
    The Pope's Special Dispensation (Editorial)

    Because of the prevalent spread of the grippe throughout the world, the Pope has issued a dispensation which permits the Catholics not to observe Lent. This has been done to enable the people to fortify themselves with reserves of energy and thus be able to safeguard themselves against this rapidly spreading epidemic, the ravages of which are so great that every precaution should be taken.

    It must be remembered that as a general rule the sick do not have to fast. Also exempt from this practice are those who work too hard, children, old persons, and pregnant women. This shows that for many years certain restrictions were granted during the observance of the lenten period.

    The Pope's dispensation saves a great deal of worry to many priests and their assistants, not to mention the followers of the faith, who thus are free from many doubts and unnecessary contrition.

    2

    This dispensation, however, is not intended to prohibit fasting or to discourage people from it. Those desiring to fast may do so as in previous years.

    The gist of the Pope's order is that those who observe the fasting period but disregard other important duties by becoming negligent in observing them, will be like the Jews during the biblical days, when the Lord, through one of his prophets, said: Ye have fasted, but your will was only in the fasting.

    Fast is primarily a holy, religious, and advantageous practice when it is done in the name of God. What the prophet says, "Be angry, but do not sin," should be especially remembered during Lent. Fast, or do not fast, but do not sin.

    If you are in a position to fast, do so in the name of God. Do not attempt to critize or accuse people who are unable to follow the dictates of the Church because of physical handicaps, working conditions, or economic standing.

    3

    Perhaps if these people were in different circumstances, they would abide by the laws [of the Church] without as much as an unkind word.

    Would a fasting mother be considered a good mother were she to deny her child its vital food?

    Fast Brother, but do not imbibe! There are many people who have become habitual drinkers. Accustomed to the use of liquor through a long period of years, they spend most of their lives fasting because they cannot eat, and as a consequence they walk about with a bloated appearance, loathsome to themselves and others, derelicts unfit for prayer or work, becoming unsightly beggars. Shamelessly they walk the streets to while away their time begging, not for food but for liquor. As soon as they get some money, they hurry as quickly as possible to quiet their burning desire for alcohol, a desire which is never quenched and which makes them to live the life of the condemned.

    4

    O Brothers, now is the time to give aid to the helpless, the time to teach them to eat whenever they wish and whatever they want. Let them eat bread or meat on Friday on Sunday until they learn to eat and break away from the disgusting habit of drinking. Now is the time for them to become men of honor and pride!

    There are others who like to fast, but they like to slander those who do not give them praise for their sacrifice and their hypocritical religious belief.

    There are also those who fast, but the more they abstain the more mordant they get. As a result, they become aroused with anger and blasphemy. Their fasting is worthless, Godless.

    If you are to fast, do it without ostentation, slander, anger, and blasphemy. Do it of your own volition. The lenten and other days of abstinence will be easy to follow. We advise to those who brag about their sacrifices to 5eat three meals a day with as much meat as they wish until they will become worthy and of better heart to make this small sacrifice in the name of the Holy Father.

    This is what one of the Apostles said: "Although I would speak in all languages ... and become dried to the bone of fast, it would be of no avail if.I did not do it for the love of God."

    Those who believe in the concepts of the Roman-Catholic Church and follow its teachings willingly, are the ones that benefit most from these indulgences. They are the ones that need not be told time and again, for they have observed the tenets of the Church for many years. They realize that fasting is not practical for those who are unhealthy or who belong to the hard working class.

    These words of Christ should always be before them: "Guard yourselves in order that you would not show your acts of righteousness before others," that is, do such things in a way that others would not see. "and when you fast, do not be like the sad hypocrites." ...

    Because of the prevalent spread of the grippe throughout the world, the Pope has issued a dispensation which permits the Catholics not to observe Lent. This has been done to ...

    Polish
    III C, I B 4, I B 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 03, 1892
    A Picture of the Polish Press in America (Editorial)

    Once a week, or perhaps every other week, we will endeavor to publish an article which will give in concise from a cross-section of the Polish press in the United States. The aim of these articles will be twofold to acquaint the public with some of our outstanding developments in the field of literature, and to add impetus to the advancement of journalism.

    The articles, which will be treated with exactness, will impart a pleasant point of view, and only those of interest to the reader will be printed as an example of Polish effort. In addition we will publish 'Sine ira et studio' articles, 2that is, articles without anger or partiality, intended to better the mental horizon and spirit of sportsmanship of our younger generation.

    We do not intend to play the mentor. Not being infallible, and our indigence being already known, we will limit ourselves to articles touching upon religion and customs as concern Catholic principles. Lay subjects of popular discussion will be handled as logically as possible, in accordance with the opinion of prominent persons, who will be freely quoted. Ideas contrary to popular belief will also be given notice, as long as they are of a peaceful nature and not too radical, and provided they meet with the respect of the public. All articles will be treated objectively.

    Commentaries will be gladly accepted if they are objective and impersonal. We are interested in what a person writes, not in what he is.

    3

    The Pole in America, edited by S. Slisz and published in Buffalo twice a week, has taken a definite step forward in the field of journalism. The emulation of this publication has brought many fine results.

    The publication by this paper of anonymous stories is decreasing and each day there is less copying from other papers, which results in a greater amount of original material. These original articles have a style of their own, a style belonging to the writer, who may be the editor himself or a correspondent of the paper. At times these articles may be long or condensed, but whatever their form, they have sense and substance, particularly those the object of which is righteousness instead of personal interest. It is true that we all cannot agree on the same thing. Sometimes it happens that an article that is not very clear or authoritative has to be re-written by the editor from top to bottom before it is published. We have hopes that someday all this will be changed; that an awakening will envelop the Polish press, an awakening 4from which will evolve better understanding, peace, and harmony both in religious and patriotic matters. The Pole In America will then be able to progress more rapidly and serve its native and adopted countries better.

    Of one of this paper's correspondents, from St. Paul Minnesota, we can say that he writes with sagacity, clearness, zeal, and a bit of humor, irony, and satire. Although he claims not to be a subscriber of Wiara I Ojczyzna (Religion and the People), or familiar with the Dziennik Chicagoski and the Zgoda, he can figure out something to write about them. When he begins to read these papers, his hypochondria, which often seeps out of his writings, will leave him, and his pen will be of greater advantage to the Pole In America.

    However, we must point out to the editors that advertisements of saloons, cafes, breweries, and distilling companies do not harmonize with the nature of Catholic writing. It is bad enough that a drunkard finds his way to the source unaided, let alone giving him directions on how to reach perdition. This is also true 5in the case of the Toledo publication. This policy should be abandoned.

    Zgoda (Harmony) is the organ of the Polish National Alliance. Noble as its title is, does Zgoda adhere to it? The late Bishop Krasicki said, "To bellow freedom is to silence freedom." What has the Zgoda done in this direction?

    The Zgoda is actually adding "liar" to its title. Quarreller' should be its true name. For the past three years this weekly has been setting examples and showing us how not to write in the Polish language.

    This publication, according to its constitution, is intended to be educational; a guardian of the pure Polish tongue, a model for style, and a pioneer in the elevation of the spirit of the Pole. Does the Zgoda follow these precepts? This may be possible, because the members of the Alliance keep silent and delight in its literature, particularly those who are as concerned about the 6purity of the native tongue as we are about the change of cabinet for the queen of Honolulu.

    We will remain silent about the retrograding, anti-religious and anti-nationalistic policies of this paper and center our attention in its style, Polish language, logic, grammar, and even orthography, in which it is a true monster. This, however, does not cause much harm, as the average member of the Polish National Alliance who receives this weekly does not understand the articles anyhow. An intelligent person must toil long over the contents before he can grasp the meaning of this monstrous publication. At times he must fill in the gaps himself. As to its editor, it would not be amiss to say, "No one will give anything, if there is not anything to give," for he exemplifies the biblical saying, "Minus habens," that is, in order to write, one must know how to write.

    We will not offer this weekly any suggestions because we know that they will be disregarded entirely or accepted with insults. We would rather have the 7articles as they are than to put up with polemic editorials so written as to make a colored person blush.

    All we ask of the Zgoda is to print verbatim articles it gets from other papers, that is, facts after facts, without distorting them or treating them with insulting criticism. As to the correspondents of Zgoda, no matter where they may live, we can only thank them for defending us, and we ask them to continue this support. We also ask Mr. Tomasz, of this city, and Mr. K. F., who do not share the beliefs of the Polish Catholic priests, to respect the Catholic religion and those practicing it.

    Having a great deal of patience, we will await the end of the play "Goddess" (Bozenna), which has been fabricated and patterned after a Chinese drama.

    The people's weekly, Wiarus, published at Winona, Wisconsin, has managed to 8acquire a wide following in the country during its three years of existence. Its readers are varied: both the intelligent and the spiritual-minded emigrants have become subscribers. Adherence to the policies of the Catholic Church has brought this paper unlimited rewards. All the articles, editorials as well as news, are free from prejudice and always exact. Papers such as this, with this type of journalism, are valuable to the people and the Church.

    However, it would be much better if the Wiarus would devote more space to the road of Faith than to sensational articles, especially as less publicity to scandals and dubious stories will do more good than too much of it. One bad article can do more harm than a hundred good items can do good.

    Great sadness overcame us a few weeks ago when we came upon an article of this kind in the Wiarus. The article was entitled "Chamy" (Peasants), and was illustrated with the picture of a gallows for debtors. Pictures such as this 9should be kept out of a paper, for their publication will destroy rather than promote good will. To indulge in this, throws a paper out of the road of stars of the path to fame and popularity for poking fun at others has never brought any laurels to anyone. One can operate on a boil only with a delicate instrument, not with a rod or a mace. A boil can be burst open with a stick, but the patient runs the risk of being mortally wounded. Such procedure would not be a medical feat,-it would, be murder. And what about the rod that has been wielded by the author of 'Chamy'? What will be its result? Since hatred and scandal follow vengeance and dishonor, the author's reward will be nothing but disgrace.

    The only remedy is to forgive and to forget these mistakes. We entertain the hope that the Wiarus will alter its policies in the future for its own good and the good of its readers, its crude rod to be replaced by the delicate pen as an instrument of operation. Not until then will the evils of society be treated successfully. Providence has given editors more than one measure of talent. Let them use it in the name of God, for the profit of their 10readers and the betterment of the people.

    There are two Polish dailies in the United States: the Dziennik Chicagoski [in Chicago] and the Polish Courier in Milwaukee. About the first we will not try to write any comment, as we hope the day will come when some Polish person of authority will write to the editors of this paper stating his opinion, pointing out the bad and giving us credit for the good. We shall be grateful for any criticism, provided it is just, for we know that a few editors pattern their style of news after that of Mr. Slisz.

    The Polish Courier, although small in size, plays an important part among the Poles of Milwaukee. Its literary style is comparatively good, and it follows its aims and policies to the letter. In our opinion, this paper deserves the support of the Poles, Its editorial section shows maturity; its style is bright and understandable; its criticisms not severe; its writings impersonal, even though at times the bitter truth has to be told 11about some papers and individuals. But all this is done without insult to anyone.

    The Courier's editorials, which appear daily, are intelligently written. Their meaning is understood by the average reader. The popularity of its editorial section and other features is well deserved and worthy of mention. The road to this editorial page has not been an easy one, but one full of hardships and freelancing. Important articles from other papers are given and reference made to their sources. A publication that treats everything with fairness, as well as the men who represent it, not only deserves support but also merits praise for its efforts.

    In order to give the readers an example typical of the treatment the Courier gives to various important questions, we will cite excerpts from one of its articles.

    12

    The article in question deals with the work of Father V. Barzynski, whose efforts to bring the Poles closer together have brought many jeers from some papers of importance. The Polish Courier in Milwaukee treats the matter as follows:

    "The benefits of the attempt of the Poles to share the olive branch are so apparent that no one is trying to distract his neighbor from that direction. The results of the protest against Russia are so outstanding that it would take an abnormal person to disregard them. For they flow with the understanding of Polish hearts and patriotism. Truly it is something to be regarded as good.

    "Yet, the efforts of Father Barzynski are considered fancy creations of the mind; the protest question being taken as an undertaking doomed to failure, despite the fact that the Polish press, even the liberal New Life (Nowe Zycie), 13has accepted and recognized both.

    "This kind of propaganda fails to succeed because it lacks observance of formality on the part of the initiators, who injure the pride of those who control the right of patriotism. The seed of this propaganda fell upon unfavorable soil, a soil overgrown with the weeds of private warped views full of low ambition and culpable selfishness. The idea of peace was interpreted as a desire to fuse various groups, to discontinue the struggle for certain rights and to put fire and water together. The protest was taken as a move harmful to the good will of our people and unsuitable to the task of rehabilitating Poland. Manifestoes filled with fancy phraseology which could hardly gain a single applause began to appear. Pobudki (Inciter) and Wolnego Slowa (Free Word), papers which are not read by anyone in this country, became in the eyes of some of our leaders the last word in patriotism.

    "This situation is sad but true. Some men like to become great through their ideals alone, and in the attempt they necessarily clash with others. Soon 14heated arguments result, and out of them chaos, from which nothing of value will come."

    In order to show with what fairness the Polish Courier treats certain news, we will give another example.

    In the every day routine of an immigrant, many situations arise. Many times it happens that the revelation from the immigrant's own judgment, conviction, or mere opinion, carries with it many unpleasant consequences.

    We live in a country where lies and sophisms are more favored than truth and sincerity. When a person of our Catholic faith makes a conservative statement relative to a popular question of the day, he is immediately showered with criticism from all sides, including the liberal, the non-religious, and even the anarchical factions.

    The affair, or rather scandal, of the apostasy of the Holy Trinity parish of 15Chicago is well known to all. A majority of our people are familiar with the entire situation and many of them lament the outcome because they see and feel the kind of fate, verily disgrace that awaits our immigrants. But as soon as someone from the conservative side raises his voice against this disgraceful schism, or just permits someone to mention a favorable word or a word of admonishment, he is received with a barrage of blasphemous insults, which pagans even avoid to use. He will be called narrow-minded; a servant and a slave of the priests. This same thing happens to the priest who tries to voice his opinion; he will be greeted with epithets of obstructor, greedy, parvenue, and extortioner. Therefore, it is laudable that the Courier, which has no affiliation whatsoever, keeps to the road it now follows, i. e., that it continue treating delicate subjects not only with sincerity but also with the power of conviction and truth.

    The Zgoda, organ of the Polish National Alliance, has made public a scandalous 16announcement about some kind of non-religious parish committee, alleged to be the source of a Protestant questionnaire. The committee's headquarters were closed by the authorities of the Holy Trinity Parish, but the body operates without the latter's knowledge and permission. The purpose of this committee is to get a new pastor for the church. While making a bid for priests, the committee at the same time stipulates as a conditions that the priest to take over the parish must be independent from other priests, especially from the church authorities of Kolasinski, in Detroit.

    We did not say a word about this because we do not want to be open to any new attacks and intrigues, but the Polish Courier of Milwaukee comes to our assistance as follows;

    "The parishioners of Holy Trinity Church in Chicago are looking for a "Catholic" pastor. They are advertising in certain Polish newspapers that belong to the association of Polish editors. The Zgoda, which received the blessing of a Catholic bishop at the last diet in Detroit for its work, belongs in this group 17by also carrying the advertisement. Among the requirements demanded of a candidate, we do not see the one requiring that he be installed by the authority of the Church. Parishes get their priests through the mediation of a bishop, not by public vote. Because of this, we have reason to believe that something unpleasant is brewing in Chicago, especially since we have been informed that the parishioners are contemplating legal action in the Chicago courts to force the Archbishop to relinquish his title to the church and grounds of the Holy Trinity Parish. No light is thrown upon this situation by any of the Chicago papers. What is this all about?"

    We have already explained the reason why the Polish papers of Chicago have kept silent about this matter.

    A reply to the Polish National Alliance by "The will of the people," has also been left alone. No mention has been made of the affair because the manifestos given to the people by Zgoda have been written in the spirit of Slisz and Malek. This style of writing moves us to laughter and pity, for we are used to usurpers and their empty idiotic phrases. The Courier, upon commenting on this question 18says: "We do not agree with the Alliance's idea that it is 'the only organization formed by the will of the Polish people in America,'

    As we cannot see how we could deny the same right to the Polish Roman-Catholic Union or other organizations.

    "We also do not agree with the type of treatment given to the European political situation by the Central Committee.

    "It is true that we stand on the cross roads and that European relations can change any minute the entire course of the situation, as it is, we lack sufficient data to substantiate rumors about the rebuilding of Poland. The small number of Poles scattered in France and Switzerland can not exert enough pressure to alter the present political set-up.

    "For Poland the days of conspiracy, rebellion and insurrection are gone forever.

    19

    The Polish people will not be sidetracked from their present road of organization by the Knout of the Tsar, the lofty promises of Wilhelm and Franz Joseph, or the latest suggestion of the Central Committee of the Polish National Alliance.

    "This suggestion, lacking in intelligent action and abounding in empty phrases, does not bring any laurels to the Polish people in America, for it does not tend to unite those who have been guided by a spirit of patriotism. In other words, it is not in line with the conservative faction, which has agreed upon a resonable method of protest against Russian violence, a method formulated by the Polish Catholic societies and supported by all Polish papers of importance."

    In another article of the Courier, written in a pleasant style and under the title "The Polish People and Immigration," this paper deals in the following manner with Polish revolutionists who desire to create new revolts by propaganda and uprisings in the ranks of our already unfortunate people:

    20

    "What right have we to determine the fate of our people? What right to take interest in a political policy that will only bring bloodshed to the people of Poland? Is it because we have a large group in the ranks of the Alliance, the Union, and other similar organizations? Do these organizations expect to boast of a strong character just because they have incorporated in their constitutions the rebuilding of Poland?

    "It is evident that we must do something. In view of this, we are doing everything within our power, but we are not prepared to tackle anything unfamiliar that spells inevitable failure and that will only bring ridicule upon us. Our ship in America is too weak to withstand the elements of the raging sea; we must protect it from falling apart and forget that it is iron-clad.

    "Our fortresses are our Polish churches, schools, reading-rooms, books, and periodicals. Let us protect these strongholds and unite for greater protection 21by banding together in organizations, church or national, as long as they are Polish.

    "Whoever is making declamations about rebuilding the Polish nation and at the same time discredits the efforts of the priest or teacher, performs no public good. The person who supports the church and at the same time despises activity in the cultural field or other national endeavor, also serves no good. And the one who serves only his own clique and ridicules the efforts of his neighbor, sows the seed of weed upon the place where hardy seeds of fruit and clover should sprout."

    In concluding this critical study of the Polish Courier in Milwaukee, we can only thank its editorial staff for shouldering the responsibilities of telling the bitter truth to our adversaries. This ought to serve a much better purpose because not one faction made an attempt to disclose the truth, although they were familiar with the situation.

    Once a week, or perhaps every other week, we will endeavor to publish an article which will give in concise from a cross-section of the Polish press in the United ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, I C, II D 1, I B 1, I B 4, III G, III H, III C, III B 2, I A 2 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 08, 1892
    Why Don't We Establish Associations?

    The question, "Why don't we establish associations?" should be asked by every Pole. Let us omit the other Polish communities and pause to consider the Chicago group. There are more than one hundred thousand Poles in this city. Many Polish citizens have lived in Chicago for over twenty years. Despite this fact, it is disappointing to find so few of the larger establishments and factories remaining in the exclusive possession of our people. True, there are several manufacturers and a few businessmen in our groups, but their transactions are conducted on a small scale. The gigantic German enterprises and even those of our "Jewish Poles" who have willingly settled in our communities, are beyond a comparison with the Polish businessmen.

    These good-natured and credulous people are easier to swindle than are the American "Yankees". Saloons are the one thing we have in abundance. These, in reality, are too numerous. Were some one to present a comparative chart 2drawn from the various national groups, the greatest percentage of saloons would fall within our group. It is doubtful whether this could be considered a benefit. In the first place, were one to judge by such statistics, the Poles would be considered as the greatest sots and drunkards, which, thank God, is not true. Secondly, the great number of saloons in the Polish sections have a very meager business. The saloonkeepers (especially the newer ones) have little business, and their future is not bright. This proves that our people are not such drunkards.

    One frequently hears statements and reads voluminous advertisements in the newspapers [to the effect] that the Poles should buy only from their own people. There is some truth in this. But do all the Polish businessmen exert their efforts toward giving as good quality at low prices as do the large stores and even the Jewish establishments in the city? This question remains unanswered. Attention is called to the fact that many of our people have been seen making purchases at the establishments of our most bitter enemies--the 3Germans--as well as at the places of those leeches--the Jews--who, it seems, would be willing to wander in search of Polish patronage even as far as Brazil. These Poles have often been requested to explain their failure to patronize their own people. The answer always was that the price was higher at the Polish stores and the selection not as great as in the city proper. Others, again, claim that all their purchases are made in the Polish stores exclusively--in reality, however, they do the same as the group just mentioned.

    Whose fault is this? The manufacturers and businessmen will answer: "not ours". The consumers also disclaim any responsibility, basing their contention [on the fact] that they prefer to do business where the quality is better and the price lower. It is not surprising, after all, that such an attitude prevails. An old maxim has it that "the undershirt is closer to the skin than the dress". It is surprising to discover that many of our people will immediately render an unfavorable opinion about a Polish store or manufacturer, even if their 4arguments for doing so are unfounded. The Polish manufacturers and businessmen, on the other hand, claim to be patronized mainly by other nationalities. They assert that it is impossible to rely upon Polish support alone. We concede that point. A shoe-store proprietor, for example, if his place of business is established in a cosmopolitan city, should endeavor to sell his merchandise to all and not limit his trade to his own people. A Pole cannot be accused of any lack of patriotism if he finds it necessary to patronize the German or Jewish establishments, however far away they may be. Despite the purchaser's good intentions, he is unable to secure the goods he needs in Polish stores. The fact that many Poles fill important posts in America, be it in the administrative or business spheres, will verify the statement that they are capable of conducting extensive enterprises. We must admit, however, that very few of the larger businesses are under Polish control. Small stores can exist in small settlements or towns, but in cities such as Chicago--if the [large and] prosperous firms do not engulf them--they will exist only from day to day, with no future. Some one 5might reply that requisite capital is necessary to conduct a larger business. It must be remembered, however, that the Irish, Germans, and Jews did not arrive here with the millions they now possess. They were as poor as we; but the difference at present is enormous. They own railroads, streetcars, gigantic factories and large stores; and what have we?....Smoke-filled saloons and....small grocery stores.

    Did we reach our simple and meager fortunes by an easier method than did the others their millions? Not in the least. Our ownership of homes, vacant lots or some type of business or factory--they are the result of our hard labor. The Poles have often denied themselves even the immediate necessities of life in order to save for their old age when they would be deprived of the strength to work. Our people have only on occasions allowed themselves simple pleasures, recreations that are due every laboring man. Despite this, the results of the efforts of our people are far smaller than those of the Jews, for example, who have seldom earned an honest dollar.

    6

    Where does the cause of this evil lie? The national misunderstandings, lack of mutual confidence and the insane jealousies among our people might serve as an answer to this question. The Poles should organize into associations and conduct large enterprises. Only then will our people be in a position to withstand competition. When such a time arrives, the Poles will not search for strange gods--they will find them among themselves. The working people of Polish extraction will not be abused in the Irish or German factories because they will find employment among their own nationality. The Poles are not lacking in capable men. What they need is a little more confidence in their own people. They should not be of the opinion that everything made by Germans is good. There are plenty of German products of inferior quality.

    Let us consider, for example, the so-called real-estate enterprises. Who conducts this type of business and how is it managed? An association is formed of Irish or German capitalists. Millions of acres of land are purchased 7by this syndicate at a very low price. This property is then divided into farms or lots which are then sold at a higher rate to our people through Polish agents. Who, in this instance, realizes a greater profit, the agents or the syndicate? Naturally, the latter and the agents aid them in this. Were the Poles but to understand the enormous sums they have spent thus far to enrich the Germans in this manner--they certainly would organize similar associations themselves. All the lots in Hammond, Cragin, and other localities could be purchased by our people at a lower rate and would thus enrich our own group and not the strangers. The Poles would then become co-owners and not mere agents.

    It is possible to obtain the necessary funds for an enterprise of that nature. If some two hundred Poles combined and each of them set aside an average of five dollars per month, within one year a sum of twelve thousand dollars would be accumulated. A large tract of land could be purchased for thirty-six thousand dollars, using the twelve thousand dollars as a down payment. Monthly 8payments of one thousand dollars could then be made by this Polish association. The property thus obtained could be divided into lots or farms, independent of the debt, and then sold on easy payments in the same manner as the other nationalities are doing at present.

    This would show that a great deal more could be realized through such operations than from the type of businesses so common among our people. Yet, if the Poles even anticipated taking steps in this direction, they would receive nothing more than discouragement from their compatriots. Why? If the Poles sell farms as agents at a profit, why could they not sell Polish lots and farms at an equal remuneration?

    At one time, an organization consisting of lovers of the hunt was formed among the local Poles. This association wished to give a more practical purpose to their organization, based upon the American method. One of the provisions of their constitution required of every member that he acquire at 9least two shares of stock in a building bank. The money thus obtained was to have been used for the purchase of larger tracts of land which would then be divided into lots and farms. Originally, some forty members, with one hundred and four shares in all, enrolled into this association. It seemed at first that this idea would find general support and that every Pole who wished to save several dollars each month would subscribe to this organization. Unfortunately, several malicious individuals, who felt some personal indifference, began to make secret charges as to the sincerity of the association's purpose and its administration. Actions of this type only helped to disrupt the association to such an extent that at present, after an existence of a year and a half, many discontented members have withdrawn while others are obliged to wait indefinitely for the realization of their plans. If the Poles were not so eager to pass judgment, especially against their own brethren, they would pay no heed to the false tales of malicious people. They would attend one of the regular monthly meetings, examine the constitution and become convinced that the aims of this 10organization, as a whole, are honorable. The best proof of this is that the association had members who enjoyed a reputation for honesty not only among the Poles, but also among all the other nationalities residing in Chicago. Today, after an existence of a year and a half none of the former members of this association can charge that the Huntsmen's Organization acted unjustly toward him. No one can say that he was exploited and yet, despite this, the growth of the organization does not measure up to expectation.

    Surely no one considers the founder of some newly organized American association as the most important factor, but they do give serious thought to the organization's purpose and to the possibilities of its development. In this way, the association either grows or fails. In this respect the Polish point of view is reserved. A proposal to form an association brings forward many people antagonistic to it. They do not search for the reason for its organization, nor do they consider what beneficial prospects it may have. Their 11primary interest is in who is the originator of the movement, and then they become members for personal reasons; or, on the other hand, they obstruct its growth by malicious and unfounded gossip. Should such be the attitude? Is this patriotic behavior? No! A continuation of such views will only result in keeping Poles on a low level, while the Germans and Jews will continue to draw profits from our people.

    Relative to the Huntsmen's Organization, it is surprising to note the attitude of total disinterest among its members in matters of vital importance to the organization. Despite the acknowledged benefits derived from this association, the members neglect to attend meetings and refuse to participate in affairs. This attitude is detrimental and harmful to the possible passage of motions. True, there are those who actually have no time to attend, but there also are many who attempt to justify their indifference by placing the blame on a lack of time.

    12

    The main purpose of this article is not so much to encourage the readers to enroll in any particular organization. Our foremost aim is to call this situation to the attention of all Poles, and prove to them that large capital can be created from small sums, from which vast estates can be purchased. The Poles have all the means necessary to organize such associations. These organizations would not be limited only to purchase of land but would extend to manufacturing and business ventures as well. Faith in the strength of the Polish people and a greater confidence in our brethren are all that is necessary. We admit that other nationalities are wealthier than our people, but none of us wish to search for the reason for this. We condemn every potential project ever undertaken by the Poles as being impossible for our people to achieve.

    A great deal more could be written on this question. Perhaps a more capable writer would wish to indicate the benefits of business associations. The sole purpose of this article was to point out the indolence of the Polish 13people in this respect.

    Not-an-Omega.

    The question, "Why don't we establish associations?" should be asked by every Pole. Let us omit the other Polish communities and pause to consider the Chicago group. There are more ...

    Polish
    I D 1 b, I C, III A, I B 1, II A 2, I D 1 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 06, 1892
    Our "Theater" by Nie-Omega

    How little love the Poles living in America have for dramatic art is indicated by the rarity with which amateur theatricals are presented. Considering the fact that there are a hundred thousand Poles in Chicago, we ought to have a permanent professional theater, one that would produce educational plays, cultivate aesthetic judgment, influence the morals of the people, spread the glory of Poland, maintain the Polish language [on this foreign soil], and awaken the apathetic to our national aims. As yet, we have no such theater and we may never have one, for, somehow, we are not sufficiently interested.

    When an educational society decides to produce an amateur play which may be interesting, moral, educational, and often patriotic, only those who attempt 2it know how much advertisement and encouragement is necessary to attract a sufficiently large audience. But on the other hand, when some Jewish corporation opens a new saloon in our community, introducing immoral and offensive ditties, it needs no advertising and no publicity in the newspapers to draw in the public--especially our youth. At first, we purposely avoided mentioning the opening of this particular den of iniquity, but now, when its evils have passed all bounds of decency, continued silence on our part would render us culpable.

    The local laws permit many things which we Poles should and do regard as wrong. Legally, we can do nothing [to close this Jewish-owned saloon], but should it not be our sacred duty to avoid such places by a hundred feet, so as not to defile our ears....? We do not wish to accuse our youth of evil tendencies; we place the blame upon their inexperience. Unfortunately, however, their elders, too, are at fault. If it were only such people as might be called ignorant, [there would be some excuse, perhaps], but we have seen people who 3are heads of Polish organizations, people who should set the right example, who should not err in matters such as this, applauding, together with twenty-year-old youngsters, such things upon which any decent man would spit. As long as the evil confined itself to Polish-owned saloons, to immoral songs, and only to certain Polish people, it pained us, but we kept silent; today, however, when these Jews have dared to profane our national hymns and have even been encouraged in this by Poles, we must cry: "Shame!" Shame, not only on those engaged in this profanation, but also on those whose ears do not swell upon hearing it.

    How can we, who pride ourselves on our patriotism and our religion, permit such hymns as "Boze Cos Polske" [God Save Poland] and "Z Dymen Pozarow" [With the Smoke of the Conflagration] to be played in a saloon to the accompaniment of clinking whisky glasses and wild antics of prostitutes? Is this our vaunted patriotism? Shall we permit portraits of such national heroes as Kosciusko and Pulaski, who should be held in the highest reverence, 4to be displayed in saloon windows to attract the innocents?

    Is this our conception of honor?

    We, who usually listen to our national hymns while standing humbly with our hats removed, or while kneeling, now applaud them in a Jewish saloon, thoughtlessly and half-drunk! Shame to our young men, and greater shame to their elders who have lost all feeling for national ethics and who abuse patriotism for the sake of the dollar!

    Not only our religion is profaned--our very nationalism is scorned and trod upon. Those who do not believe in God but who say they are Poles, should realize that by frequenting this place, they are insulting the Polish people in general! As a matter of fact, if the Poles avoided the place, its Jewish owners would find other means of attracting customers. They can play what songs they please, of course, but we ought not listen, much less pay for it.

    5

    Let no one justify himself by saying that he merely stepped in for a glass of beer, for there are many Polish saloons in the vicinity where good beer may be had. Nor can that which ought to offend us be called amusement.

    Is this to be our theater? Is this to be our place of recreation, relaxation, and moral instruction? It were best had it never appeared among us!

    How little love the Poles living in America have for dramatic art is indicated by the rarity with which amateur theatricals are presented. Considering the fact that there are a ...

    Polish
    I C, I B 1, II B 1 c 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 23, 1892
    Observance of Holy Days (Editorial)

    There is a distinction between respecting and observing a holy day of obligation. To us, as Catholics, Sunday is a holy day and we have always supported this assertion with word and deed--with word, by encouraging others to participate in the Sunday church services, to refrain from work, and not to submit to noisy, drunken, or improper debaucheries; and with deed, by abstaining ourselves from attending dances on Saturday evenings, or picnics on Sundays before noon since these amusements lead away from the observance of the Sabbath day.

    However, we do not share the views of those hypocrites who, under the cloak of piety, obstruct others from taking part on a Sunday afternoon in some proper, moral, and useful recreation, since recreation affords a well-deserved rest after the week's work is over. Rather than condemn recreation, we advise the people to have as much of it as possible. Recreation not only affords the necessary rest but it also keeps us from wasting our leisure time in taverns 2or in the company of undesirable companions.

    It is for this reason that we are in favor of having the World's Fair open on Sundays, since for people who have to work on week days this is the only day in which they can enjoy themselves without loss in salary.

    We are so mindful of the need of recreation that we are in favor of those workers who demand that their employers do not compel them to work on Sundays. Incidentally, we have not remained silent in the movement to have the stores located on Milwaukee Avenue remain closed during Sundays. All the workers and officials employed in these stores demand this, and justly so. Some of the store proprietors have already agreed on this, and beginning tomorrow many of them will be closed. Some stores, however, will take advantage of this and will keep open on Sundays.

    Such action is improper and undeserving of praise or support. Every one should do his shopping on Saturday instead of waiting for Sunday to do it. In this manner unscrupulous store owners will be convinced that the public does not shop on Sundays and that it doesn't pay to open.

    There is a distinction between respecting and observing a holy day of obligation. To us, as Catholics, Sunday is a holy day and we have always supported this assertion with ...

    Polish
    I B 2, I B 1, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 05, 1893
    Polish National Alliance Convention First Day's Session

    The [Tenth] Convention of the Polish National Alliance opened on Monday [September 4]. At nine o'clock in the morning, all delegates reported to the central headquarters for their badges. Later, at ten o'clock, they attended Mass at Holy Trinity Church. Mass was said by the Reverend Czyzewski, who was assisted by the Reverend Wojtalewicz, of Hammond, and Reverend Pawlowski, of Chicago. The Reverend Casimir Sztuczko, pastor of Holy Trinity parish, preached the sermon. He called upon the delegates to devote themselves to the work for Poland and not to seek personal fame, saying that he who seeks fame, works for himself, not for Poland. He spoke of the sad plight of our nation, that unfortunate motherland which, oppressed, asks our aid. "We can give it that aid", he said, "if we remain Poles, if we band together in the name of God." He adjured the delegates to keep in mind 2throughout the discussion the general welfare of both the organization and Poland. "The fate of the Alliance," he went on, "rests in the hands of the delegates; their efforts, the results of the Convention, will be watched by sympathizers and enemies alike. The latter suspect the Alliance of anti-Catholic tendencies. The delegates gathered at the Tenth Convention ought to prove that they are not enemies of the Church." Finally, Father Sztuczko pointed out that the Polish youth in America had already begun to lose its national characteristics, that it was ashamed to use the Polish language. "The youth no longer has the Polish spirit, it does not understand our high ideals. For this reason, we must bend our efforts toward teaching our youth to remain Polish," he said.

    After the church services were over, the delegates formed into ranks and marched to Pulaski Hall, Eighteenth Street and Ashland Avenue. Since the march started at about twelve o'clock and the sun was very hot, the delegates arrived at the hall very tired.

    3

    After the delegates had taken a short rest, F. Smietanka, in behalf of the management, welcomed them to Pulaski Hall. He expressed his joy at the fact that this Convention could meet in a Polish hall. He then turned the hall over to the disposition of the delegates and the censor. Upon the censor's request, Mr. Smietanka addressed the Convention. His speech was frequently interruped by vigorous applause.

    Following this address, the Convention was called to order by W. Przybyszewski, the censor, who said that he would speak to the gathering at another time. He proceeded immediately to the appointment of a Credentials Committee, naming to it L. Szopinski, Dr. L. Sadowski, Alexander Leszczynski, L.S. Dewoyno, and C. Zychlinski. Following the appointment of the Credentials Committee, the Convention was adjourned until the following day at nine o'clock in the morning.

    Mr. Mallek, president of the Singers' Society, invited the delegates to attend the [Polish Singers' Alliance] concert to be held in the evening in the same hall.

    4

    The evening concert, played to a full hall, was very successful. Among the vocalists who distinguished themselves were Mrs. Bansiewicz, of Milwaukee, and Miss Dabrowski, of Racine.

    Second Day's Morning Session

    The second day's morning session of the Polish National Alliance was called to order at nine o'clock this morning [september 5, 1893] by Censor Przybyszewski.

    L. Szopinski read a report of the Credentials Committee to the effect that the secretary-general had flatly refused to allow the Committee the use of group-membership records, without which credentials could not be checked. As a result, the Committee was forced to question the credentials of all delegates present. This report gave rise to a storm of disapproval. It was claimed by the opposition that A. Leszczynski, of Sand Beach, as a representative of a group (H. Sienkiewicz Society, Buffalo) which had been in the Alliance for less than six 5months, had no right to be a delegate. A stormy discussion followed, in which Secretary-General Mallek and Delegates Roland, Dr. Gryca, Gryglasiewicz, and others participated. As a result, the censor removed Leszczynski from the Credentials Committee and appointed Dr. Ilowiecki, of Detroit, in his stead. The secretary-general was directed to supply the Committee with the necessary records.

    Some time after ten o'clock, the meeting was adjourned so that the Credentials Committee might do its work.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Sept. 6, 1893.

    Election of President and Secretary

    The whole morning of the second day's session was spent in the verification of credentials, which, as reported yesterday, were all questioned by the Credentials 6Committee after the secretary-general had refused to submit membership records. After a long and stormy debate, Secretary-General Mallek was finally persuaded to surrender the necessary records.

    The Credentials Committee's report was completed at 12:30 in the afternoon and read to the Convention by C. Zychlinski, secretary of the Committee.

    The following were qualified delegates from Chicago: Stanislaus Lauferski (Polish Group), F. Sowadzki and C. Zychlinski (Polish Industrial Association), W. Bardonski and S. Makielski (Harmony), S. Terczewski (Polish Tailors' Union), J. Bobowski (Polish Group II), B. Korpolewski (Holy Trinity Singing Society), A. Groenwald (Industrial Youth Society), F. Jablonski (St. Joseph's Society of Holy Trinity parish), T. Golniewicz and A. Lisztewnik (Kosciusko Society), F. Smietanka and L. Czeslawski (King John Sobieski Society), O. Ekowski (Polonia Society), W. Templin (King John Sobieski Society of South Chicago), A. Jaroslawski (Third Division, Polish Krakus Society), S. Baranski (J. I. Kraszewski 7Society), M. A. Wleklinski and T. Nowacki (Batory Society), M. Moszczynski (August Gillers Society I), J. Slowikowski and J. Rudzinski (Eagle and Chase Society), L. Mroz and M. Magdziarz (King Miecislaus Society), W. Poszwinski and M. Ball (Star Society), S. Rokosz (Pole in Exile Society), L. Tuchoeki (Jan Kochanowski Society I), L. Roland (Adam Mickiewicz Society I) K. Machek and J. F. Smulski (Zana Society), E. Pawelkiewicz (Unity Society), J. Blaszka and T. Wikaryasz (King Casimir the Great Society). Delegates from the following cities were also present: Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Brooklyn, New York, Milwaukee, La Salle (Illinois), Duluth, South Bend, Philadelphia, and others. [Itemized list of delegates from these cities omitted by translator.]

    After the report of the Credentials Committee had been accepted, election of Convention officers was next in the order of business. Delegates S. Lewandowski, of Cleveland, W. Bardonski, of Chicago, Lipinski and former Censor Gryglaszewski, of Philadelphia, were nominated for president. On the first ballot, Lewandowski received most votes. Gryglaszewski withdrew in favor of 8Lewandowski and moved that the latter be elected by acclamation. The motion was carried.

    Delegate S. Lauferski nominated Gryglaszewski for chairman of the Convention and proposed that he also be elected by acclamation. A number of delegates protested. Twenty-one delegates responded to the demand that those opposed rise. (Shouts of "Traitors!) Among those protesting, we noticed Bardonski, Jakinski, [L.] Szopinski, Roland, and Rudzinski, of Chicago.....

    Delegates Kosak, of Cincinnati, and [F] Jablonski, of Chicago, were nominated for secretary. There were no other candidates.

    The newly elected president of the Convention took his place on the platform amidst thunderous applause. He thanked the Convention for the unexpected honor conferred upon him. Following this short address, the chairman of the Convention, 9Gryglaszewski, addressed the delegates.

    He spoke of his own great services to the Alliance during his eight years as censor, emphasizing the patriotism with which he had worked for the Polish cause. He spoke also of his plans for the future, namely, that the Alliance build factories and shops so that Poles will not have to work for Germans. He touched upon the patriotic sermon of Father Sztuczko, who approved of the Alliance's tendencies. In conclusion, he read a toast written in verse by Simon Modrzewski. The verse cries out for enlightenment of the common people; enlightenment is the common people's only salvation from ignorance and slavery. The result of this enlightenment is to be a struggle against the Roman Catholic Church.

    The verse also complained against the American extradition treaty with Russia.....Since it was already two o'clock in the afternoon, a one-hour recess was declared.

    10

    Second Day's Afternoon Session

    The afternoon session opened with a proposal by Chairman Gryglaszewski that the manager of the hall be summoned to remove the floral decorations from the platform, seemingly disturbing to him. The flowers had been sent by E. Z. Brodowski upon request of the Committee on Decorations.

    The president settled this matter by--formally opening the session. First in the order of business was the appointment of a Committee to Recheck Credentials.

    The Committee retired immediately, its report to be ready the following morning.

    After a short, tactful address by the president, Censor Przybyszewski took 11the floor. He spoke with sorrow of the quarrels and scandals which had occurred within the Alliance during the past two years. He talked at length about the well-known case of T. Stan, and the rough treatment this gentleman had received at the hands of the secretary-general. The censor said that he was convinced that the accusations made by Stan were justifiable and that the Alliance's accounts were handled incapably. He said that it was because of the tactlessness of the editor of Zgoda, that a violent newspaper controversy had ensued. Everyone who disagreed with Zgoda was referred to by that paper as a rogue and a traitor. The speaker touched upon the Morgenstern scandal and said that there was little hope of the Alliance's winning its case against his guarantors. Some agreement might have been reached with Morgenstern's guarantors had it not been for Satalecki's obstinacy. He spoke of such legal shortcomings as the lack of bond for officers and the lack of a proper charter, even though he himself, as censor, had recommended the procurement of a charter. He concluded his address with various recommendations to the constitution.

    12

    Following him, Vice-censor Helinski, President F. A. Satalecki, and Vice-president Slominski spoke. Secretary-General Mallek's reading of a written report was followed by a speech by Majewski, the treasurer. Satalecki, in his speech, advised that all scandalous matters be laid aside. Slominski's words were directed mostly against T. Stan. Mallek and Majewski spoke with equal sharpness though comparatively calmly; the former spoke of singing and music, to which he devotes his time, while Majewski attacked the censor and the newspapers Echo and Polonia, of Cleveland. Mallek spoke also of the national fund, and Delegate Pulkowski took up the museum and library question.

    Following these speeches, an Auditing Committee was appointed. This Committee consisted of L. Wild, Dowiatt, Poszwinski, Kupfer Schmidt, and Jakinski. The committee to audit Zgoda's accounts consisted of Olszewski, of Detroit, Twarowski, of Nanticoke, and Dewoyno, of Cleveland. Delegates Schreiber, Heurteux, and Czerwinski comprised a committee to attend to Convention correspondence. The meeting was then adjourned until nine o'clock the following morning. Dr. Dunikowski will speak at the next session, and doubtless, other committees will be appointed.

    13

    Among the letters read at yesterday's session was one that stated that "all religious fanatics should be hanged!" The assembly protested against the reading of such letters.

    Third Day's Morning Session

    The third day's morning session was called to order by President Lewandowski. Censor Przybyszewski submitted a written report to be included in the minutes. The long discussion which ensued over the acceptance of this report was finally terminated after adoption of a proposal by W. Bardonski that written reports of officers should be accepted.

    The report of the Committee to Recheck Credentials followed. The Committee reached the following decisions: (1) The credentials of delegate T. Stan are in order despite his expulsion from the Alliance by the secretary-general. The secretary-general's act is unconstitutional in that it violates Article I, 14paragraph one, of the constitution, providing for self-rule of individual groups. Delegate Stan's group still regards him a member. (2) The objections to the credentials of Delegates Blaszka and Mitacki are unfounded. (3) J. Pulkowski cannot be a delegate since he has not been a member of the Alliance for the past two months, having left one group without signing up with another.

    W. Bardonski made a motion that the report be accepted as it stands. A long and bitter debate ensued over the Stan case. Delegates Terczewski and Lisztewnik spoke against the acceptance of Stan as a delegate, while Delegates Magdziarz, Smietanka, Roland, and Czarnecki defended him. Delegate Poszwinski argued that the secretary-general had no right to expel members from the Alliance. Such a right would give him despotic power. Lipinski, chairman of the Committee [to Recheck Credentials] declared that since Stan was a member in good standing with his own group, he therefore had the right to sit as a delegate; that if there were any accusations against him, impeachment proceedings should be instituted. At this point, the discussion became so stormy 15that President Lewandowski had to rap for order and request that the delegates refrain from shouting.

    As we leave the hall (11:30 A. M.), the discussion continues. Final results in this case will be reported in tomorrow's issue.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Sept. 7, 1893.

    Third Day's Afternoon Session

    Delegate Lipinski, chairman of the Committee to Recheck Credentials took the floor three times during the discussion of the Stan case. He said that he had no idea of what had passed between Stan and the secretary-general, but that he was convinced that Stan's credentials were valid and that he ought to be permitted a seat in the Convention. He advised impeachment proceedings to 16clear up the matter.

    Delegate Lisztewnik insisted that Stan had created so much dissension within the Alliance that he did not deserve a seat. (Cries of "Throw him out!") Pandemonium reigned in the hall; the crowds in the galleries stamped their feet and hissed. After order was again restored, the president administered a sharp rebuke to the offending delegates.

    It was finally decided that, with the exception of Pulkowski's, all credentials be accepted, that is, to accept Stan also as a delegate, but to suspend him immediately until he clears himself of the charges made against him (the secretary-general has not as yet made any formal accusations before the Convention).

    Since the hour was already late, the Convention was adjourned until three o'clock 17in the afternoon.

    Dr. Dunikowski's Speech

    After carrying a motion that the hall be cleared of all who were not delegates, the assembly proceeded to name a committee to report the Convention's proceedings to the American press. Mr. J. F. Smulski, Casimir Zychlinski, and Thaddeus Wild were named to this committee.

    The Committee on Petitions and Correspondence reported. The chairman turned over the petitions and letters to the secretary, asking him to read them. In one letter, Group 188 of Chicago protested the questioning of the credentials of one of their delegates, Blaszka. Since the matter had already been attended to, the protest was tabled. A petition from Group 160 of Philadelphia made a motion that the one-cent assessment be abolished. The petition suggested also that Zgoda, the Alliance's official organ, devote less of its columns to 18polemics and more to enlightenment. The petition was referred to the Constitutional Committee (not yet appointed).

    A plea for financial aid and moral support from the Polish Day Financial Committee was read. A long discussion began concerning the amount of money the Convention ought to appropriate for the Polish Day cause. Dr. Statkiewicz, of La Salle, made a motion that three hundred dollars be assigned for this purpose. C. Zychlinski, of Chicago, argued for five hundred dollars. On the other hand, S. Lauferski, also of Chicago, insisted that no more than a hundred dollars be appropriated. Delegate Smietanka spoke of the importance of Polish Day and asked that the Alliance be generous.

    At the request of the chairman, further discussion of this question was postponed.

    A letter from the Central Committee in charge of Polish-American participation 19in the Kosciusko Exposition at Lwow [Poland] was read. Secretary Kosak's reading of the letter was so inarticulate that--the chairman took it from him and read it himself. Numerous voices demanded that this correspondence be rejected.

    Without attending to the Lwow Exposition question, the Convention returned to the Polish Day question on a motion by W. Bardonski. Delegate Satalecki spoke in favor of supporting the project, saying that it concerned not only Chicago Poles, but Poles throughout America. Delegate Kosak reminded the gathering that even the Negroes had had their "Day," and that it would be a disgrace if the Poles remained in the background. Dr. Statkiewicz withdrew his motion. Delegate Chrzanowski proposed that one-hundred-fifty dollars be given to the Polish Day Financial Committee, and that two-hundred-fifty dollars be used to represent the Alliance in the celebration. The motion was seconded. On a motion by L. Szopinski, debate on the subject was closed and Chrzanowski's proposition was put to a vote. The proposition was carried. Thus, a total of four hundred dollars was appropriated for the Polish Day celebration.

    20

    Participation in the Lwow Exposition was next in the order of business. Some delegates, among whom was the chairman himself, were dissatisfied with the [Central] Committee. Some asked for a plan of the Exposition; others advised that the matter be attended to by the Central Administration [of the Alliance]. On Delegate Bardonski's suggestion, Dr. Dunikowski took the floor. He was introduced by the chairman amidst thunderous applause. In his lengthy address, Dr. Dunikowski touched upon many important matters. He wished the Convention success and expressed his pleasure at being able to attend it. He spoke of improving relationships between Poland and American Polonia.... It was for this purpose that he had been sent to America by a group of patriots, behind whom stood all the people of Poland. He spoke next of the Alliance's constitution, terming it worthwhile and idealistic, but he suggested that the Alliance adhere more closely to its principles. It had pained him to hear words against our churches expressed by the highest officer [of the Convention]. "What will happen to our people", he said, "if we deprive them of the church? And our youth?" The speaker said that he knew a certain Pole who enjoyed enormous 21popularity. His wife was Polish; yet his children spoke not a word of the Polish language. The speaker also said that he knew certain Poles, members of the Alliance, who should better forget their Polish origin. "Such members ought to withdraw from the Alliance", he said, "for they disgrace its name." (Thunderous applause.)

    Touching upon the labor problem, he advised that we should organize legally and that we should avoid internationalist radicals.....(Great applause.) He had been grieved on reading the demand for government supervision of our schools in the last issue of Zgoda. "We do not need the government in this case"; he said, "we ourselves can best take care of our schools; We ourselves can best improve them." (Applause.) Dr. Dunikowski concluded his beautiful address with a description of the Lwow Exposition [of 1894.]

    Delegate Rudzinski spoke eloquently in favor of the Lwow Exposition, saying that it was a Polish exposition and all Poles should participate. Gryglaszewski, 22Satalecki, and Poszwinski also spoke on this question. Delegate Machek, a member of Zana Society [Chicago], severely criticized Dr. Dunikowski. A violent commotion arose in the hall and in the galleries, during which a large number of delegates left the hall. The speaker's discourse was interrupted while the chairman rapped for order. The chair allowed Machek to continue.

    The speaker said that Dr. Dunikowski wore his cloak on both shoulders, that he consorted with Poles from the other camp. (General laughter.) He concluded by saying that the former delegate of the Polish magnates had promised much, but had accomplished little.

    Another delegate asked if Dr. Dunikowski had produced his credentials as a delegate. Gryglaszewski and Satalecki answered that Dr. Dunikowski's credentials were perfectly in order; as a matter of fact, his name alone gave him the right to speak at the Convention. The chairman then gave the floor to Dr. Dunikowski who, in a few words, answered all the charges that had been made 23against him. He said that he did not come to this country especially to visit the Polish National Alliance but to visit the Poles in general, that the work he was engaged in could not be done in one day, and that the future would show whether he would accomplish anything. (Thunderous applause.) The president of the Convention proposed that the delegates do honor to Dr. Dunikowski by rising. With the exception of five dissenters, everyone arose.

    Several delegates then spoke on the importance of Polish-American participation in the Lwow Exposition. Delegate Poszwinski [Chicago] donated twenty-five dollars to the cause. Following this, on a motion by Delegate Terczewski [Chicago], a resolution appropriating five hundred dollars toward the cost of erecting a Polish-American pavilion at the Lwow Exposition, was passed.

    Further correspondence included an invitation to a play to be given by the Alexander Fredro Dramatic Society on September 10. Delegates will be admitted 24free. The invitation was accepted.

    Delegate Stefanowicz made a motion that the constitution be read to the Convention, so that necessary amendments might be made. The motion was carried and the session adjourned.

    Fourth Day's Morning Session

    The fourth day's morning session was opened by President Lewandowski. Following the reading and acceptance of the minutes, letters and telegrams were read. One letter proposed the candidacy of A. Brzostowski, Warsaw author, for editor of Zgoda.

    Following the reading of correspondence, the chairman announced the results of collections taken up for the benefit of the Polish-American exhibit at the Lwow 25Kosciusko Exposition of 1894. The total sum collected was $65.65.

    The president then named a committee to examine the charges against Group 212 ( White Eagle Society of Detroit, part of the congregation of the apostate Kolasinski). This committee consisted of M. Welzant, of Baltimore, W. Mroz and F. Lella, of Minneapolis, and J. F. Smulski and A. Zdzieblowski, of Chicago.

    Revision of the constitution was next in the order of business. The constitution was read to the assembly by J. J. Chrzanowski. Paragraphs one, two, and three of Article I were passed without change. Paragraph four provides for the office of censor. A number of delegates demanded that this office be abolished. Among these were L. Szopinski, Roland, Sowadzki, Bardonski, and Zychlinski. Others, as delegate Kosak, objected to the title of censor, asking that it should be replaced by some other title more in keeping with the spirit of the Poles. Delegate Terczewski spoke for retention of the office, but asked that the duties connected with it be more strictly defined. Delegates 26Grabarkiewicz, Lipinski, and others spoke for unconditional retention of the office. Turmoil reigned again until the chairman restored order. The question was put to a vote by a roll call. About eighty delegates voted for retention of the office of censor; a little over forty voted for its abolition. Thus, the office will remain.

    Delegate Chranowski read paragraph five of Article I, dealing with the charter. Delegate Terczewski demanded that the Central Administration explain the matter of the charter, for many delegates maintained that the Polish National Alliance did not have a proper charter. Delegate Lipinski asked that this document be read to the assembly. Delegate Czarnecki demanded an explanation of the matter by the Central Administration and the censor. The censor explained that he had taken out a charter for the Alliance in the State of Michigan. President Satalecki's explanation of the Central Administration's position in the matter was quite interesting.

    The president revealed that although the Alliance existed and operated under 27the name of "Polish National Alliance", its charter, taken out many years ago, was granted to it under its original name of "Polish Benevolent Association". "It is this irregularity", said the president, "that has complicated the case against Morgenstern's guarantors, which case, as a result, will probably be lost." At any rate, such is Satalecki's opinion. The matter was muddled further when, on May 6, 1892, a commission engaged in framing a new constitution took out a charter for the "Polish National Alliance." The members of this commission were F. Bieszke, T. Wild, J. Slowikowski, S. Terczewski, M. Drzemala, A. Blaszczynski, J. Blociszewski, Pikulski, and Dowiatt. When we left the hall (11:15 A. M.), a stormy discussion was in progress. Details will appear in tommorow's issue.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Sept. 8, 1893.

    Continuing the discussion of the charter question, T. Wild, acting as spokes-man for the [1892 constitutional] commission, explained why it had taken out 28the charter. In a solemn voice, he asserted that certain enemies of the Alliance, members of a [Polish Roman Catholic] Union society, had intentions of stealing the Alliance's valuable name by incorporating their society as the "Polish National Alliance". Delegate Wild forgot to mention the name of this insidious society. Delegate Beczkiewicz asked why the commission had not informed the Central Administration of the danger that threatened; why it had not sought the Central Administration's advice. The reply was evasive.

    The chairman read a telegram from Mr. McDowell, president of the Liberty Bell committee, placing the bell at the Alliance's disposal during the Polish Day celebration. Delegate Szopinski made a motion that the president appoint a committee of three to thank Mr. McDowell personally. It was finally decided to send him a telegram of thanks.

    Delegate Szopinski then moved that the new administration be instructed to 29attend to the charter immediately. He further asked the Central Administration if taking out a new charter would in any way affect the case against Morgenstern's guarantors. Chairman Gryglaszewski, so well informed on all subjects, answered for the Administration. He said that a new charter could not be taken out until the Morgenstern case was settled, that the old [1892] charter would have to be cancelled. With this, debate on the charter question was closed. Article I of the constitution was thus accepted without change.

    An enlivened discussion arose over Article II. Delegate Chrzanowski read a beautifully written article on the aims and purposes of the Alliance and moved that it be incorporated in the constitution. The motion was not carried. Delegate Bobrowski moved that the words "establishing necessary institutions" be changed to "supporting....." Delegate Szopinski suggested "establishing and supporting....." Delegate Kuflewski moved that "institutions" be qualified by the word "Polish". Delegate Helinski moved that establishment of libraries and promotion of lectures be included among the aims and purposes 30of the Alliance. All of the amendments to the original motion were accepted.

    Then followed a motion by Delegate Rydlewicz that a provision be adopted requiring all Alliance members to send their children to Polish schools. (Great commotion; cries of, "Unnecessary! Religious fanatics!") When order was finally restored, Delegate Rydlewicz regained the floor and shouted: "You have given proof of your patriotism, gentlemen!"

    Vice-president Slominski informed the assembly that an Alliance school had already been established in Holy Trinity parish, and that this school would produce capable citizens. "The pastor of this parish [Reverend C. Sztuczko], who is in sympathy with the Alliance, will help establish Alliance schools in other communities," he said, adding that the Alliance hopes to build a high school next year. With whose money? No one knows.

    Upon further reading of the constitution, a number of voices protested against 31the article on drunkenness. The majority, however, voted to retain it. With this, the session was adjourned until two o'clock in the afternoon.

    Fourth Day's Afternoon and Evening Sessions

    At the opening of the afternoon session, the president of the Convention announced that from this session on the names of all absent delegates would be published in Zgoda, so that the groups might know how their delegates attended to business. The roll was called and a record made of the absentees.

    An evening session, which adjourned at 10 P. M., was also held.

    32

    Fifth Day's Morning, Afternoon, and Evening Sessions

    After the roll call, reading of the constitution continued. During the course of the morning session, the secretary-general's salary was raised to twelve hundred dollars a year, and the treasurer's to two hundred dollars a year.

    At the afternoon session, it was decided that death benefit payments be as follows: for the death of a member, six hundred dollars; for the death of the wife of a member, three hundred dollars. The one-cent assessment was abolished. A motion for the purchase of a printing press was carried. The evening session appropriated four thousand dollars for the complete outfitting of a printing shop. The Central Administration was instructed to make use of these funds within the course of one year. It was also decided that Zgoda [official organ of the Polish National Alliance] be prohibited from devoting more than one column of each issue to announcements of meetings. A motion was passed barring scandalous articles, and another motion, instructing the editors of Zgoda to print news of Congressional activities, was also passed.

    33

    Three hundred dollars was appropriated for the Alliance school in Holy Trinity parish [Chicago].

    Sixth and Last Day's Sessions

    The Auditing Committee presented a report to the effect that the accounts of the Alliance had been very incapably handled and that receipts for many expenditures were missing. The morning session was consumed in the debates that followed.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Sept. 11, 1893.

    In a vote by ballot, Cleveland, Ohio, was decided upon as the location of the next Convention. The afternoon session occupied itself principally with the election of officers. The administration, in accordance with a motion previously passed, will consist of the censor, vice-censor, and the board of directors (Central Administration), which will include the president, two vice-presidents, the treasurer, and an auditing commission of three. The secretary-general will 34no longer be a member of the Central Administration. His duties will be limited to bookkeeping, and he may not have more than one hundred dollars in cash on hand at any time. He may not pay out any money without the consent of the auditing commission. Helinski, of Duluth, was elected censor; Lewandowski, of Cleveland, vice-censor; Satalecki, of Detroit, president; S. Slominski and W. Bardonski, of Chicago, vice-presidents; M. Majewski, treasurer; K. Mallek, of Milwaukee, secretary; and J. F. Smulski, K. Smietanka, and A. Groenwald, all of Chicago, members of the auditing commission. F. Jablonski, of Chicago, was elected editor of Zgoda by a large majority of votes.

    At the evening session, J. J. Chrzanowski was elected treasurer of Zgoda at a salary of three hundred dollars a year. S. Nicki was elected librarian, and one thousand dollars was appropriated for the upkeep of the library (including librarian's salary) during the next two years.

    The Central Administration was instructed to take care of any remaining business.

    35

    After a short speech by the newly elected censor, the Convention adjourned. The time was already midnight.

    The [Tenth] Convention of the Polish National Alliance opened on Monday [September 4]. At nine o'clock in the morning, all delegates reported to the central headquarters for their badges. Later, ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 17, 1893
    A Few Thoughts on Polish Day in Chicago (Submitted by Reverend Stanislaus Radziejewski)

    As I rode in a horse-drawn trolley car to see the Polish Day parade, I found myself in the company of several young Polish women, one of whom was accompanied by her small daughter. They spoke among themselves in fluent English; the mother spoke to her daughter in English also. From time to time they spoke in Polish, perhaps out of consideration for us two Poles in the ear, but their language was less fluent, and they spoke in Polish rather unwillingly; one could even perceive a certain disregard for the Polish language [in their tone of voice].

    I thought to myself: What does this Polish parade mean, the Polish uniforms, the feats bearing figures of Sebieski, Jadwiga, Koseiusko, Pulaski,...? Have these young Polish women, who speak among themselves and to their children in English, decided henceforth to use the Polish language? Will Polish Boy 2change in any way the relation between Poles and Americans?

    It seems to me that the relations between the Poles and Americans, and among the Poles themselves, will be the same after Polish Day as they were before.

    There are two sides to every question, and so it is with Polish Day. The Day can be regarded from two points of view. The parade was beyond doubt a splendid one, equal to any and perhaps more colorful than others, thanks to the choice of subjects, Polish good taste, and the picturesqueness of Polish costumes. The celebration on the Fair grounds may have been less effective, but here, too, one could say: "Well done"--as far as external appearances are concerned.

    But whoever looked upon this manifestation with an eye to something more than more external splendor, could not be carried away with joy; he could not but have certain thoughts which fill the hearts of all Poles who observe American Polonia closely.

    3

    Polish Day would have filled every Pole with real joy, had the splendid external appearances corresponded with conditions as they really are; it is the fact that they do not, which saddens me. Many a man may look well and yet carry illness within his breast. One cannot judge by external appearances! What good are these festivals when the Polish language is being lost or mutilated among the Poles here, or when there is no lack of unhealthy symptoms in Polish-American life?

    I mentioned the young Polish women who spoke in English. The priests, who have the best opportunity of knowing the people, claim that the children of Poles born in America will not speak the Polish language. On the farms, this may net be strictly true, but in the cities, the new generations are being Americanized. Many, although they speak Polish, mix in a great many English expressions; either they have been influenced by contact with Americans, or it is merely coxcombry, or negligence, for a Polish expression can be found for anything one wishes to say.

    4

    The same condition exists in America as existed in Poland, where the Poles came in contact with Germans in Upper Silesia, Prussia, and Poznan. Poles readily accept what is foreign, and girls and women sin most in this respect.

    Immigration is being restricted, it becomes more and more difficult to find work here in America, and consequently, less and less Poles will be coming here from Poland. Poles born here are being denationalized at least to a certain extent--the future is a sad and gloomy one; the brilliant flash of Polish Day is not enough to dispel the dark clouds that are gathering. Parents, unfortunately, either do not want to, or do not know how to instill in the hearts of their children a deep love for Poland--a love which would endure throughout their lives, and be passed on to future generations. Not all Polish children attend Polish schools, and even the Polish school has little permanent effect upon the new generation; children succumb to the influence of the streets and the conditions under which they live and work. The children never know Poland; they have nothing to gain from speaking Polish. Many a Pole marries a girl of different nationality, and vice versa. All this tends to denationalize the Poles 5in America; first, their mother tongue is lost, then their nationality, for language and nationality are very closely associated.

    The status of the Polish language is, then, a dark cloud on the horizon of the Polish nation in America. There are other clouds also. I cannot write of everything here, for it would be harmful to mention some things, but every observant and thinking man knows that there is little harmony and love among the Poles. Proof of this lies in the variety of Polish newspapers here, in the variety of societies and organizations. Proof lies also in the fact that only a small percentage of Poles are members of alliances.

    There ought to be one great Polish peoples' organization for all America, and in addition to this, local, specialized organizations fostering music, gymnastics, literature, and beneficent work. Every Pole ought then be a member of the general alliance and some specialized society.

    It is said that many Poles trade at the stores of Jews and other foreigners 6instead of supporting their own countrymen. Many a Pole, too, has exploited his fellow-Poles. A too great percentage of Poles are guilty of intemperance, which, in the eyes of other peoples, is one of our national faults. We cannot expect everyone to be perfect, but it is bad if the percentage of evil people is the great.

    Proof of how little brotherly love there is among the Poles is the great number of lawsuits between them, lawsuits that merely enrich the courts and the lawyers at the expense of the Poles and their good name.

    Carelessness with or abandonment of the Polish language, lack of harmony and brotherly love--these are the clouds on the Polish-American horizon. Polish Day, however brilliant and cheering, did not dispel these clouds, nor even diminish them.

    Outsiders admitted that Polish Day was a success; they wrote a little about the Poles, and said that Poles are to be reckoned with, not by Polish Day, but by 7how well they can agree among themselves, by their education, their wealth, their attainments in various fields of endeavor.

    In a material sense, the Poles have shown themselves generous, especially in times as hard as the present. I have heard it remarked that it might have been better to use that money for the establishment of some Polish institution which would endure longer than one "Day", and continue to bear fruit as long as there are Poles in America, or that it could have been used to pay some of the debts encumbering the Polish schools. It is too late to speak of such things now--what has been done cannot be undone. As a matter of fact, even such a demonstration [Polish Day] may have been necessary.

    The moral lesson is this: Let us be happy that Polish Day was a success, but let us not stop at more external demonstrations. Let us each look into his own heart and then into Polish relations here, and let us admit that the view is not as bright as when seen from the outside; let us determine to abandon the old Polish sins that have been carried over to this new land, that we will 8fulfill our duties as Poles in family, parish, and organization in respect to outsiders, that we will have brotherly love not only on our lips but in our acts, that we will distinguish ourselves by our virtue, knowledge, work, temperance, and honesty. Then can we be Poles externally, then will every day be Polish Day in America, sunny and cloudless!"

    (Editorial Note to Above Letter)

    We felt it our duty to print the above article, written by the well-deserving Reverend Stanislaus Radziejewski, recently arrived from Poland, although we cannot agree with all of the views expressed by the author. The article, presenting the opposite side of the medallion, speaks many truths to American Polonia; it points out our faults and urges us to reform. We join wholeheartedly in this conclusion, this appeal inspired by a deep attachment to the Polish cause. However, certain views of the author on Polish-American relations are, perhaps, a bit too pessimistic. We are not in so great a danger of denationalization as it would seem. Recently, we have been able to perceive a greater interest in Polish affairs and a sincere patriotism in our youngest 9generation. Our organizations are growing, the struggles ceasing. One thing and another are being done for the good of individuals and for the common good, which years ago were not even thought of.

    Especially in the matter of Polish Day, we cannot agree with the opinion that it flashed with merely external brilliance and passed. On the contrary, it is our opinion that it produced permanent results. In the first place, for the first time in America, we have learned to work side by side, despite personal differences and past disagreements; at least for a short time, we joined hands and forget offences. It gave us a foundation for further work toward harmony and understanding. This one result constitutes a great improvement in Polish-American relations; it gives Polish Day the significance of a historical event in the annals of American Polonia.

    In the second place, it was absolutely necessary in respect to our place in American society. We will not argue that Polish Day raised us in the opinion of Americans, but it is certain that the lack of our "Day" would have degraded us in their opinion, for it would have placed us below the American cultural 10level; our element would merely be tolerated, as are the Chinese, the Arabs, Syrians, etc.

    Further, the manifestation was necessary to the Polish cause itself. A hundred years after the partition of Poland we have reminded the world in a brilliant demonstration that we still exist and that we have not renounced any of our rights. It could not be done in Europe--we did it in America. If however, we are concerned with the most immediate gain, educational, as it were, Polish Day has accomplished something there also. The Polish colors, the white eagles, the dramatic scenes, all bespoke patriotism to more than one young Polish heart much more effectively than hundreds of books or articles; they convinced more than one young Pole that it is no disgrace to be Polish, as he thought.

    And thus, our "Day" was not merely a passing flash. We agree wholeheartedly with the Reverend Radziejewski's opinion that continual, antlike activity is necessary to keep down the weeds that crop out among us, that this is a fundamental upon which our community rests; we heartily support the expression with 11which he closes his article, but we insist that such demonstrations as that of Polish Day are sometimes--once in a long period of years--to raise the spirit and to give encouragement to further work.

    As I rode in a horse-drawn trolley car to see the Polish Day parade, I found myself in the company of several young Polish women, one of whom was accompanied ...

    Polish
    III A, I C, I B 1, I B 3 a, II B 1 c 3