The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 20, 1879
    The Poles in Chicago

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about twenty-five thousand. The first Polish pioneers arrived in Chicago as early as 1852; they lived in various sections of the city, virtually strangers, since there was no specific Polish settlement in the city at that time. As most of them were of the Roman Catholic faith, they became affiliated with the German Catholic churches, although a desire prevailed to build a Polish church. In 1869 a club was finally organized to raise funds. Within a short span of time several thousand dollars had been gathered and the erection of a church commenced in earnest. The site was at Noble and Bradley Streets. When the fact became known, hundreds of Polish families from all parts of America and particularly from the Kaschubei in Germany flocked to Chicago. The Kaschubes are of Polish origin. Their language shows much borrowing from the German. These people live in the vicinity of Danzig, Berend, and Neustadt in Upper 2Silesia, Prussia, and represent a low cultural level, due to the Prussian school edict whereby all Polish children must study the various school subjects in German, a language which is strange to them. The Kaschubes are fervent Catholics, frugal and economical. Many of them have ten thousand to thirty thousand dollars.

    The first wooden church, later converted into an elementary school, was dedicated in 1869; Reverend Jaskowski was the first Polish priest.

    It is generally conceded that most of the foreign people founding a new home on these shores lose all sense of discretion in so far as the word liberty is concerned, due to a rapid change from monarchical to democratic surroundings involving the abolition of class consciousness. Therefore, the new arrivals practiced no self-restraint; self-interest ran rampant, and this fault also manifested itself occasionally among the Poles. A Polish priest sits on a volcano, as it were; every member of the parish intends to rule, and gives 3advice to the priest on how to conduct himself within and beyond the confines of the church. Anonymous letters are a daily occurrence; the Lord have mercy on [a minister] who transgresses and lacks energy--that man is lost. Many of the sixty-five Polish communities of this land could give their own interesting versions of certain peculiar incidents, but in so far as these internal affairs are concerned, I shall enshroud them in secrecy.

    The people had conscientious scruples, because they could not order masses to be read for their deceased relatives. Money for masses poured into the church coffers in copious quantities and the impecunious priest became affluent. [Translator's note: This is a literal translation. Possibly the apparent meaninglessness is due to the omission of something from the Staats-Zeitung.] But this egotistical ambition [of the minister] to amass wealth had its repercussions and created enemies. Besides, he had the misfortune of being encumbered with a charming and beautiful "cousin," who today would be called ciotka (aunt).

    4

    Dissatisfaction [in the parish] became rampant; finally a horde armed with cudgels visited the unsuspecting priest and returned with broken weapons. The maltreated disseminator of the gospel fled at that very hour, and a Polish settlement in Minnesota provided a sanctuary.

    His successor was the Reverend Bakanowski, an erudite gentlemen well versed in Polish, German, French, Italian, Latin and English. Besides being endowed with a sympathetic sonorous voice, he was endowed with exceptional talents in rhetoric, and his general conduct inspired friendship. To all these mental attributes must be added, unfortunately, bodily perfection. Like Alcibiades, he was the most beautiful specimen of his race. Attendance at his sermons was large; all nationalities congregated at his distant church on Sundays, to listen and admire the "Beautiful Polish priest". Naturally, the fair sex was most numerous. Invitations galore were sent to him, requesting his presence here and there for the purpose of holding religious meetings and consoling beauteous ladies in their parlors. Would it be reasonable to 5condemn the pious man for yielding to his desire to save souls and accepting such offers? Of course not. Among the mass of Polish penitents was a charming, intelligent, lovely lady, wife of a local physician. Above all, it became increasingly important to save her soul. And while religious solace was given here, the sick, and children in need of baptism, waited vainly at home. The doctor's residence was in another part of the city. The oft occurring absence of the priest aroused antagonism. The burden of his duties in the parish induced the priest to obtain an assistant. This brings to the scene the Reverend Wolowski, a suspicious, conniving man, who had lost one arm during the Polish Insurrection against Russia in 1863, according to his version. Scandalmongers assert, however, that Wolowski, caretaker of the war chest of his regimental division, made a trip to somewhat remote regions, supposedly to protect the precious property from Russian marauders; but the Polish patriots protested against the pretext, and as punishment cut off the pernicious arm. With the officiating of this gentleman the halcyon days of Aranjuez came to a sinister end. Envious of his colleague's success, the 6assistant sent a voluminous denunciation directly to Rome.

    Reverend Bakanowski was called to the Holy City to defend himself and did not return. Like Niobe, the not fully converted beauties pined away from secret sorrow, remembering only the past exhilarating moments while hiding from human scrutiny the grief that engulfed them. But vengeance was in the offing for the insolent schemer who so rudely curtailed clandestine bliss. His attempt to found a Polish school--a measure calculated to bolster his waning popularity--proved unavailing. He was doomed, in so far as Chicago was concerned.

    The following priest, Reverend Zwiardowski, shortly after taking the reins of the parish, dismissed the sinister chap. The school was not to be abandoned, however.

    As dissension arose at the time among the then functioning teachers and the 7priest, and as there existed an absolute dearth of other suitable pedagogues, Reverend Zwiardowski decided to let nuns manage the school. The sisters were mostly Germans and expressed German nationalism in no uncertain terms; it brought a remonstrance. The dissenters found a leader in Mr. Dynsewics, editor of the liberal Polish paper, Gazetta Polska, a publication in existence for the last ten years. Their slogan or, may we say, "the war whoop," was the terse sentence: "In Germany Bismarck Germanizes us, and here a Polish priest!"

    The people were so incensed, that the priest, whose health was none too good, considered it advisable to leave his field of activity. The vacancy thus created provided a berth soon after, in 1874, for the Reverend Vincent Barzynski, who still functions in his ecclesiastical capacity. Few leaders faced greater difficulties. There were more than fifteen thousand people of Polish extraction in Chicago at that time, representing every part of the former great nation (in the period of a bygone century--1667 to 1772--this 8former kingdom represented an area of 21,334 geographical square miles), and everyone was imbued with the ruling complex, insistent on telling the minister what to do.

    Father Vincent was thirty years old at that time; he came from a highly respected family living in the Russian part of Poland. He attended the best schools in his native land and continued his studies in Rome. He is very eloquent--capable of exacting admiration from his adversaries through his powers of persuasion. He is intelligent, pious, but not a hypocrite, and has an excellent reputation. He is fully aware of the traits of his countrymen and his plans take cognizance of them. In many respects his conduct reminds one of Octavius Augustus: If various efforts meet with indifferent success, then he threatens to leave the parish, whereupon every request is promptly granted, and upon urgent entreaties from the congregation he condescends to stay for a while. Various business matters incident to such a large congregation he has placed in the hands of several committees; but, 9basically, he is the sole leader. "Roma Locuta Est, Causa Finita Est," he tells an occasional opponent who cannot be reconciled to the priestly views. He is on a par with Gregory VII, a man of tremendous will power who would rather perish than relinquish a plan designed to elevate the community spiritually and materially. But, Facta Loquuntur.

    Under his capable leadership the Polish school attained increased attendance; six hundred children are at present enrolled and given instruction in their native language by Polish nuns. Music, which in former years induced Polish youths to leave the path of rectitude and seek dance halls, taverns, and other libertine diversions, is now mute.

    Since the small church proved inadequate for the large congregation, an additional house of worship was built: The Church of the Holy Trinity, near Milwaukee Avenue. The Poles, living in the immediate vicinity, virtually surrounded the structure with stores, mostly saloons, and this contingent 10later asked the bishop that their connection with the old church be severed and a priest of their own choice be installed. The antipathy of certain Poles toward Father Vincent is attributable to the fact that he hails from Russian Poland and belongs to the Order of the Resurrectionists. Almost the entire Polish Liberal Party, here and abroad, maintain that the priests of this Fraternity show insufficient patriotism, and that their interests are only centered on Catholicism. While this assumption may be partly justified, it is entirely inappropriate in so far as Father Barzynski is concerned. His sermons express fervent patriotism, and the well-edited, ultramontane Polish paper, Gazetta Polska Katolicka, which is published under his direction, always defends Polish interests. Moreover, the numerous changes he inaugurated and, above all, the founding of a Polish high school, give conclusive evidence of the priest's patriotic sentiments.

    Bishop Farley did not accede to the wishes of the Poles desiring an independent church, as Father Vincent and his assistants proved sufficient.

    11

    Increasing dissatisfaction became apparent, resulting in an eventual rift and at long last two parties, steeped in bitter animosity. Church meetings developed into a replica of the Polish Congress, and a threat was made to apostatize. Time and time again Father Vincent advocated reconciliation but to no avail; he was even insulted and, on one occasion, arrested at the behest of some depraved creature.

    When all efforts in behalf of peace proved fruitless, the Reverend Father carried the "sanctissimum" to the mother church and left his church to the dissatisfied element. Thus the house of worship remained forsaken for almost a year, when a Polish priest, Mielcuszny, appeared. Many Polish people knew him when he lived in the Grand Duchy of Posen, (Germany). He had been active in New York, but was compelled to resign. Cardinal Closkey objected to the priest's wordly activities, because the latter fitted out a saloon, combined with a dance hall, in the basement of the church; this proved a lively place after church services. Mielcuszny, an accomplished dancer, 12usually opened the festivities.

    This priest proved most welcome to the recreants and, contrary to the bishop's wishes, was installed. Intense enmity now involved the two factions, but this is not the place to adjudge theological principles. Suffice it to say, therefore, that according to church canons the installation of priests is one of the ecclesiastical duties delegated to bishops, and this community, in the strict sense of the creed, is not Catholical. After the disgruntled element had affiliated itself with the long-closed church, now given a new lease on life under the leadership of the Polish priest from New York, the parochial domain of Reverend Barzynski again enjoyed the blessings of peace. As the available space provided by the church proved inadequate, a new church was built. Thus far eighty thousand dollars have been spent on construction, and an additional thirty thousand dollars will be required to complete the edifice.

    The not overly large mortgage is being paid by voluntary contributions and 13pew rentals, which amounts to approximately eight thousand dollars per year.

    The paintings for the church have been entrusted to a talented Polish artist, Zabinski, who came directly from Rome (Italy). His studio is at the parish house. A visit will prove very interesting. Several splendid sketches and the full-size, partly completed painting, "The Death of Stanislaus Kostka," give eloquent proof that a genius conceived them.

    For some time Father Vincent considered founding a Polish high school, and to realize that goal he spent large sums of money; however, serious difficulties were encountered. Indifferent success did not deter him, however. Repeatedly he admonished his congregation, and spoke in stentorian tones about public indifference. Finally, the community decided to build a higher institution of learning, and to defray the cost. The school was opened this year, January 2, [1879], and two eminent instructors were secured.

    14

    Professor Stein, thirty years old, passed his examinations with flying colors at the gymnasium in Thorn, on the River Weichsel, and the seminary in Posen. To complete his studies he traveled throughout the greater part of Europe. [In the interim] he taught in Posen and Bromberg at public schools, and academies for young ladies. In America he taught successfully in New York and Detroit. Here, he will give instructions in the German and Polish languages, as well as mathematics.

    Professor Wenslow studied at the Jesuit College here; later he studied philosophy.

    The institution [the Polish high school] accepts students regardless of religion or nationality. At present forty-three students are enrolled; the evening school register shows seventy-two have matriculated. The future of the school is assured, as attendance increases daily.

    The community now entertains the highest regard for its spiritual leader; it 15feels convinced that no personal ambition or selfish interest motivated his action; he was concerned only in the true welfare of his countrymen. Since the storm subsided and outstanding success crowned the priest's efforts, it is expected that the majority of the estranged members will return to the mother church soon.

    This brief sketch does not pretend to give all the details which, after all, would be superfluous. I have merely stated facts, because Chicago has many Polish families, and a large number subscribe to this paper. Perhaps I may have an opportunity at some future time to give an account of the Polish community of the South Side, its church, the Polish press, clubs, and, possibly, some interesting details of prominent Polish people who live in our city.

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about ...

    Polish
    III C, II B 2 d 1, I A 2 a, I A 2 b, III A, I C, IV
  • Zgoda -- November 14, 1888
    The Affairs of Polish Schools

    It is difficult to give you the actual statistics of Polish schools in the United States. The census taken here of Polish children attending parochial schools is about 17,000.

    In these Polish schools over thirty secular priests teach, the rest of the teachers being nuns.

    We find a shortage of higher schools for our Polish children. Our young Polish children, wanting to obtain a higher education, must seek it in English or German institutions where often they forget their native tongue, and a Pole who can't speak Polish is useless to his Fatherland. And not only to his country, but, as the case may be, to the church and the Catholic religion.

    We must hope that by working and economizing, our poor immigration of today shall yet stand on an equal footing with other nationalities. The English, Irish, and Germans did not bring any capital here with them to America, but 2today there is a colossal American fortune in their hands. Let us try just now, to preserve our present capital, religion, nationality, and Polish virtues.

    It is difficult to give you the actual statistics of Polish schools in the United States. The census taken here of Polish children attending parochial schools is about 17,000. In ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I A 2 b, III A, III C
  • Zgoda -- September 24, 1890
    For the People

    The Polish language is as important to us Poles as hands to a tailor; which roughly speaking is how can we enjoy our play games or write without hands? Then how can you Poles consider yourselves good Polish citizens if you don't improve your native tongue?

    To learn the English language so we can read books and be able to write it is very essential to all of us of foreign extraction, but to deny your own nationality and native tongue before people of other nationalities is a disgrace to the people of that nationality and their country.

    We Poles should not do as people of other nationalities do; they do not use their native tongue and soon forget it, but eventually pick up some other foreign language, depending largely on the number of people of a certain nationality living in that locality.

    2

    The mothers are the backbone of any language. Who is the judge in our childhood days and teaches us to know right from wrong, makes our meals, sits among us in the dining room, grows dearer to us, is with us at all parties and gatherings, attends to us when we are sick? Everyone respects her, we all bow to her, without a doubt in our minds we know it is our mother.

    Who among the Poles, besides speaking his native tongue is not seeking more knowledge? Don't send your children to work, school is the place for them; that is the foundation of all prosperous business men. Polish parents do not deny your children the right to learn to speak and write the Polish language.

    Eugeniusz K. Pociej.

    The Polish language is as important to us Poles as hands to a tailor; which roughly speaking is how can we enjoy our play games or write without hands? Then ...

    Polish
    III A, I A 2 b, I A 2 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 19, 1891
    The School Question (Editorial)

    We have received information that the Bohemians, together with some Poles, residing in Chicago, are trying to pass a school regulation which would entitle a foreign language of any large group of people the same privilege or representation in the public schools as that of the German language. We have asked many of our countrymen their attitude towards this problem, and whether or not they will participate in the agitation. From the answers received, we have come to a conclusion that there are two factions: one of them is for the agitation, and the other is bitterly opposing it. The first faction is quite small, but the second is very large.

    It is easy to find to which faction any group of people belong. Most of the members of the Polish National Alliance have joined that group of Bohemians or faction which originated the agitation. The members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, however, with the exception of a few, belong 2to the opposing side. There are also Poles who do not belong to either of the two mentioned Polish organizations, and their opinions are also divided. Their number is so small that it should not be taken seriously.

    For the first time since Dziennik Chicagoski has come into its existence, we are going to give our view on the question, which has divided the opinions of the members of two great Polish-American organizations. We are doing this for the first time, therefore, we think it is advisable to state for the sake of clearness that we will treat this particular question objectively. If we mention the names of both organizations, it is not because we desire to engage ourselves in an unpleasant controversy between the Polish National Alliance and the Roman Catholic Union, but because we desire to make the argumentation clear.

    We have stated that the majority of the members of the Polish National Alliance are for the agitation, and that the members of the Polish Roman 3Catholic Union, with the exception of the few, are against the agitation. This is a fact, and we can prove it. However, some of these opinions are personal convictions, for which neither the Polish National Alliance nor the Polish Roman Catholic Union is responsible. The number of these individuals is very small.

    There is a certain number of members in either organization, who have also formed their own opinions, but based on idealistic principles. With these principles, the organization plays a very important part. These members may be classified into several groups, and they support one of the factions for the following reasons: If they belong to the Polish National Alliance, some members, who, for convenience, we will call group No. 1, may see a patriotic act in agitating for a school regulation which would entitle the Polish language the same privilege as that of the German language in the Chicago public schools; but they are prejudiced against the so-called "clerical rule," and (2) for the same reason do not favor parochial schools. They have nothing against the attendance of Polish 4children in the public schools. (3) these members wish to express their indignation on account of the privilege granted to the German language in Chicago schools, and although they know that the Polish language will not be introduced in Chicago public schools, they favor that measure for the purpose of removing the injustice done them. (4) The members of this group are of the opinion that the Polish National Alliance should take an initiative in such "patriotic" undertakings, and as members of the organization, should support the agitation.

    On the other hand, the members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union are of the opinion: (1) that there is a risk for the parochial schools in case the Polish language would be introduced in Chicago public schools, especially in Polish settlements; (2) there are members who think that public schools are too dangerous for the young people, because these institutions are bringing up children without religious principles, morals, patriotic feeling, or healthy view on social life; (3) many of our countrymen think that we would disgrace ourselves in the eyes of Americans, 5Irishmen, and even the Germans, for trying to introduce the Polish language in public schools when formerly we used to defend parochial schools so often and so openly; (4) the fourth group is of the opinion that a protest against the privilege of the German language would accomplish more than an agitation for introducing the Polish language in the public schools. The number of the members, either in the Roman Catholic Union or the Polish National Alliance, who have such convictions is very small, although, they deserve attention and respect.

    Finally, the majority of the members give support either to this or that group because they think it is their duty to approve or oppose their party, quite often referred to as "church-goers" or "patriots." The number of the supporters mentioned last is the largest, and with them the circumstance of belonging either to the Polish Roman Catholic Union or to the Polish National Alliance, plays the most important part. They have no personal convictions.

    As editors of Dziennik Chicagoski, we cannot ignore this important question.

    6

    We must express our opinion on this matter, and as this opinion must agree with one of the two large groups, we are prepared for the accusation that we are opposing one of them. However, we feel that such accusation will be unjust. For this reason, we repeat emphatically that we desire to treat this matter objectively, and if there will ensue any controversy on account of it, let it be limited. We beg you for the sake of the subject only, that is, the school question, let the argumentation be conducted properly, peacefully, and with dignity.

    In our opinion, the Poles should not participate in the agitation of the Bohemians.

    We have received information that the Bohemians, together with some Poles, residing in Chicago, are trying to pass a school regulation which would entitle a foreign language of any large ...

    Polish
    I A 1 b, I A 2 b, III C, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 20, 1891
    The School Question Our Reason for Opposing Bohemian School Agitation (Editorial)

    In this article we will point out why we are against the present school agitation in Chicago, originated by Bohemians, by trying to prove that:

    (1) The public schools in this country are below the standard of the parochial schools in respect to practical education, and moral training of the children attending them, due to the educational system adopted by the school boards;

    (2) It is a duty of the parents, who care for the welfare of their children, to send them to those schools which are most capable of training them for good American citizenship, with moral principles that are steady and unfaultering, and besides, those schools should teach them how to be practical that they may be able not only to find a proper 2station in life, but also become patriots of their own nationality;

    (3) If the public schools do not deserve our support, then we should not endeavor to introduce the Polish language into them.

    (4) The action taken by the Bohemians is not a good example worthy of imitation, but rather it is a frightening warning;

    (5) If we are against the privileges granted to the German language in public schools, and desire to remove them, we can accomplish it much more directly by a protest than indirectly trying to introduce other languages into the public schools.

    Public Schools and Parochial Schools

    It has been proved many times that the parochial schools give better education than our public schools. This has been proved not by idle 3argumentations, but by actual examples taken from observations. As an example, we will describe an incident which occurred at the end of last month. Mr. E. Dumphy, a Congressman of the 7th congressional district, has announced that he has a vacancy for a boy at the United States Military Academy at West Point. Twenty eight young men applied for this position. The applicants were obliged to undergo a physical examination first, and later, on December 29, they were examined by a commission which determined their mental fitness. This commission was made up ot two assistant superintendents of public schools and a monk, a brother, representing the Roman Catholic parochial schools. The young men were examined in the following subjects: arithmetic, penmanship, spelling, geography, grammar, United States history, and reading. We all know that 100 is the highest percentage obtainable. The boys struggled all day with the examinations. The following were the results: (1) Thomas F. Dwyer; 94 3/4, whose percentage was the highest; (2) John J. Disell; 91 2/7, (3) John Conway; 86 1/7, (4) Joseph Fitzgerald; 86 1/7, (5) A. Sauci; 85 5/7, (6) R. Stewart; 84 6/7, (7) Peter Simcox; 84 1/7, 4(8) Jasmer Kilgore; 84, (9) Pat. Shea; 83 2/7, (10) A. McFarland; 82.

    The first four, the seventh, and the eighth boys are graduates of St. Jacobs' parochial schools. The 5th, 6th, 9th, and the 10th, were graduates of the public schools. Then followed the 11th, 12th and the 13th, who are also graduates of St. Jacobs' parochial school. From the 14th to 28th are graduates of public schools.

    Naturally, Thomas F. Dwyer was the winner.

    If we were publishing a large volume on this question, we could present many examples of this kind, but our space is limited, and we can only add that during the last year six similar examinations were conducted, and in every case, the winner was a graduate of the parochial schools. This is not a coincidence, but an actual proof.

    5

    Let us suppose that we did not have such examples, that these competitive examinations are not held, and that we have no opportunity for comparing the difference. We still could arrive at the same conclusion by examining and comparing both school systems; such comparison would convince us that in reality a boy will learn more in the parochial than in the public school. Let us examine very carefully the parochial school system.

    The Educational System

    Of course, we cannot describe here the whole school system, because such description would fill volumes. Therefore, we will limit ourselves to the most important points. We are all aware of the fact that there are three kind of schools, namely; elementary, secondary, and higher institutions of learning. Every school belongs to one of the three classes. The public schools in the United States have not reached that state of perfection which is the basis of all education, with one program uniting 6them all very closely. It is not necessary to have a diploma from a grammar school in order to enter a secondary school or college. There is an entrance examination given, and whoever has taken this examination, knows well that the requirements are ridiculously low for entering a college. Higher schools or universities, also have entrance examinations which are proportionately very easy to pass. It is known throughout the world that an education obtained in our American universities has no great value, unless the student works out a balanced program, and follows his studies diligently, or finishes his education in Europe. Americans were angry at the Germans a year ago because physicians who finished their studies in the United States were not allowed to practice in Berlin. Their anger was not justified because it was the fault of our educational system here.

    It is entirely different with the parochial schools, because they are conducted on the order of European schools. This, alone, places them very high. It is true that a young man who finishes public schools knows 7something about arithmetic and other subjects, but his knowledge of other subjects, such as geography, history, etc., is limited to facts about the United States only. He has no conception, or a very poor one, about history and geography in general, that is, in other parts of the world. In other words, he has no general education. The school books, we admit are very beautiful, especially in elementary schools, but their contents are meaningless. The artistically ornamented, and beautifully illustrated books will not create a desire in a boy for deep thinking, or for studying different branches of science, as will the books used in parochial schools.

    The purpose of the parochial schools, besides furnishing the children with practical knowledge is also to develop in the youth the moral principles. Who, if not the teachers, ought point out to the young man what is right and what is wrong? Who, if not the teachers, ought inocculate the young minds with those principles which some day should mould or develop a child into a respectable man, a good citizen, or a 8patriot? Can the public school teachers do that? No. Not only they cannot, but they are not allowed to do it. They are not allowed to say to the child: do not do this, because you will be locked up in jail, do this, because you will profit by it. But what is the result of such education? It creates selfishness and develops ability to evade justice. It develops monopolistic principles in those who have means, and in those who have no means, it develops nihilistic ideas. Nihilistic, we repeat, because they are nihilistic in the true sense of this word. They recognize neither God nor human rights, neither country nor morality, nihil, nothing, other than themselves. Is it not so?

    Let us look deeply at the life of the people around here. Let us take a glance at the youth educated in the public schools. Look at the back stage of our politics, at all machinations of the capitalists on one side, and of the demagogues, clothed in the cloak of philanthropy on the other. Can we find good principles there? Or can we find morality or patriotism? "Oh! You do not say that there are also good citizens, men 9of honor, and good patriots." We know that, but you must judge the whole community, not a few exceptions, who on account of very favorable conditions, entered the right path, as there are people without principles who have received good instruction on morality. If you will take under your observation not only a few individuals, but the whole community you will come to the conclusion that the public schools do contribute to the development of nihilistic ideas, and that the parochial schools encourage and spread the true moral principles, on which the real American patriotism is based.

    We know what some, who read this article, will think. They will utter sarcastically: "Clerical Rules" (Clericalism). Yes! The parochial schools in the United States are controlled by the priests. Religion and morality are taught there. And besides these, they also teach other useful subjects, but in a better manner than those used in public schools. Don't the priests deserve gratitude for that? Don't they deserve at least a recognition for their troubles? You say that they 10make money on schools. Let us be serious once, and look at the parish records. What are the profits? Out of the pocketbooks of the people a parish maintains a parochial school. If there were no priests, who would establish private schools with a European system of education? We have no people with higher education who could and would like to devote themselves to that task, and if there are any the number is small. The government will not spend money for building such schools. Every well thinking person will agree that such schools are beneficial and necessary, even if they are acquired by great sacrifices. It is the specific duty of missionaries to establish such schools, and no one desires to be a missionary, especially where the establishment of schools is concerned, except the priests.

    There may be other objections: Some one might say that only Irish and English parochial schools are good because they teach English, that the child will not learn the language of the country in Polish parochial schools, and for that reason the Polish children should be sent to the 11public schools. Morality and religion should be taught at home and in the church, only they may say. Such assertions are falsehoods produced either by ill-will, or by lack of understanding of the matter. Such an attitude is dishonest and harmful to children.

    In this article we will point out why we are against the present school agitation in Chicago, originated by Bohemians, by trying to prove that: (1) The public schools in ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I A 2 b, I B 4, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 21, 1891
    The School Question Polish Parochial Schools (Editorial)

    The English language, along with Polish, French, Bohemian, and Italian, is taught in parochial schools equally, if not even more carefully than other languages.

    That the forgoing statement is true, can be proved by the fact that the graduates of the parochial schools are gladly accepted by the higher institutions of learning, public and private, if their parents desire to give them a better education. No boy, who has finished a Polish parochial school, has ever been rejected by any college on account of poor knowledge of English. Many boys who once attended St. Stanislaus' Polish parochial school in Chicago, are attending colleges and other institutions of higher learning, including the Jesuits college. All of them are making very good progress, and it appears that they have 2a good elementary education, equal to the training received in the public schools. Some of the boys are employed by the telegraph companies, banks, and other institutions, where a good knowledge of the English language is necessary. Still others are studying in Europe, where they would not be accepted, if their elementary education were poor.

    After examining the school books used by the Polish parochial schools, and studying the educational system, European like, practiced by them, any impartial person must admit that the standard of the parochial schools is much higher than that of the public schools, and that the instructions in the language of the country are excellent. There might be exceptions in some small parishes, but not in Chicago. If necessary, we can supply the names of the Polish boys who attend colleges and European institutions, and also names of those who hold good positions in Chicago and vicinity. We have a gew of these names on hand. They are graduates of St. Stanislaus' Parish elementary 3school. This is a sufficient proof that the standard of the Polish parochial schools is not lower in teaching children the English language than that of the public schools. In other respects, however, the standard is higher.

    Is it necessary to prove the foregoing statements? We do not think so. Even the opposers of parochial schools must admit that these schools teach true morality, that they are developing moral principles, the purpose of which is to bring up children as righteous men and women, good citizens, and good patriots of Poland, and of our adopted country, the United States. Who will not admit that their aim is to stir up, and propagate the patriotic spirit in and among children. Is this done by the public schools? This proves that the Poles care more for the welfare of their children. For this reason, they should avoid public institutions and send their children to Polish parochial schools.

    The Catechism

    4

    Children in Polish parochial schools are studying the catechism, but it is not the only subject taught there, as stated by the malicious enemies of parochial schools. Only one hour a day is devoted to this important subject by every class. Catechism teaches children that they should respect their parents more than anybody else in the world, and that they should support them in their old age. Catechism does not teach them how to be clever in evading justice and earthly punishment, but it teaches them how to live in order to receive and eternal reward. The catechism does not teach them how to be clever with their fellowmen, but how to be honest. The catechism also teaches them to respect the laws of the country, otherwise, how to be good American citizens. For this reason alone, children are taught catechism in parochial schools, and since the Bible is not used in the public schools, the parents should not send their children to the public schools, but to the parochial schools.

    No one should say that the mother will not teach her children the prayers, or that the teachings of the priests are not necessary, and that it is 5useless to learn the whole catechism from memory, because it will be forgotten later on. It is true that some of the teachings learned from the catechism are forgotten, but not the foundation upon which the whole life is built, just as a foundation of a building which cannot be seen, yet it upholds the whole structure. The same principle also applies to spiritual foundation. It will uphold the whole life, even if it is hidden, providing it is well-grounded.

    Patriotism

    Love for the mother country, a desire to belong to one's nationality, is developed only at the parochial school, and this desire is destroyed by the public schools, and by the association with other children on the streets. The parents, alone, cannot build a foundation. The Irish know that, and for this reason, they do not sent their children to the public schools, notwithstanding the fact that the language of the Irish is English. This is also known by the Germans, who have their language in the public 6schools, yet they have their own institution. Not only German Catholics, but also German protestants defend parochial schools, and as long as they remain good Catholics, or good protestants, they do not send their children to the public schools. Only those who are unpatriotic, and indifferent to religion, send their children to the public schools.

    Some Bohemians, who have lost their faith, their nationality, their refinement, and are afflicted with anarchism, or masonry, which was spread in this country by the Germans, do not wish to learn patriotism. Only such Bohemians are trying to establish the Bohemian language into the public schools; by this action they try to persuade other Bohemians to send their children to the public schools. Other Bohemians are misled by the first group. Should Poles imitate Bohemians?

    The English language, along with Polish, French, Bohemian, and Italian, is taught in parochial schools equally, if not even more carefully than other languages. That the forgoing statement is true, ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I A 2 b, I B 3 b, I B 4, I C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1891
    Poland's National Festival

    The main event of yesterday's great Polish festival, the third day of its celebration, was given in the large hall of St. Stanislaus School, corner Noble and Bradley Streets.

    On May 4, 1791, the Polish constitution was proclaimed; it provided that "every man who enters Poland shall be regarded as a free man". Since this noteworthy courageous statement was made, one hundred years have elapsed and the Poles of America, and especially Chicago's Polish population, excelled in its display of patriotism by giving a great parade and numerous celebrations.

    The festival which was given yesterday at St. Stanislaus Hall was highly elevating, and the words we heard there will undoubtedly leave a permanent impression in the hearts of every Pole. The hall was profusely decorated and in conformity with the mailed invitations which announced that "every friend of liberty is welcome", we noted next to the American and Polish banners, also the German, Swiss and the Irish colors.

    2

    Amongst the multitude which filled the spacious hall, the young girls of St. Stanislaus School, dressed in white with red bands fluttering from their waists, made a most pleasing appearance; also two companies of Polish military clubs joined in their parade uniforms.

    At the beginning of the festival, the orchestra played a march, which was followed by a short opening address by the Rev. J. T. Szukalski. After the singing of the national hymn, "Columbia", Judge Moran, who accepted the presidency for the festival, spoke to the assembly. He congratulated the Poles upon their love for their native land, and complimented America for its fortunate possession of such a diligent, energetic, law-abiding and liberty-loving people as the Poles.

    The regular festival speech was given by the bishop, Rev. I. W. Spalding of Peoria, and his masterly, limitless perceptions, his effective and convincing arguments and citations, deserve recognition as a work of profound importance. The speaker gave a chronological account of the history of mankind as far back as the Aryan and Semitic tribes; from the latter we inherited religion, from the former, culture and progress in the arts were given to the human race. In a fascinating manner he mentioned the importance of the Poles upon culture and ended his enthusiasm 3creating speech by referring to Copernicus, a Catholic priest and Pole, whose scientific knowledge and discoveries in astronomy proved to be epochal. Speaking of Poland in regard to its former political position, Bishop Spaulding quoted the reasons which led to Poland's dissolution. The main cause was to be found in its geographical location; it had no natural boundaries, but was wedged between two monarchies, who had to sacrifice this bulwark of liberty. Our own America should thank Providence that oceans separate it from warring kingdoms and Czarist empires. Finally, the speaker considered the school question. He spoke with enthusiasm and declared that the teaching of one's hereditary language in the public schools is a serious thought which can not be eradicated anymore.

    Great applause interrupted nearly every sentence of this highly interesting part of his discourse.

    W. J. Onahan, former city comptroller, gave a short talk on the accomplishments of the Poles as American citizens.

    Among the musical offerings, we must first mention the duet of Mrs. and Miss Kiolbassa, which was given a tumultous welcome in recognition of its excellence.

    4

    The church choir (ladies, gentlemen), which sang Polish national songs and the patriotic composition, "The Song of our Land", also gave us a magnificent presentation. The school children intoned "The Star Spangled Banner", which was followed by a mass-chorus which sang the prayer; and so this memorable celebration came to a glorious end.

    The Committee consisted of Mr. P. Kiolbassa, Rev. Barzynski, and others.

    <p/> The main event of yesterday's great Polish festival, the third day of its celebration, was given in the large hall of St. Stanislaus School, corner Noble and Bradley Streets. ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, III H, I C, III C, I A 2 b, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 08, 1891
    Poles Celebrate the Proclamation of Their Constitution (Summary)

    (Tuesday, May 5, 1891. The third day)

    According to the program, May 5 is the most important day of the Polish National Hundredth Anniversary Celebration, and it was so in many respects.

    At 8 A.M. delegates from all over the country gathered at the school hall, and their names were registered together with the names of the clergy.

    At 10 A.M. a solemn Pontifical religious service was celebrated at the church.

    At 9:45 A.M. the uniformed Knights of the church societies and all delegates went to meet Right Reverend Feehan, the Archbishop of Chicago, and a few minutes after 10 A.M., the procession escorted the Archbishop into the 2church, which already was filled with people. The procession consisted of uniformed knights and school girls dressed in white, after whom strode the ecclesiastical dignitary, the Archbishop, escorted by sixteen clergymen. The delegates followed the clergy. The Archbishop occupied the throne prepared for him, and Reverend Simon Kobrzynski, assisted by the clergy, celebrated a Pontifical Mass. The knights kept honorary guard.

    Reverend Snicurski delivered a patriotic sermon, in which he encouraged concord and brotherly love. His sermon impressed the participants so profoundly that some of them wept at the end.

    Credit is due to Mr. A. Kwasifroch, the organist, who trained and prepared church choirs for the occasion. The choirs accompanied by a good orchestra, sang at the Pontifical Mass melodies composed by Reissinger. Deserving 3special attention is "Ave Maria," which was sung at Offertorium Tercet by Mrs. Pauline Kiolbassa with great success. Miss Rose Kiolbassa sang alto, also with great success.

    Afternoon

    At 2 P.M. the delegates and clergy gathered at the Polish hall for the purpose of holding a strictly national conference, at which the clergy did not take any part other than as observers and advisors. Mr. John Koziczynski was chosen chairman of the meeting and Reverend Barzynski was asked to be a spiritual advisor.

    Three important issued were taken up at this meeting, namely: (1) Proper understanding of the Constitution of the Third of May, (2) Creating of national and political unanimity and solidarity among Poles in the United States, (3) Eradication of the discord that checks the enlightenment of the Polish people.

    4

    As we cannot describe this conference in detail, we will outline only the important points.

    The delegates decided that, according to the constitution of the Third of May, the Poles in the United States are and should remain Roman-Catholics. However, the word "dominating" employed in the Polish constitution was not adopted because there is no dominating religion in the United States.

    As to the second issue, it was decided to hold a general convention of all American Poles, or contact all Polish societies, or seek the cooperation of other organizations, provided that the Roman Catholic Religion will not be attacked. A committee of seven men were chosen who will take charge of this issue.

    As to the third issue, the delegates agreed that all slanders should be considered a crime against the country.

    5

    The delegates decided that religion should not be taken up at controversies and whoever attacks it in journals and newspapers should be branded an apostate, and such periodical should not be supported.

    The same delegates declared that disrespectful expressions about the clergy, and especially slander, cannot be reconciled with religion and should also be considered a national crime, a treason against the fatherland.

    The delegates also stated that those who send their children to non-sectarian schools, depriving them thereby of the principles taught by the Holy Roman-Catholic Church, and also those who do not try to teach their children the native tongue, violate their national honor.

    Finally the delegates expressed their sorrow on account of lack of patriotism at Polish societies and asked the clergy for cooperation in their respective parishes. Every pastor should instruct his parishioners how to fulfill this important duty.

    6

    IN THE EVENING

    Tuesday night the hall was so filled that many persons were turned away. The attendance was great because the program included two attractions. It read that Reverend E. Kozlowski, a pastor of a Polish parish at Manistee, Mich., one of the greatest orators in America, would speak. The other attraction was the famous play "Jasnogora" or "The Siege of Czestochowa."

    The program must have been very interesting, for this large audience of approximately five thousand people behaved as if there had been only a few persons throughout the entire program. The subject of Reverend Kozlowski's message was "Our Holy Patriotic Duty." He moved the hearts of the listeners with his masterly dissertation, which was frequently interrupted by applause. Whoever heard this speech, will never forget it.

    As to the play "The Siege of Czestochowa," it is said that a play so successful was never staged in Chicago. The leading role, that of Father August 7Kordecki," was played by Mr. B. Klarkowski, who was greatly complimented by the critics. The author of the play took the role of the "Haughty Nobleman," and played it admirably. Other roles were in good hands. The play was well written and well played; it was a great success. We are not in a position to give a description of its six acts. We regret that we cannot give all details of this great patriotic celebration. We wish to add that we were honored by many prominent persons among them two church dignitaries and many clergymen from all over the country.

    <p/> (Tuesday, May 5, 1891. The third day) According to the program, May 5 is the most important day of the Polish National Hundredth Anniversary Celebration, and it was so ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, I A 1 a, I A 2 a, I A 2 b, III C, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 01, 1891
    The Holy Family Academy A Polish Secondary School Conducted by the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth.

    On June 29, annual examinations were held at the Holy Family Academy on Division Street, in the presence of four clergymen and the parents of some of the pupils. The clergymen were Reverend S. K. Kobrzynski, Reverend Lange, Reverend W. Barzynski, and Reverend J. Barzynski. Twenty-two boys and eighty-seven girls attend this school.

    A table was covered with work of the pupils in English and Polish composition, arithmetical problems, also in both Polish and English, and drawings, many of which were commendable. There was every indication that the sisters had worked very zealously, and that they were capable of awakening in the pupils a desire for learning.

    The questions asked by the sisters and the clergymen were answered promptly 2and correctly, especially those which referred to Polish grammar.

    The pupils showed a fair knowledge of simple and complex sentences, and of American and world history. In these subjects, the girls displayed a store of knowledge much greater than could be expected at their age.

    English, reading, and spelling tests were a great success, proving that Miss Moore, a secular teacher in this academy possesses great pedagogical experience and attachment to the subject.

    The needle work, made by the girls of the academy, was admired by the ladies for the skill and good taste displayed.

    Sophia Warszewski and Mary Barzynski distinguished themselves by their recitations. The poetical dialogue, in which seven-year-old Joseph Barzynski, Mary Szulc, and Sophia Warszewski took part, was a success.

    3

    Efficiency of the pupils in arithmetic, from simple addition up to the rule of three, and including commercial bills, assures us that the girls in time will become practical American women of Polish descent, for they are educated in a real Polish spirit. This was proven by Polish recitations and by answers to questions on Polish history.

    This is one more proof that the Catholic schools are of great benefit to our youth, especially to the girls. Polish Catholic schools surpass the public nonsectarian American schools.

    The following pupils distinguished themselves in music: Mary Barzynski, Martha Wleklinski, Sophia Warszewski, Mary Dyniewicz, K. Magnus, and A. Kochanowski. The pupils played a part of "Il Trovatore" accurately, under the direction of M. Barzynski. The pupils were presented with awards, after which a prayer was said, and a song sung to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

    4

    This concluded the program, and the parents and children went home. The parents were pleased because of the progress of their offspring, and the pupils were happy because of a vacation.

    On June 29, annual examinations were held at the Holy Family Academy on Division Street, in the presence of four clergymen and the parents of some of the pupils. The ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I A 2 b, I A 1 a, III A, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 29, 1891
    Is it Possible? (Editorial)

    In the issue for September 26 of this year of Ameryka--a journal well-known for the publishing of deliberate falsehoods--we read an extensive account of the convention of the Polish National Alliance, which was held in Detroit, Michigan. One of the paragraphs in this article reads as follows:

    "A resolution was adopted to condemn the following Polish newspapers: Wiarus, Polak W Ameryce, Wiara I Ojczyzna, and Dziennik Chicagoski. The editors of these newspapers were accused of dishonesty and branded as outcasts."

    Is it possible that such a public resolution was adopted by the convention of the Polish National Alliance? We will admit that a certain organization may not like the policy of a particular newspaper; we will also admit that such an organization may even, in its private meetings, condemn that newspaper, but to 2accuse the editors publicly of dishonesty or brand them as outcasts at a convention about which even other nationalities talk and write, just because they are exponents of different ideas, would be taking a great responsibility. It would, in fact, be disgraceful.

    We did not believe that the paragraph which we read was true. In order to verify it, we made a private investigation by asking some delegates to the convention whether these reports were true. All delegates whom we asked categorically denied that the second part of the above-mentioned paragraph was true; besides, all of them asserted that Dziennik Chicagoski was not even mentioned at the convention. Others stated, in addition, that the resolution against Wiara I Ojczyzna (Faith and Country) was not adopted.

    At any rate, this curious item was published in Ameryka, and as long as there is no official denial, we will not know whether it is true or not. If it is not true, we expect official retraction. We would like to know and we must know whether the Polish National Alliance takes the responsibility for such 3a resolution or whether Ameryka is guilty of misrepresentation of the facts.

    Ameryka also states that W. Prybeski was elected censor, and Rewerski assistant censor, of the Polish National Alliance, and H. Nagiel, was chosen as editor of Zgoda.

    Finally, we demand that the publishers of Ameryka disclose, according to the permission given them, the name of the correspondent who "can prove" that there is no dependable Polish school in Chicago; that the teachers in Polish parochial schools do not know how to write Polish and yet teach it to others; that the Catholic Church forbids sending children to American public schools, on account of which the Poles are afraid to educate their children; that if any Pole sends his children to a high school and wishes to prepare them to become decent citizens, he is immediately condemned publicly by the priests from the pulpits, and is ostracized by the other Poles; that our priests commit crimes mentioned by the correspondent, and so on.

    In the issue for September 26 of this year of Ameryka--a journal well-known for the publishing of deliberate falsehoods--we read an extensive account of the convention of the Polish National ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, I A 1 a, I A 2 a, I A 2 b, III B 2, III B 4, III C