The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 20, 1879
    The Poles in Chicago

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about twenty-five thousand. The first Polish pioneers arrived in Chicago as early as 1852; they lived in various sections of the city, virtually strangers, since there was no specific Polish settlement in the city at that time. As most of them were of the Roman Catholic faith, they became affiliated with the German Catholic churches, although a desire prevailed to build a Polish church. In 1869 a club was finally organized to raise funds. Within a short span of time several thousand dollars had been gathered and the erection of a church commenced in earnest. The site was at Noble and Bradley Streets. When the fact became known, hundreds of Polish families from all parts of America and particularly from the Kaschubei in Germany flocked to Chicago. The Kaschubes are of Polish origin. Their language shows much borrowing from the German. These people live in the vicinity of Danzig, Berend, and Neustadt in Upper 2Silesia, Prussia, and represent a low cultural level, due to the Prussian school edict whereby all Polish children must study the various school subjects in German, a language which is strange to them. The Kaschubes are fervent Catholics, frugal and economical. Many of them have ten thousand to thirty thousand dollars.

    The first wooden church, later converted into an elementary school, was dedicated in 1869; Reverend Jaskowski was the first Polish priest.

    It is generally conceded that most of the foreign people founding a new home on these shores lose all sense of discretion in so far as the word liberty is concerned, due to a rapid change from monarchical to democratic surroundings involving the abolition of class consciousness. Therefore, the new arrivals practiced no self-restraint; self-interest ran rampant, and this fault also manifested itself occasionally among the Poles. A Polish priest sits on a volcano, as it were; every member of the parish intends to rule, and gives 3advice to the priest on how to conduct himself within and beyond the confines of the church. Anonymous letters are a daily occurrence; the Lord have mercy on [a minister] who transgresses and lacks energy--that man is lost. Many of the sixty-five Polish communities of this land could give their own interesting versions of certain peculiar incidents, but in so far as these internal affairs are concerned, I shall enshroud them in secrecy.

    The people had conscientious scruples, because they could not order masses to be read for their deceased relatives. Money for masses poured into the church coffers in copious quantities and the impecunious priest became affluent. [Translator's note: This is a literal translation. Possibly the apparent meaninglessness is due to the omission of something from the Staats-Zeitung.] But this egotistical ambition [of the minister] to amass wealth had its repercussions and created enemies. Besides, he had the misfortune of being encumbered with a charming and beautiful "cousin," who today would be called ciotka (aunt).

    4

    Dissatisfaction [in the parish] became rampant; finally a horde armed with cudgels visited the unsuspecting priest and returned with broken weapons. The maltreated disseminator of the gospel fled at that very hour, and a Polish settlement in Minnesota provided a sanctuary.

    His successor was the Reverend Bakanowski, an erudite gentlemen well versed in Polish, German, French, Italian, Latin and English. Besides being endowed with a sympathetic sonorous voice, he was endowed with exceptional talents in rhetoric, and his general conduct inspired friendship. To all these mental attributes must be added, unfortunately, bodily perfection. Like Alcibiades, he was the most beautiful specimen of his race. Attendance at his sermons was large; all nationalities congregated at his distant church on Sundays, to listen and admire the "Beautiful Polish priest". Naturally, the fair sex was most numerous. Invitations galore were sent to him, requesting his presence here and there for the purpose of holding religious meetings and consoling beauteous ladies in their parlors. Would it be reasonable to 5condemn the pious man for yielding to his desire to save souls and accepting such offers? Of course not. Among the mass of Polish penitents was a charming, intelligent, lovely lady, wife of a local physician. Above all, it became increasingly important to save her soul. And while religious solace was given here, the sick, and children in need of baptism, waited vainly at home. The doctor's residence was in another part of the city. The oft occurring absence of the priest aroused antagonism. The burden of his duties in the parish induced the priest to obtain an assistant. This brings to the scene the Reverend Wolowski, a suspicious, conniving man, who had lost one arm during the Polish Insurrection against Russia in 1863, according to his version. Scandalmongers assert, however, that Wolowski, caretaker of the war chest of his regimental division, made a trip to somewhat remote regions, supposedly to protect the precious property from Russian marauders; but the Polish patriots protested against the pretext, and as punishment cut off the pernicious arm. With the officiating of this gentleman the halcyon days of Aranjuez came to a sinister end. Envious of his colleague's success, the 6assistant sent a voluminous denunciation directly to Rome.

    Reverend Bakanowski was called to the Holy City to defend himself and did not return. Like Niobe, the not fully converted beauties pined away from secret sorrow, remembering only the past exhilarating moments while hiding from human scrutiny the grief that engulfed them. But vengeance was in the offing for the insolent schemer who so rudely curtailed clandestine bliss. His attempt to found a Polish school--a measure calculated to bolster his waning popularity--proved unavailing. He was doomed, in so far as Chicago was concerned.

    The following priest, Reverend Zwiardowski, shortly after taking the reins of the parish, dismissed the sinister chap. The school was not to be abandoned, however.

    As dissension arose at the time among the then functioning teachers and the 7priest, and as there existed an absolute dearth of other suitable pedagogues, Reverend Zwiardowski decided to let nuns manage the school. The sisters were mostly Germans and expressed German nationalism in no uncertain terms; it brought a remonstrance. The dissenters found a leader in Mr. Dynsewics, editor of the liberal Polish paper, Gazetta Polska, a publication in existence for the last ten years. Their slogan or, may we say, "the war whoop," was the terse sentence: "In Germany Bismarck Germanizes us, and here a Polish priest!"

    The people were so incensed, that the priest, whose health was none too good, considered it advisable to leave his field of activity. The vacancy thus created provided a berth soon after, in 1874, for the Reverend Vincent Barzynski, who still functions in his ecclesiastical capacity. Few leaders faced greater difficulties. There were more than fifteen thousand people of Polish extraction in Chicago at that time, representing every part of the former great nation (in the period of a bygone century--1667 to 1772--this 8former kingdom represented an area of 21,334 geographical square miles), and everyone was imbued with the ruling complex, insistent on telling the minister what to do.

    Father Vincent was thirty years old at that time; he came from a highly respected family living in the Russian part of Poland. He attended the best schools in his native land and continued his studies in Rome. He is very eloquent--capable of exacting admiration from his adversaries through his powers of persuasion. He is intelligent, pious, but not a hypocrite, and has an excellent reputation. He is fully aware of the traits of his countrymen and his plans take cognizance of them. In many respects his conduct reminds one of Octavius Augustus: If various efforts meet with indifferent success, then he threatens to leave the parish, whereupon every request is promptly granted, and upon urgent entreaties from the congregation he condescends to stay for a while. Various business matters incident to such a large congregation he has placed in the hands of several committees; but, 9basically, he is the sole leader. "Roma Locuta Est, Causa Finita Est," he tells an occasional opponent who cannot be reconciled to the priestly views. He is on a par with Gregory VII, a man of tremendous will power who would rather perish than relinquish a plan designed to elevate the community spiritually and materially. But, Facta Loquuntur.

    Under his capable leadership the Polish school attained increased attendance; six hundred children are at present enrolled and given instruction in their native language by Polish nuns. Music, which in former years induced Polish youths to leave the path of rectitude and seek dance halls, taverns, and other libertine diversions, is now mute.

    Since the small church proved inadequate for the large congregation, an additional house of worship was built: The Church of the Holy Trinity, near Milwaukee Avenue. The Poles, living in the immediate vicinity, virtually surrounded the structure with stores, mostly saloons, and this contingent 10later asked the bishop that their connection with the old church be severed and a priest of their own choice be installed. The antipathy of certain Poles toward Father Vincent is attributable to the fact that he hails from Russian Poland and belongs to the Order of the Resurrectionists. Almost the entire Polish Liberal Party, here and abroad, maintain that the priests of this Fraternity show insufficient patriotism, and that their interests are only centered on Catholicism. While this assumption may be partly justified, it is entirely inappropriate in so far as Father Barzynski is concerned. His sermons express fervent patriotism, and the well-edited, ultramontane Polish paper, Gazetta Polska Katolicka, which is published under his direction, always defends Polish interests. Moreover, the numerous changes he inaugurated and, above all, the founding of a Polish high school, give conclusive evidence of the priest's patriotic sentiments.

    Bishop Farley did not accede to the wishes of the Poles desiring an independent church, as Father Vincent and his assistants proved sufficient.

    11

    Increasing dissatisfaction became apparent, resulting in an eventual rift and at long last two parties, steeped in bitter animosity. Church meetings developed into a replica of the Polish Congress, and a threat was made to apostatize. Time and time again Father Vincent advocated reconciliation but to no avail; he was even insulted and, on one occasion, arrested at the behest of some depraved creature.

    When all efforts in behalf of peace proved fruitless, the Reverend Father carried the "sanctissimum" to the mother church and left his church to the dissatisfied element. Thus the house of worship remained forsaken for almost a year, when a Polish priest, Mielcuszny, appeared. Many Polish people knew him when he lived in the Grand Duchy of Posen, (Germany). He had been active in New York, but was compelled to resign. Cardinal Closkey objected to the priest's wordly activities, because the latter fitted out a saloon, combined with a dance hall, in the basement of the church; this proved a lively place after church services. Mielcuszny, an accomplished dancer, 12usually opened the festivities.

    This priest proved most welcome to the recreants and, contrary to the bishop's wishes, was installed. Intense enmity now involved the two factions, but this is not the place to adjudge theological principles. Suffice it to say, therefore, that according to church canons the installation of priests is one of the ecclesiastical duties delegated to bishops, and this community, in the strict sense of the creed, is not Catholical. After the disgruntled element had affiliated itself with the long-closed church, now given a new lease on life under the leadership of the Polish priest from New York, the parochial domain of Reverend Barzynski again enjoyed the blessings of peace. As the available space provided by the church proved inadequate, a new church was built. Thus far eighty thousand dollars have been spent on construction, and an additional thirty thousand dollars will be required to complete the edifice.

    The not overly large mortgage is being paid by voluntary contributions and 13pew rentals, which amounts to approximately eight thousand dollars per year.

    The paintings for the church have been entrusted to a talented Polish artist, Zabinski, who came directly from Rome (Italy). His studio is at the parish house. A visit will prove very interesting. Several splendid sketches and the full-size, partly completed painting, "The Death of Stanislaus Kostka," give eloquent proof that a genius conceived them.

    For some time Father Vincent considered founding a Polish high school, and to realize that goal he spent large sums of money; however, serious difficulties were encountered. Indifferent success did not deter him, however. Repeatedly he admonished his congregation, and spoke in stentorian tones about public indifference. Finally, the community decided to build a higher institution of learning, and to defray the cost. The school was opened this year, January 2, [1879], and two eminent instructors were secured.

    14

    Professor Stein, thirty years old, passed his examinations with flying colors at the gymnasium in Thorn, on the River Weichsel, and the seminary in Posen. To complete his studies he traveled throughout the greater part of Europe. [In the interim] he taught in Posen and Bromberg at public schools, and academies for young ladies. In America he taught successfully in New York and Detroit. Here, he will give instructions in the German and Polish languages, as well as mathematics.

    Professor Wenslow studied at the Jesuit College here; later he studied philosophy.

    The institution [the Polish high school] accepts students regardless of religion or nationality. At present forty-three students are enrolled; the evening school register shows seventy-two have matriculated. The future of the school is assured, as attendance increases daily.

    The community now entertains the highest regard for its spiritual leader; it 15feels convinced that no personal ambition or selfish interest motivated his action; he was concerned only in the true welfare of his countrymen. Since the storm subsided and outstanding success crowned the priest's efforts, it is expected that the majority of the estranged members will return to the mother church soon.

    This brief sketch does not pretend to give all the details which, after all, would be superfluous. I have merely stated facts, because Chicago has many Polish families, and a large number subscribe to this paper. Perhaps I may have an opportunity at some future time to give an account of the Polish community of the South Side, its church, the Polish press, clubs, and, possibly, some interesting details of prominent Polish people who live in our city.

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about ...

    Polish
    III C, IV, I C, III A, I A 2 b, I A 2 a, II B 2 d 1
  • Zgoda -- January 26, 1887
    Slander

    There are many Americans who give our forefathers credit for their splendid support of the Catholic religion and their undying love for their native land.

    Not long ago something was said in regard to the above mentioned which caused hard feelings and misunderstanding among Polish people; we feel that it should be overlooked.

    American citizens attending the Polish National Alliance convention began collecting donations to support and maintain the academy and convent of the Ursulan Sisters. Donations were given good-heartedly.

    During a church mission in a small town near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a Polish Catholic priest, Father Koluszewski of Cleveland, ascended the pulpit and denounced sternly the donations given to support the "n Home."

    2

    "Who gave them permission," said the Reverend Father to the congregation, "to take care of the collections for the Ursulans? Do not believe them; they are liars, these Ursulans; they are a suspicious group of ladies. In the old country the devil sent women to do his bidding where he himself had failed."

    I will not say anything that you can hold against me but I will add this - that the reason for the sudden anger of Reverend Father Koluszewski against the Ursulans is that the Polish National Alliance of America is taking care of the donations for the Ursulans and is being fully supported by its 3,000 members and by different societies and Catholic institutions.

    Reverend Father Koluszewski is himself working against the Polish National Alliance; he cannot understand how an organization as big as the P. N. A. can undertake so great a responsibility and still have so many Roman Catholic priests striving for an opportunity to join it.

    Reverend Koluszewski's speech from the pulpit only caused the people to 3leave in great anger; it caused ill feeling among the P. N. A. members because they were willing to contribute to the support of poor Ursulan Sisters' Convent.

    Another priest said: "As a priest, I am humiliated at the sudden outburst of Reverend Father Koluszerski; as a Pole, I cannot find words to apoligize for his behavior. I know that from our native country the poorest class of people crossed the ocean in search of a country where they could be taken care of in their old age, as for example, the Home of the Ursulan Sisters. This institution is also striving to save our children from the shame put upon their souls because of the lack of education. They are working to teach our Polish children the success and pleasures of life received from having a good education and from the teachings of the Catholic religion.

    It also shows in old records that the head of this institution, Superior Sister Morawska, donated her farm and all her money in her home town of Poland for the building of this home, Ursulan Sisters. This shows that any propaganda or slander said against these "Sisters" is only used as an obstruction against the Polish people in their effort to advance and their 4undying love for the Catholic religion.

    Almighty God will punish the trouble-maker who spoke so rudely about the Ursulan Sisters and their undying love for the Catholic religion.

    Dr. Rev. Father Kanonik.

    There are many Americans who give our forefathers credit for their splendid support of the Catholic religion and their undying love for their native land. Not long ago something was ...

    Polish
    III C, I A 2 a, II D 5, III B 2, I K, III B 4, I A 2 c
  • Zgoda -- November 14, 1888
    The Affairs of Polish Schools

    It is difficult to give you the actual statistics of Polish schools in the United States. The census taken here of Polish children attending parochial schools is about 17,000.

    In these Polish schools over thirty secular priests teach, the rest of the teachers being nuns.

    We find a shortage of higher schools for our Polish children. Our young Polish children, wanting to obtain a higher education, must seek it in English or German institutions where often they forget their native tongue, and a Pole who can't speak Polish is useless to his Fatherland. And not only to his country, but, as the case may be, to the church and the Catholic religion.

    We must hope that by working and economizing, our poor immigration of today shall yet stand on an equal footing with other nationalities. The English, Irish, and Germans did not bring any capital here with them to America, but 2today there is a colossal American fortune in their hands. Let us try just now, to preserve our present capital, religion, nationality, and Polish virtues.

    It is difficult to give you the actual statistics of Polish schools in the United States. The census taken here of Polish children attending parochial schools is about 17,000. In ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, III C, III A, I A 2 b
  • Zgoda -- September 24, 1890
    For the People

    The Polish language is as important to us Poles as hands to a tailor; which roughly speaking is how can we enjoy our play games or write without hands? Then how can you Poles consider yourselves good Polish citizens if you don't improve your native tongue?

    To learn the English language so we can read books and be able to write it is very essential to all of us of foreign extraction, but to deny your own nationality and native tongue before people of other nationalities is a disgrace to the people of that nationality and their country.

    We Poles should not do as people of other nationalities do; they do not use their native tongue and soon forget it, but eventually pick up some other foreign language, depending largely on the number of people of a certain nationality living in that locality.

    2

    The mothers are the backbone of any language. Who is the judge in our childhood days and teaches us to know right from wrong, makes our meals, sits among us in the dining room, grows dearer to us, is with us at all parties and gatherings, attends to us when we are sick? Everyone respects her, we all bow to her, without a doubt in our minds we know it is our mother.

    Who among the Poles, besides speaking his native tongue is not seeking more knowledge? Don't send your children to work, school is the place for them; that is the foundation of all prosperous business men. Polish parents do not deny your children the right to learn to speak and write the Polish language.

    Eugeniusz K. Pociej.

    The Polish language is as important to us Poles as hands to a tailor; which roughly speaking is how can we enjoy our play games or write without hands? Then ...

    Polish
    III A, I A 2 a, I A 2 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 20, 1891
    The School Question Our Reason for Opposing Bohemian School Agitation (Editorial)

    In this article we will point out why we are against the present school agitation in Chicago, originated by Bohemians, by trying to prove that:

    (1) The public schools in this country are below the standard of the parochial schools in respect to practical education, and moral training of the children attending them, due to the educational system adopted by the school boards;

    (2) It is a duty of the parents, who care for the welfare of their children, to send them to those schools which are most capable of training them for good American citizenship, with moral principles that are steady and unfaultering, and besides, those schools should teach them how to be practical that they may be able not only to find a proper 2station in life, but also become patriots of their own nationality;

    (3) If the public schools do not deserve our support, then we should not endeavor to introduce the Polish language into them.

    (4) The action taken by the Bohemians is not a good example worthy of imitation, but rather it is a frightening warning;

    (5) If we are against the privileges granted to the German language in public schools, and desire to remove them, we can accomplish it much more directly by a protest than indirectly trying to introduce other languages into the public schools.

    Public Schools and Parochial Schools

    It has been proved many times that the parochial schools give better education than our public schools. This has been proved not by idle 3argumentations, but by actual examples taken from observations. As an example, we will describe an incident which occurred at the end of last month. Mr. E. Dumphy, a Congressman of the 7th congressional district, has announced that he has a vacancy for a boy at the United States Military Academy at West Point. Twenty eight young men applied for this position. The applicants were obliged to undergo a physical examination first, and later, on December 29, they were examined by a commission which determined their mental fitness. This commission was made up ot two assistant superintendents of public schools and a monk, a brother, representing the Roman Catholic parochial schools. The young men were examined in the following subjects: arithmetic, penmanship, spelling, geography, grammar, United States history, and reading. We all know that 100 is the highest percentage obtainable. The boys struggled all day with the examinations. The following were the results: (1) Thomas F. Dwyer; 94 3/4, whose percentage was the highest; (2) John J. Disell; 91 2/7, (3) John Conway; 86 1/7, (4) Joseph Fitzgerald; 86 1/7, (5) A. Sauci; 85 5/7, (6) R. Stewart; 84 6/7, (7) Peter Simcox; 84 1/7, 4(8) Jasmer Kilgore; 84, (9) Pat. Shea; 83 2/7, (10) A. McFarland; 82.

    The first four, the seventh, and the eighth boys are graduates of St. Jacobs' parochial schools. The 5th, 6th, 9th, and the 10th, were graduates of the public schools. Then followed the 11th, 12th and the 13th, who are also graduates of St. Jacobs' parochial school. From the 14th to 28th are graduates of public schools.

    Naturally, Thomas F. Dwyer was the winner.

    If we were publishing a large volume on this question, we could present many examples of this kind, but our space is limited, and we can only add that during the last year six similar examinations were conducted, and in every case, the winner was a graduate of the parochial schools. This is not a coincidence, but an actual proof.

    5

    Let us suppose that we did not have such examples, that these competitive examinations are not held, and that we have no opportunity for comparing the difference. We still could arrive at the same conclusion by examining and comparing both school systems; such comparison would convince us that in reality a boy will learn more in the parochial than in the public school. Let us examine very carefully the parochial school system.

    The Educational System

    Of course, we cannot describe here the whole school system, because such description would fill volumes. Therefore, we will limit ourselves to the most important points. We are all aware of the fact that there are three kind of schools, namely; elementary, secondary, and higher institutions of learning. Every school belongs to one of the three classes. The public schools in the United States have not reached that state of perfection which is the basis of all education, with one program uniting 6them all very closely. It is not necessary to have a diploma from a grammar school in order to enter a secondary school or college. There is an entrance examination given, and whoever has taken this examination, knows well that the requirements are ridiculously low for entering a college. Higher schools or universities, also have entrance examinations which are proportionately very easy to pass. It is known throughout the world that an education obtained in our American universities has no great value, unless the student works out a balanced program, and follows his studies diligently, or finishes his education in Europe. Americans were angry at the Germans a year ago because physicians who finished their studies in the United States were not allowed to practice in Berlin. Their anger was not justified because it was the fault of our educational system here.

    It is entirely different with the parochial schools, because they are conducted on the order of European schools. This, alone, places them very high. It is true that a young man who finishes public schools knows 7something about arithmetic and other subjects, but his knowledge of other subjects, such as geography, history, etc., is limited to facts about the United States only. He has no conception, or a very poor one, about history and geography in general, that is, in other parts of the world. In other words, he has no general education. The school books, we admit are very beautiful, especially in elementary schools, but their contents are meaningless. The artistically ornamented, and beautifully illustrated books will not create a desire in a boy for deep thinking, or for studying different branches of science, as will the books used in parochial schools.

    The purpose of the parochial schools, besides furnishing the children with practical knowledge is also to develop in the youth the moral principles. Who, if not the teachers, ought point out to the young man what is right and what is wrong? Who, if not the teachers, ought inocculate the young minds with those principles which some day should mould or develop a child into a respectable man, a good citizen, or a 8patriot? Can the public school teachers do that? No. Not only they cannot, but they are not allowed to do it. They are not allowed to say to the child: do not do this, because you will be locked up in jail, do this, because you will profit by it. But what is the result of such education? It creates selfishness and develops ability to evade justice. It develops monopolistic principles in those who have means, and in those who have no means, it develops nihilistic ideas. Nihilistic, we repeat, because they are nihilistic in the true sense of this word. They recognize neither God nor human rights, neither country nor morality, nihil, nothing, other than themselves. Is it not so?

    Let us look deeply at the life of the people around here. Let us take a glance at the youth educated in the public schools. Look at the back stage of our politics, at all machinations of the capitalists on one side, and of the demagogues, clothed in the cloak of philanthropy on the other. Can we find good principles there? Or can we find morality or patriotism? "Oh! You do not say that there are also good citizens, men 9of honor, and good patriots." We know that, but you must judge the whole community, not a few exceptions, who on account of very favorable conditions, entered the right path, as there are people without principles who have received good instruction on morality. If you will take under your observation not only a few individuals, but the whole community you will come to the conclusion that the public schools do contribute to the development of nihilistic ideas, and that the parochial schools encourage and spread the true moral principles, on which the real American patriotism is based.

    We know what some, who read this article, will think. They will utter sarcastically: "Clerical Rules" (Clericalism). Yes! The parochial schools in the United States are controlled by the priests. Religion and morality are taught there. And besides these, they also teach other useful subjects, but in a better manner than those used in public schools. Don't the priests deserve gratitude for that? Don't they deserve at least a recognition for their troubles? You say that they 10make money on schools. Let us be serious once, and look at the parish records. What are the profits? Out of the pocketbooks of the people a parish maintains a parochial school. If there were no priests, who would establish private schools with a European system of education? We have no people with higher education who could and would like to devote themselves to that task, and if there are any the number is small. The government will not spend money for building such schools. Every well thinking person will agree that such schools are beneficial and necessary, even if they are acquired by great sacrifices. It is the specific duty of missionaries to establish such schools, and no one desires to be a missionary, especially where the establishment of schools is concerned, except the priests.

    There may be other objections: Some one might say that only Irish and English parochial schools are good because they teach English, that the child will not learn the language of the country in Polish parochial schools, and for that reason the Polish children should be sent to the 11public schools. Morality and religion should be taught at home and in the church, only they may say. Such assertions are falsehoods produced either by ill-will, or by lack of understanding of the matter. Such an attitude is dishonest and harmful to children.

    In this article we will point out why we are against the present school agitation in Chicago, originated by Bohemians, by trying to prove that: (1) The public schools in ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I C, I B 4, I A 2 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 21, 1891
    The School Question Polish Parochial Schools (Editorial)

    The English language, along with Polish, French, Bohemian, and Italian, is taught in parochial schools equally, if not even more carefully than other languages.

    That the forgoing statement is true, can be proved by the fact that the graduates of the parochial schools are gladly accepted by the higher institutions of learning, public and private, if their parents desire to give them a better education. No boy, who has finished a Polish parochial school, has ever been rejected by any college on account of poor knowledge of English. Many boys who once attended St. Stanislaus' Polish parochial school in Chicago, are attending colleges and other institutions of higher learning, including the Jesuits college. All of them are making very good progress, and it appears that they have 2a good elementary education, equal to the training received in the public schools. Some of the boys are employed by the telegraph companies, banks, and other institutions, where a good knowledge of the English language is necessary. Still others are studying in Europe, where they would not be accepted, if their elementary education were poor.

    After examining the school books used by the Polish parochial schools, and studying the educational system, European like, practiced by them, any impartial person must admit that the standard of the parochial schools is much higher than that of the public schools, and that the instructions in the language of the country are excellent. There might be exceptions in some small parishes, but not in Chicago. If necessary, we can supply the names of the Polish boys who attend colleges and European institutions, and also names of those who hold good positions in Chicago and vicinity. We have a gew of these names on hand. They are graduates of St. Stanislaus' Parish elementary 3school. This is a sufficient proof that the standard of the Polish parochial schools is not lower in teaching children the English language than that of the public schools. In other respects, however, the standard is higher.

    Is it necessary to prove the foregoing statements? We do not think so. Even the opposers of parochial schools must admit that these schools teach true morality, that they are developing moral principles, the purpose of which is to bring up children as righteous men and women, good citizens, and good patriots of Poland, and of our adopted country, the United States. Who will not admit that their aim is to stir up, and propagate the patriotic spirit in and among children. Is this done by the public schools? This proves that the Poles care more for the welfare of their children. For this reason, they should avoid public institutions and send their children to Polish parochial schools.

    The Catechism

    4

    Children in Polish parochial schools are studying the catechism, but it is not the only subject taught there, as stated by the malicious enemies of parochial schools. Only one hour a day is devoted to this important subject by every class. Catechism teaches children that they should respect their parents more than anybody else in the world, and that they should support them in their old age. Catechism does not teach them how to be clever in evading justice and earthly punishment, but it teaches them how to live in order to receive and eternal reward. The catechism does not teach them how to be clever with their fellowmen, but how to be honest. The catechism also teaches them to respect the laws of the country, otherwise, how to be good American citizens. For this reason alone, children are taught catechism in parochial schools, and since the Bible is not used in the public schools, the parents should not send their children to the public schools, but to the parochial schools.

    No one should say that the mother will not teach her children the prayers, or that the teachings of the priests are not necessary, and that it is 5useless to learn the whole catechism from memory, because it will be forgotten later on. It is true that some of the teachings learned from the catechism are forgotten, but not the foundation upon which the whole life is built, just as a foundation of a building which cannot be seen, yet it upholds the whole structure. The same principle also applies to spiritual foundation. It will uphold the whole life, even if it is hidden, providing it is well-grounded.

    Patriotism

    Love for the mother country, a desire to belong to one's nationality, is developed only at the parochial school, and this desire is destroyed by the public schools, and by the association with other children on the streets. The parents, alone, cannot build a foundation. The Irish know that, and for this reason, they do not sent their children to the public schools, notwithstanding the fact that the language of the Irish is English. This is also known by the Germans, who have their language in the public 6schools, yet they have their own institution. Not only German Catholics, but also German protestants defend parochial schools, and as long as they remain good Catholics, or good protestants, they do not send their children to the public schools. Only those who are unpatriotic, and indifferent to religion, send their children to the public schools.

    Some Bohemians, who have lost their faith, their nationality, their refinement, and are afflicted with anarchism, or masonry, which was spread in this country by the Germans, do not wish to learn patriotism. Only such Bohemians are trying to establish the Bohemian language into the public schools; by this action they try to persuade other Bohemians to send their children to the public schools. Other Bohemians are misled by the first group. Should Poles imitate Bohemians?

    The English language, along with Polish, French, Bohemian, and Italian, is taught in parochial schools equally, if not even more carefully than other languages. That the forgoing statement is true, ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I C, I B 4, I B 3 b, I A 2 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 05, 1891
    Progressive French (Editorial)

    France is the only country in Europe that has non-sectarian schools. Much as in the United States, no catechism or religion is taught in them. But France has more experience than the United States. The French government is aware that children will grow into citizens; that the nation must have good citizens if it desires to keep up with the standards of other countries; and that children must acquire certain ideas, certain basic principles, which will help them develop qualities of good citizenship. Because of this, a course in civics was introduced in French schools. The course embraces the following subjects:

    A. Moral Duties: 1. Parent-child relationship: Duties towards parents and elders are obedience, respect, love, gratitude (During this course of study, children are instructed that they should assist their parents with work, and that it is their duty to support them at their old age or during sickness).

    2

    Duties towards brothers and sisters: Children should love one another, and older children should help younger ones. Duties toward other members of the family: Children are taught to treat them with kindness. 2. Child at school: The country, its greatness, its misfortunes. Duty towards the country and community.

    3. Duty towards Self: The body, cleanliness, moderation, sobriety, exercises.

    4. Possessions: Thrift, avoidance of debts, gambling, love of money, extravagance, miserliness.

    5. Industriousness: Time should not be wasted, every person should work; respect for common work.

    6. The Soul: Love of truth, sincerity, ugliness of prevarication, self-respect, dignity, that we should not disregard our faults; avoidance of pride; the disgrace of not knowing anything; laziness; bravery in danger; danger of anger; animals should not be mistreated.

    7. Duties toward others: Justice and forgiveness. We should not endanger life, property or reputation. Goodness, brotherly love, patience and respect for faith and conviction of other persons.

    3

    B. Duties of a citizen: 1. General knowledge of the government. Citizenship, its duties and privileges. 2. School duty, military duty, the voting privilege. 3. The township, the mayor, the city council, the county, the state, the courts, the country and its judicial body, the executive power, the legislature (These instructions are intended for elementary schools, which teach children 9 to 11 years old).

    C. Children from 11 to 13 years old will be taught the following subjects: A thorough knowledge of political, financial and judicial management of the country. The constitution, the president of the Republic, the Senate, the Chamber of Deputies. Government of circuits and towns, public offices, civil laws, army, elementary course of practical law. The community, the rights of the working men, the right of ownership, inheritance, capital, labor, and other subjects.

    After reading this plan, especially paragraph A, we come to the conclusion that the subjects are taken either from a catechism or from a prayer book, excluding 4of course all paragraphs referring to Divine service; and that it will be almost impossible for the teachers to teach these subjects without explaining to the children the origin of these - commandments which indeed are God's commandments. Some day the child will ask some one about the origin of these commandments, even if it has learned them.

    The "cause in morality" is nothing but the teaching of catechism, but abbreviated and incomplete. The French, after twenty years of teaching without catechism and the supervision of priests, come to the conclusion that in order to avoid cathechism it must be introduced into the schools.

    When will Americans make a similar "unexpected" discovery?

    This plan will be introduced in Paris public schools and later on in the country, as soon as the teachers receive the necessary authority.

    France is the only country in Europe that has non-sectarian schools. Much as in the United States, no catechism or religion is taught in them. But France has more experience ...

    Polish
    I A 1 a, I A 2 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 05, 1891
    The Vicious Circle or the School Question Again (Editorial)

    Again we find two, or rather two and a half answers in Zgoda (a Polish weekly) on the school question, but how are we going to combat them? Our arguments have not been answered by contradictory disputation, our proofs have not been disproved, there are only never ending evasions, going around in circles, eluding the subject itself, and a tendency to start a controversy on some other subject, because they have no means of defending this one.

    It seems that these controvertists have only one argument and this argument is: The parochial schools are worthless because they are supervised by the priests. Public schools are good because they are 2not supervised by the priests. It is not necessary to prove that there is something wrong with that supervision, because in the heads of the opponents of the parochial schools such an axiom as two times two are four is wrong.

    We did not state that the parochial schools in America are better than the public schools just because they are supervised by the priests, but we did state that the parochial schools are better because they teach the English language as efficiently as the public schools. This is proved by the fact that the boys from the parochial schools are accepted by colleges and other institutions of higher learning, and besides, they teach religion, morality, and patriotism, the principles which every person needs in order to become a decent citizen later on. We have 3made a statement that these better schools are supervised by the priests because no one else is eager to supervise them, for no one else is establishing them.

    If any one desires to contradict our statement let him prove first that parochial schools, in reality are deficient in educating children, and if it will be necessary later on to transfer children from the parochial to the public schools on account of that deficiency. It will then be easy to prove that we should try to introduce the Polish Language as one of the subjects into the public schools.

    Zgoda continues: "You have no sympathy or support of the public, because among the united Catholic Poles (Polish Roman Catholic Union) you have only five or six thousand sympathizers out of every million." Has any 4other organization more sympathizers? That sympathy proves that our organization is the largest. If we take in consideration all adult male Poles, and we refer to those who really care to belong to any organization, the percentage belonging to this organization (the Polish Roman Catholic Union) is indeed very satisfactory.

    You ask: "Why are not Polish private high schools established?" They are being established and for girls also. The author of the article in Zgoda undoubtedly refers to Chicago. Is he not aware that there is a Polish high school for the girls in Chicago, located on Division Street, or does he ignore it purposely? But in order to have high schools, it is necessary to start with lower ones and have you established any school, even a lower one?

    "Piety ought to be inculcated at home" you say. Then why not education 5also? It is much harder to teach piety than reading or writing. Besides, the parents have neither qualification nor time for that, and for this reason they ought to send their children to qualified teachers." Religion should be taught by compulsion, not by the priests, or in schools, but by the parents at home." And if the parents will not exercise this compulsion, should the country allow the children of such parents to grow up as outlaws? Compulsory morality is indispensable for the country, therefore, the country should care for its early development in children, even where children are neglected by the parents or protectors, if they are orphans.

    And again, the old worn out accusation: "We know from history that this course and guidance of the priests have kept nations in darkness for centuries." In order to make such accusation, it is necessary to have some historical proofs, facts, and dates. This is a favorite melody of those "Catholics who respect the priests as clergymen, but they were accustomed to seeing the church 6and the clergy under control of the parishioners." But where are the proofs? Yet Jan Dantyszek, Peter Skarga, Nicholas Copernicus, Adam Naruszewicz, Ignace Krasicki, and so many others were priests and bishops. Dates, facts, and names, not mere hearsays constitute proofs. No true Catholic will think that the clergy should be controlled by the parishioners in respect to faith and morals, only when management of property is concerned.

    The author of the article in Zgoda also charges that the articles in Dziennik Chicagoski are "made to order." Then he refers to the Polish parade in commemoration of the Polish Constitution of May 3, and the attacks made by Thomas Krolik and others. The object of this argumentation is obvious. They are trying to evade the real issue by engaging in other subjects because they have no proofs in the question at issue.

    To what will such controversy lead us? To continuous and unnecessary attacks and dissension. If you gentlemen wish to disprove the statements made by 7Dziennik Chicagoski, you must prove that Polish parents ought to send their children to the public schools because those schools teach better English than the parochial schools. Then you will convince every one that we should try to introduce the Polish language into the public schools. Gentlemen, adhere to the subject.

    Again we find two, or rather two and a half answers in Zgoda (a Polish weekly) on the school question, but how are we going to combat them? Our arguments ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, IV, III C, I A 1 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 13, 1891
    Polish Patriotism in America (Editorial)

    Ibi Patria, Ubi Bene (there is my country, where all is well) is apparently one of the guiding principles of Mr. Thaddeus Wild. His other principle is that one cannot be an American and a Polish patriot at the same time. It is either one or the other.

    Let us adhere to the example we gave in yesterday's issue.

    A boy has a guardian who cares for him as his own father would. He also has a father who is mentally ill and who has been an inmate of an insane asylum for a number of years. According to Mr. Wild's theory, this boy should stop loving his father because his guardian gives him shelter, education, and other necessities of life. Now, let us suppose that this father needs the boy's help, that he needs his assistance in getting a physician. Then, according to Mr. Wild, the boy should be very sympathetic 2towards his unfortunate father, and deeply, but not necessarily actively interested in his fate.

    Let us assume that the father of the boy has been cured and, being still unable to take care of his son, entrusts him to a merciful guardian for some time. Then this boy, in order to be a good and grateful foster son, must get rid of his filial love and abandon his father to his fate because the guardian has more right to his gratitude. Such attitude could be possible if the foster son does not remember his father, but if he has loved his father such behavior would be impossible and contrary to the laws of nature.

    Should we renounce our love for the mother country just because she is unfortunate?

    Should we deprive ourselves of our most noble sentiment just because our mother country does not appear on the map of Europe? And if she really 3needs us, if we can help her with money, good advice or by shedding our blood, should we not help her because we are American citizens? Did Kosciuszko and Pulaski think that way? Is this the attitude of the Irish residing in America?

    It would be difficult for anyone of another nationality to understand the feelings of an Irishman or a Pole. It is obvious that Mr. Wild is not a Pole, for he cannot understand this sentiment. He is merely an Austrian who can speak Polish. Unfortunately, there are many individuals in Galicia (Austrian Poland) who cannot comprehend Polish patriotism.

    "Deeply but not necessarily actively interested" means that we as Americans citizens should not give any assistance to Poland, our mother country, and at least we should not instill in our children any desire to help her. We should bring up our children only as Americans so that when we are too old instead of taking our place they may ridicule our noble sentiments. In the opinion of Mr. Wild they as Americans, should not spend their 4accumulated money, or risk their health and even life, for any mother country other than that of their adoption.

    Yes. We should kick the mother who could not feed us; we should deny her in the same manner as the enriched parvenu denies his poor father. We should proudly call ourselves Americans just because gold was found here. We should change our names from Lasowski to Wood, from Lisowski to Fox, from Slowikowski to Nightingale, from Czarnecki to Black, only because real Americans have difficulty in pronouncing them.

    Mr. Wild, is this the kind of morality and American patriotism taught in public schools?

    Yes, if our whole generation would receive this education, the nihilistic principle of no God, no father, no mother, nothing but the dollar, would would spread very quickly.

    Fortunately, there are persons who complete their education by studying 5at home or abroad; fortunately, there are parochial and private schools which cultivate healthy principles, and on account of that the people as a whole have not accepted nihilistic principles. We wish to call Mr. Wild's attention to our terminology as regards the word "Nihilistic," which used in its proper sense, does not mean either "anarchistic" or "bombers," which denote entirely different things.

    If, as in the case of the foster boy, a successful young man who has been brought up in our parochial schools were asked how he gained his good education and position, he would reply that he owes everything to his guardian and, if asked about his father, he would say that his unfortunate father is ill and that he would give anything for restoring his health.

    If a fosterling of our schools, be he a Pole or an Irishman with a high position in a foreign country, were asked about his citizenship he would reply with pride that he is a citizen of the United States, but if he were asked about his nationality or his native land, he would answer with 6sadness that she is in chains, but that as soon as either his native or adopted country needs him he will give up honors, high position, property and even his life in order to help either one of them.

    A Proposition

    Mr. Wild writes: "I have fulfilled my duty and I am inviting all citizens who share my views to express their frank opinions."

    Our proposition: We will donate one dollar for every brother citizen sharing Mr. Wild's views if Mr. Wild will donate only five cents for every brother citizen whose views are contrary to his. With this money we will build a school. If Mr. Wild collects more than we do, we will build a public school; and if we collect more than him, we will build a parochial school.

    Isn't this a fair proposition?

    Ibi Patria, Ubi Bene (there is my country, where all is well) is apparently one of the guiding principles of Mr. Thaddeus Wild. His other principle is that one cannot ...

    Polish
    III A, I C, I A 1 a, I A 2 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 05, 1891
    Poles Celebrate Proclamation of Their Constitution (Second Day, May 4) (Summary)

    The Poles of Chicago should always be proud of yesterday's celebration. Its memory should last as long as they live in Chicago, and it should be publicized throughout the country because it brought credit to all Poles.

    The changeable weather of Chicago was rather unfavorable, for it was chilly, cloudy, and gloomy and it tried to snow.

    Delegates from all over the country came to St. Stanislaus Kostka's Parish. Among the delegates were many clergymen and men of distinction. They admired our beautifully decorated buildings and some of them honored us by visiting our office and printing shop. We have learned from the 2visitors that the celebrations in other cities were also successful.

    In the Morning

    As outlined in the program, there was a solemn memorial service in honor of those who sacrificed their lives for the faith, country, and the principles of the Constitution of the Third of May.

    Afternoon

    The children of St. Stanislaus Kostka's school staged a special celebration in the afternoon. Although it did not draw a large crowd, it was successful. It was a working day; therefore, many parents could not attend and for the same reason the large Polish hall at Bradley Street was not filled. We are of the opinion that it is the duty of parents to see what progress their children are making in the school, about which so much has been written lately.

    3

    Have our children made any progress? Yesterday's demonstration is the best proof. Facts speak for themselves.

    The school children's celebration was carried out according to the program. It began with a march played on a piano by the school girls, after which the school girls choir, whose members were dressed in national colors, sang the Polish song "Where the Polish Heart Beats." Then Mr. B. Klarkowski, the teacher spoke to the school children about the Polish Constitution and its importance. After his talk, he introduced little Leon Jozwiak, who in spite of his young age, delivered a beautiful speech, beginning with the words; "God did not grant us the privilege to be in the land where white eagles nest," Little Leon was greatly applauded. Next on the program was a beautiful piano duet entitled "Philomy Brilliant," played by two school girls. This was followed by an athletic exercise by a group of boys. Finally, the time arrived for the "Bouquet of Polish Songs," which was executed by the choirs to the satisfaction of the public.

    Deserving special attention is the beautiful sententious dramatical sketch 4entitled "Religion and Happiness," staged by senior school girls of St. Stanislaus Kostka's school, in which seven goddesses, namely, Wealth, Art, Wisdom, Beauty, Singing, Music, and Poetry offer their services to a girl of luck, but cannot satisfy her because each of them represents only apparent mundane happiness. Our heroine, however, is seeking absolute happiness, which appears to her in the form of Religion and Faith. The performance was a success for which the young ladies received great applause. The rest of the program was made up of singing and instrumental music. The program was concluded by Reverend V. Barzynski, who spoke of the patriotism of our mothers. He regretted the fact that the number of children in the hall was rather small.

    In the Evening

    The culminating point of yesterday's activities was last night's celebration in English at the large Polish hall, to which, besides the Poles, Americans and Germans were also invited.

    5

    Shortly before 8 P.M., the great hall was practically filled. The orchestra played the favored "Bouquet of Polish Songs" as the public filled the remaining seats at the gallery. The knights of the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared in their picturesque uniforms, the school children dressed for the occasion, and the parish choirs stationed themselves at the sides of the hall. The platform was occupied by special guests, the clergy, delegates from societies and high city officials. Reverend Father Szukalski, opened the meeting and introduced Judge Moran as the chairman, who was greeted with deafening applause. The program began with the singing of "O Columbia" by the parish choir conducted by Mr. A. Kwasigroch, after which Judge Moran proceeded to speak.

    Judge Moran's speech was recorded stenographically, but we cannot reproduce it here for lack of space. However, we will point out the most important parts.

    Judge Moran complimented the Poles for commemorating so important and beautiful 6an event, and then gave a brief outline of the Polish Constitution, describing the circumstances under which it was declared. He said, "Surrounded by foes opposing principles of justice and freedom, the Poles formed and accepted a constitution which brought them immortal fame, for it was an example for all because it dared to declare a lofty principle that an authority comes from the people, and because it gave so much right to the people that the Polish King had less authority than the President of the United States."

    Judge Moran continued, "Poland lives by its history, literature, noble virtues and deeds of great and famous men.

    "You have your heroes, learned men, artists."

    He cited beautiful examples in our history, mentioned Sobieski, Kosciuszko, pointed to their great deeds, and added that wherever there are lovers of freedom, there you find famous Poles, and that the Poles come to the 7United States to unite with a peace-loving nation, bringing honor to the country. He stated that it was a great honor for him to be chairman at this meeting. He praised our work, our institutions at which our children learn English and Polish, and remarked that we have a tendency to establish a government like that of the United States, that we should accomplish it, and that we have the good will of all. He concluded his speech with complimentary remarks about our gathering, our beautiful hall, and our patriotism.

    His sympathetic speech was frequently interrupted by hearty applause.

    Next attraction was a vocal duet by Mrs. P. Kiolbassa and her daughter Rose, who sang the beautiful "Schubert's Serenade," and for which they were rewarded with tremendous applause and flowers. The duet was a success, in spite of the untimely interruption of the orchestra.

    The chairman of the meeting then introduced the Right Reverend Spaulding, 8Bishop of Peoria, as one of the best speakers in America and as a distinguished bishop of our country.

    Indeed we had the rare privilege of hearing a great speech delivered by a famous speaker and prince of the Church in America. It was a great honor to hear this silver-tongued orator. His speech revealed that he has a great knowledge of our history; it also disclosed his profound sympathy for our nation; it made us proud of being Poles, and it will be remembered for a long time. He spoke about our great astronomer, Copernicus the priest. He compared the Poles with the Irish, and then proceeded to describe the partition of Poland and its causes, and here he manifested his profound knowledge of Polish history by citing historical facts. He encouraged us to love our wonderful country as well as the adopted one, and added that only the ungrateful forget their native country. Referring to American patriotism, he stated that American Poles are good patriots and also excellent linguists, and disapproved of depriving anyone of his native tongue. We listened to this great church dignitary with great respect, interest, and pride. He received tremendous applause.

    9

    After the Bishop's speech, the school children sang "The Star-Spangled Banner," and after that the ladies' choir sang a Polish composition.

    When the choir ceased singing, the chairman introduced Mr. P. Onahan, a former city treasurer, who spoke on the religiousness of the Poles, referring to King Sobieski, who after defeating the Turks, as an exemplary and loving husband, sent the news to his wife in Poland, and as a faithful Catholic sent the captured Turkish flag to the Pope of Rome.

    Special recognition should be given to the choirs and the soloists. We refer to Miss F. Bok, who sang a soprano solo and attracted everyone's attention by her beautiful voice. Jan Kondziorski distinguished himself as a basso.

    The Poles of Chicago should always be proud of yesterday's celebration. Its memory should last as long as they live in Chicago, and it should be publicized throughout the country ...

    Polish
    III C, I C, III A, I A 2 a, III B 3 a