The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 06, 1861
    Instructions to Illinois Delegates (Editorial)

    The following resolutions were passed by the Illinois Legislature in the session which was held on Friday night:

    Whereas, The people of the state of Illinois desire no change in our Federal Constitution, but several of our sister states have declared that an amendment is necessary; and

    Whereas, The Fifth Article of the Constitution of the United States contains provisions making it possible to change that instrument, either through action by Congress or by a convention; and

    Whereas, a desire has been expressed in various parts of the United States to hold a convention for the purpose of proposing amendments to the Constitution; therefore be it

    2

    Resolved by the General Assembly, That if any of the other states which believe they have reason to complain appeal to Congress to call a convention in accordance with the manner prescribed by the Constitution of the United States for the purpose of proposing amendments to the Constitution of the United States, that the Legislature of the state of Illinois will assent, and hereby does assent; further

    That until the people of the United States decree otherwise, the Federal Union must be preserved in its present state, and that the present Constitution and laws must be executed as they are, and to this end all the resources of the state of Illinois are pledged to the Federal Government of the United States, in conformity with the Constitution and the laws of the United States.

    All the Democrats of the House voted against the last resolution, in line with the resolutions of the last Democratic convention, which was ready to surrender every Democratic principle (even those of the Northern 3Democrats) rather than use all legal means, including military force to enforce the laws of the United States in the South as well as in the North.

    The following resolutions were passed by the Illinois Legislature in the session which was held on Friday night: Whereas, The people of the state of Illinois desire no change in ...

    German
    I J, I H
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 14, 1861
    Reform in Handling of Tax Money (Editorial)

    The current Auditor's report contains complaints of a very grave nature about the Treasurer of Cook County. These charges point to the necessity of revising the laws which govern the delivery of money collected by county treasurers. From page seventy-seven of the Auditor's report we note that although they have collected it the treasurers of forty-two counties have not yet turned over $521,093 in tax money. And the Treasurer of Cook County is among them; he is $225,102 in arrears.

    According to a telegraphic report published in the Chicago Democrat, the authorities at Springfield received money from the Treasurer of Cook County during the latter part of December; in other words, part of the tax money of 1860 was used to cover a part of the deficit of 1859.

    2

    It is important that the people of Cook County know whether or not their Treasurer has covered the above deficit of $225,102, which had not reached the State Auditor December 1, 1860, as required by law.

    We do not claim that there will be a similar deficit on December 1, 1861, but it cannot be denied that the County Treasurer directs a personal interest against delaying the collection of taxes, while half the taxpayers are interested in delaying collection. The state, as is indicated in this instance, does not receive the money within a specified time anyway. The collections, the property of the people, remain in the possession of the County Treasurer for months. He deposits the money in banks and draws interest.

    The taxes for the year 1859 need not have been collected in the spring of 1860, since the money was not sent to the State Treasurer until the latter part of December.

    Now we can understand why the County Treasurer objected to postponing the 3collection of the taxes for 1860 (due this year). As far as he is concerned, it is not only a matter of keeping the money in his possession and for his personal gain, but also of using the taxes of 1860 to cover the deficit caused by not delivering the tax money collected for the year 1859. .The fact that so many county treasurers are guilty of the same neglect of duty does not excuse the Treasurer of Cook County; most assuredly it does not excuse the enormous deficit of December 1, 1860.

    In his report the State Auditor declared that changes in the law are necessary to prevent treasurers from using tax collections of later years to cover the deficits of previous years, and he recommends that county authorities refuse to permit treasurers to collect current taxes unless they show satisfactory evidence that they have delivered previous collections. Apparently, however, further steps must be taken. The County Supervisors have often audited the books of our County Treasurer and always reported them in good order. A law is necessary which makes it impossible for the county treasurer to use the money of the people for usurious purposes; a bill, making it mandatory that 4tax money be forwarded to the state at least once a month, is before the Legislature, and we urge that it be adopted immediately. This bill is in the interest of the people as well as the collectors, who will thus be freed from temptation.

    The current Auditor's report contains complaints of a very grave nature about the Treasurer of Cook County. These charges point to the necessity of revising the laws which govern the ...

    German
    I J, I F 6
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 18, 1861
    Lincoln's Administration

    The character of Lincoln's administration is sufficiently presaged by the brief but concise addresses which he made in Indianapolis, Cincinnati, etc. He will do his sacred duty, and he will do his whole duty, toward the Constitution as well as toward the Republican party.

    The Springfield Journal, which is undoubtedly familiar with Lincoln's aims, confirms this. This publication writes:

    "We would be guilty of neglecting our duty, if we did not urge the Republicans to abide by the principles upon which they elected Mr. Lincoln president. We know that he will be true to them until the last. We can be just, and we can be generous, but we cannot surrender the highest and most sacred principle that ever inspired men in a political or military battle. Mr. Lincoln is on his way to Washington, and in a few days, if he lives that long, his ideas, policies, and purposes will be made known to the world. They will 2be admired and supported by all good men in this country and in other countries. His heart embraces the entire country; he will speak and act in behalf of this nation, and, if necessary, he will lay down his life for it. No friend of humanity, of liberty, of the Constitution, of the Union, and of the high ideals of this country need have the slightest doubt that Abraham Lincoln will firmly support them. He believes that the Republican cause is just, and he will not desert it. Some party leaders may succumb to the storm of treason and be swept away, but that will not happen in the case of the brave, loyal, truth-loving President whom we have elected. He may be broken by the power of slavery or by the treason of friends, but he will not submit to them.

    "Mr. Lincoln believes that the people of the United States can alter or abolish their present form of government if they wish to do so. He will place no obstacle in their way. If the people desire to change the Constitution, he will not try to hinder them. But as long as the Constitution remains what it is--the highest law of the country--he 3will look upon it as such, and will faithfully execute the laws which have been enacted in accordance to this law, as he has sworn to do. He can do no less, and he is not the least inclined to do less. His oath, to perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution, is recorded in heaven. He will perform these duties, come what may. He will insist that all forts, arsenals, postoffices, mints, and other national property now being illegally withheld, be returned to its rightful owner, except in those cases where the United States' right to possession has been transferred elsewhere, in constitutional manner. This is a duty imposed upon him by the Constitution, and everyone who loves our Government, regardless of his party affiliations or the section of the country in which he lives, will support Mr. Lincoln and assist him in doing his duty.

    "We have appealed to the Republicans to abide by their principles. Since we love our country, the only free country in the whole world, we could do no less. We have demanded that these principles shall not be surrendered, not for the attainment of party purposes nor to humiliate political enemies; 4for we believe that everything which free men in this country and in every other country esteem very highly depends on the triumph of these principles.

    "We do not imagine that freedom can keep the upper hand in this country without a battle, but we are ready and willing to fight. We have never despaired of the life of the Republic, and we do not despair now. Men who are influenced by the madness which is now prevalent may injure the most sacred cause of our time, and states may leave the Union which the majority of their inhabitants love, but reason will return, and misguided states and people will return to their duties. Through this seeming impenetrable darkness our faith perceives the glorious sun of the future. We believe that Abraham Lincoln will do his full duty to his country and the cause which he advocates, no matter how difficult that task may be, and that in 1864 he will leave a united, prosperous, and happy country to his successor in office."

    The character of Lincoln's administration is sufficiently presaged by the brief but concise addresses which he made in Indianapolis, Cincinnati, etc. He will do his sacred duty, and he will ...

    German
    I J, I G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 19, 1861
    Seventh Ward Seward Club

    The following resolutions were unanimously adopted in a meeting which the Seventh Ward Club and the Seward Club held Saturday evening, February 16, 1861.

    Whereas, Several Chicago meat packers and grain merchants are doing everything they possibly can during the current week to support the compromisers in the Senate and the House of Representatives, by stating that nineteen twentieths of the Republicans of Chicago are in favor of compromise; therefore be it

    Resolved, That we consider honesty to be a prime virtue in business as well as in politics, and that we deem it a great injustice that those gentlemen want to barter free territories to slavery, and that they approve of such bartering because now they probably are not able to buy as much pork and flour as they were wont; further

    2

    That those gentlemen are guilty of an infamous lie when they claim that they represent nineteen twentieths of the Republican party of Chicago; for in the Seventh Ward alone there are more than twelve hundred Germans who are affiliated with the Republican party, and thus far we have not heard of a single one among them who approves of such an ignominious compromise as the Kellogg Compromise; further

    That we are firmly resolved to a bide by the Chicago platform and to oppose any and every compromise which cedes even an inch of free territory to slavery, and will hand over those of our representatives who barter free territories to slavery to the scorn and contempt of the present and future generations.

    The gentlemen speak of a dictatorship which the Tribune is trying to exercise over them, but to which they will not submit. And they wax angry, very angry, indeed. Poor Tribune, you had better tremble--for didn't you adhere to and defend the principles of the Republican Party?

    3

    However, the gentlemen referred to apparently do not know that the Rebels have insulted our flag and stolen our forts, our ships, our money, and our weapons--that they have heaped shame upon our flag and humiliated it in the sight of the world; these acts seem to be of no consequence to these men whose sole honor and distinction seems to consist of making money. The Southerners have long had the privilege of making and ridiculing the North, of tarring and feathering the opponents of slavery, and as a reward for such acts we are to donate the free territories to them; for they are our dear, dear brothers of the South! Do you not notice a trace of dictatorship in their conduct? Therefore, be it further

    Resolved, That we declare the proposed compromise of Mr. Kellogg treason to the Republican party and openly comdemn it.

    In conclusion we would say that these resolutions will be published in the English language and German language newspapers, and a copy will be sent to each of our congressmen. We ask all German Republican clubs of Chicago 4to voice their opinions on this matter.

    H. Hett, President; C. Scheef, Secretary; Seward Club Philipp Wetzel, President; E. Kaeseburg, Secretary; Seventh Ward Club

    The following resolutions were unanimously adopted in a meeting which the Seventh Ward Club and the Seward Club held Saturday evening, February 16, 1861. Whereas, Several Chicago meat packers and ...

    German
    I J, I F 2, I F 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 27, 1861
    Resolutions of the Seward Club

    The following resolutions were passed in a meeting held by the Seward Club, February 23, 1861:

    Whereas, An amendment to the present charter of the city of Chicago was adopted by the Illinois State Legislature at Springfield, abolishing the Board of Sewers, Streets, and Water, and replacing it with a Board of Public Works consisting of three commissioners who are to be elected by the voters of Chicago next spring; therefore be it

    Resolved, That we, as German-Republican citizens of the North Side, consider it necessary that a citizen of German descent be elected to this Board to represent the interest of Germans and to protect the rights and the welfare of the working class; further

    That we will exert our influence only in behalf of a man who possesses the necessary qualifications and ability; further 2That we appeal to all German-Republican clubs of the city to co-operate with us in our endeavors to gain our objective when the next municipal election is held.

    The following resolutions were passed in a meeting held by the Seward Club, February 23, 1861: Whereas, An amendment to the present charter of the city of Chicago was adopted ...

    German
    I J, I F 2, I F 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 21, 1861
    Carl Schurz and the Sardinia Embassy (Editorial)

    The appointment of an ambassador to Turin was of special interest, not because of the character of those who sought this post, but because of the eventual recognition or nonrecognition of the German Republicans of the United States. We admit that we were not favorably impressed when we learned that Mr. [Carl] Schurz had not been selected for the mission. After Governor Koerner had been defrauded of the ambassadorship at Berlin through a political coup of Mr. Judd of Chicago, Mr. Schurz was the only representative German aspirant to a foreign embassy, and he was especially entitled to the promotion, since he not only had the support of his state, as is often the case with American politicians, but also the indorsement of the Germans of every state in the Union. This support undoubtedly was evidence that the Germans of the Union wanted to be acknowledged coequal with native Americans in at least one respect--whenever appointments to 2foreign positions were in question. Their concern with Mr. Schurz was based solely on the German's desire to nominate their worthiest and ablest representative.

    They were not successful in their attempts to wrest such recognition from the national pride of native Americans; and an appointment to Rio de Janeiro can never be looked upon as adequate compensation.

    Secretary of State Seward even went so far as to establish a principle according to which all foreign-born persons will be excluded from the foreign service--if such a thing is possible. We deplore the narrow-mindedness from which this principle emanated.

    In the first place, we must not overlook the fact that foreign-born citizens who know a foreign language are best qualified to represent the United States abroad. The New York Tribune was right when it stated, in defense of Mr. Schurz's claim, that his Prussian extraction was an argument for, and not 3against, his appointment to the Court of Turin. Italy, which was liberated through the revolution brought about by the revolutionist Garibaldi, would have no scruples about recognizing the former German revolutionist, especially since he would not be serving in that capacity, but rather as an American citizen. However, we shall not enumerate the excuses which Washington offered for denying the request of Mr. Schurz, the German-American citizen par excellence. It would be useless to discuss them anyway: but the lesson which this German reversal teaches is very instructive.

    We learn from it that even the greatest services rendered by an eminent German to a political party and, in this case, to the Union itself, are not sufficient to offset the influence of American narrow-mindedness and greed for office. The battle of the Germans for recognition of their co-equality with native Americans in the Union is by no means ended, and they have no other recourse but to apply means which are more effective than either the influence of individuals, be they ever so prominent, or the 4resolutions of the Central Committee of the Republican party.

    The coequality of the Germans must be explained to the masses in city, county, and state until even the most stubborn are convinced and the feeble-minded can understand--before any attempt is made to enlighten the upper classes. Thus, it is necessary that German sheriffs be elected, and that, if possible, a German representative and German senator be seated in every state legislature in the United States, and the next step of the Germans, especially those in the northwest, should be to bring about the election of German congressmen.

    It is said that New England congressmen prevented the appointment of Mr. Schurz; and it will be the duty of the Germans to erase this score by electing German congressional representatives. In days gone by the Germans were not competent to fill public offices, but this inefficiency is being remedied in some quarters, at least to some extent, and in a short time there will be no dearth of qualified German candidates. The old adage, 5"Who does not progress must retrogress" is true close of German-Americans.

    The knowledge that their native culture was a predominant element in the progressive development of the American nation must be an incentive to the Germans of the Union to continue their collaborative efforts in shaping the social, political, and economic affairs of this nation; and, to that end they must aspire to the higher, even the highest, public offices. This must be the aim of all German-Americans for the sake of those native Americans who instinctively fear and try to avert any interference in their turbulent national matters by inexperienced elements.

    The appointment of an ambassador to Turin was of special interest, not because of the character of those who sought this post, but because of the eventual recognition or nonrecognition ...

    German
    I F 4, I F 1, I F 5, I J, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 08, 1861
    The Policy to Be Followed by the Patriots of East Tennessee (Editorial)

    Elsewhere in this issue of the newspaper the reader will find information concerning the resolutions of the great Union Convention which the brave patriots of East Tennessee recently held at Greenville. This Convention, composed of staunch patriots from no fewer than thirty counties, was in session for three days. The proceedings were marked by harmony and the spirit of sacrifice. The declaration, made by the Convention and published in this newspaper, is characterized by great simplicity as well as an eloquent enumeration of the many crimes which the Secessionists and their ring leaders have committed against loyal citizens of the slave states. And what a contrast between this catalogue of heinous deeds and the description of the many benefits which the people of Tennessee also received at the hands of the 2Union, and which the loyal Tennesseans gratefully acknowledge!

    But do the resolutions contained in the declaration offer the correct solution of the problem confronting those citizens of the slave states who remained true to the Republic? As indicated by the resolutions, the people of East Tennessee want to sever their part of the state from the rest of Tennessee and establish themselves as a separate state. As we know, the patriots of West Virginia were the originators of the idea; at first they, too, intended to effect a complete separation from their state and to found another state. This plan would be effective if a complete and permanent separation between the North and the South were brought about, and a Southern confederation were permanently established; in that case it would be laudable only if those portions of the southern states which are favorably disposed toward the Union should leave the Rebels and join the Union. However, since there can be no doubt that the Federal Government will prevent a permanent separation between the North and the South, and will disperse the Southern Confederation, the matter assumes an entirely different aspect. The question is whether or not it would be more practical, 3if, under these circumstances, the loyal parts of the slave states remained with their respective states? We answer in the affirmative; for we believe that the whole of the slave states can be cleansed, purified, and emancipated by these loyal, true citizens, as soon as the disloyal parties in those states have been subdued by the strong arm of the Federal Government. Indeed, we are convinced that their co-operation will be indispensible in the cleansing process. Then, too, West Virginia and East Tennessee are to be looked upon as wedges which free labor has driven into the heart of slavery; for example, not even one tenth of the inhabitants of East Tennessee are slaves, while in the secession counties of West Tennessee, in the neighborhood of Memphis, the slaves are just as numerous as the whites. So if there are any serious intentions of abolishing slavery in the whole state of Tennessee, East Tennessee, which favors and furthers the cause of free labor, must not under any circumstances, be separated from West Tennessee, which is "slavocratic". Similar conditions prevail in most of the border states, especially in Virginia. It was for just this reason that the patriots of West Virginia abandoned their plan of establishing a separate state as soon as they saw that the United States' 4Government would not permit a disruption of the Union. They are now endeavoring to elect an administration which is loyal to the Republic in order to eliminate the influence of the disloyal elements within its borders. Let us hope that the forceful message of the President will induce the patriots of East Tennessee to take similar measures.

    In this connection we would like to call attention to the example of Switzerland. No canton was more loyal to the Swiss Republic than was Luzerne. And yet at one time Luzerne was a haven and stronghold of separatists. However, the canton was cleansed and purified by its loyal patriots who defeated the separatists at Gislikon and Meyers Kappel....

    Elsewhere in this issue of the newspaper the reader will find information concerning the resolutions of the great Union Convention which the brave patriots of East Tennessee recently held at ...

    German
    I J, I G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 09, 1861
    Home Guard (Editorial)

    The President's message gives assurance that the War against the Southern Rebels will be carried on vigorously. A call for four hundred thousand men has been issued, and they will be enrolled by fall.

    However, war takes its toll of human lives, and soon the ranks of our brave Union soldiers will be thinned. Therefore, the training of a general reserve, or home guard is of the utmost importance. It is well known that the reserves of Missouri have already rendered excellent services.

    Everyone whose financial condition does not permit him to go to battle should endeavor to acquire at least some military training at home. And the home guard should be composed not only of married men and elderly men, but also of young unmarried men who have remained at home.

    2

    We know that every army needs reserves from time to time, and we are aware of how very important it is that the replacement troops have a knowledge of at least the rudiments of military tactics. This is a fact which needs no further proof or explanation. We shall very likely receive pertinent military orders soon, since Senator Wilson's proposal for the establishment of a general national guard is now before the senior legislative body.

    Here in Chicago it appeared that the citizens, particularly those of German extraction, were to begin training a reserve or home guard when hostilities began; several companies were organized, and we hoped that a number sufficient to establish a regiment would soon enroll. But the ardor quickly waned, and now only a small remnant of a formerly large body remains. Still it is gratifying that even a small group desires to continue its activity, and to obtain further military knowledge. Although a full company exists no more, on the West Side a comparatively large part of Company Three still drills very diligently and conscientiously; and though Company One, on the North Side, was reduced from one hundred ten to about half that number, the Company will 3undoubtedly compensate, with increased efficiency for what it lost in numerical strength.

    Thus we see that many men take training seriously--in addition to exercising two evenings a week, they answer the call of the drum every Sunday, and it is only fair to say that they make good use of the little time that is at their disposal.

    Captain Eshenburg, an officer who received a thorough education at a Prussian military school, deserves credit for the splendid progress made by Company One. He has succeeded in instilling a liking for military matters in his men, as each and every one of them will testify. They presented him with a sword, July 4, in recognition of his honest and conscientious efforts. Mr. E. Pruessing, Second Officer of the Company, made the presentation and addressed a few well chosen words to the leader. The spirit of this Company and the fine relation existing between the men and their officers is highly pleasing, indeed.

    Finally, we most urgently request that all German men of Chicago who do not 4intend to or cannot enlist in the fighting forces immediately, join the reserves, at least, and devote a few hours of every week to military training. Men who live on the North Side may report at the headquarters of Company One in the German House, and residents of the West Side at West Market Hall.

    The President's message gives assurance that the War against the Southern Rebels will be carried on vigorously. A call for four hundred thousand men has been issued, and they will ...

    German
    I G, III D, I J, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 14, 1861
    Thielemann's Company

    Another contingent of cavalry will leave Chicago for the battlefield--a troop just as brave as Schambeck's boys. Although this company, which consists chiefly of experienced cavalrymen, was accepted for service July 2, it must support itself until it has been sworn for service. However, these men have no means of obtaining a living, since they have ceased working. Therefore, the German public, every patriotic citizen of German extraction, is requested to do his share toward the maintenance of these brave men. A "musical evening" has been arranged tonight at North's Theatre for the benefit of Cavalry Company Number Two, of which Captain Thielemann is the leader. We advise that all Germans read the program which appears in the respective advertisement. It offers plenty of entertainment, and the fact that the purpose is a patriotic one should make it doubly enjoyable.

    Another contingent of cavalry will leave Chicago for the battlefield--a troop just as brave as Schambeck's boys. Although this company, which consists chiefly of experienced cavalrymen, was accepted for service ...

    German
    III D, II D 10, I G, I J
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 22, 1861
    Our Naval Power Should Be Increased (Editorial)

    Both Houses of Congress are now about to adopt the bill "for temporary increase of our marine". The bill authorizes the Government to purchase more ships for the purpose of suppressing piracy and enforcing the blockade during the duration of hostilities.

    It is certainly time our naval forces were strengthened; for the ships that we now have are doing shore duty. Although many ships have been recalled from foreign stations, and many that have been rotting away in our shipyards during the regime of Toucey--the half secessionist predecessor of Mr. Ward--have been rendered serviceable, yet we have not sufficient boats either to prevent the escape of Rebel ships from blockaded ports, or to hinder them from entering these ports with cargoes of contraband, to say nothing of capturing Southern pirates. However, it is of utmost importance that the blockaded harbors be "hermetically sealed," not only because of the harm which would 2thus accrue to the Rebels, but also because a blockade is valid, according to international law, only when it is enforced to such an extent that no enemy ship can elude it. And, at present, Southern pirates even risk coming into the vicinity of Long Island, to molest American ships when they enter or leave the Port of New York; at least New York newspapers claim that one afternoon last week a Southern privateer was seen off the heights of Quogue. It has been verified that the corsair "Jefferson Davis" advanced as far as the shoals of Nantucket, on the coast of Connecticut, and within three days took booty valued at $225,000. Our readers no doubt recall the other acts of bravery committed by the crew of this freebooter, and also the feats of the privateer "Sumber". Thus, Rebel ships have captured at least thirty Northern ships.

    Matters have already taken such a turn that no exporter of the North will entrust goods consigned to the West Indies or South America to ships flying the Stars and Stripes, for fear of these few shabby Southern freebooters; consequently our commerce with those countries has virtually closed.

    3

    Europe, too is quite reluctant to ship freight on our merchantmen, fearing that they may be captured by some Rebel ship. Indeed, European distrust of American shipping is so great and wide spread that now many empty freighters from that country come to New York to take on American freight. American shippers would use American ships were it not for the activity of Southern corsairs. At present there are at least one hundred and twenty foreign ships which arrived at New York without cargo and which are being loaded with freight consigned to foreign ports. They fly the flags of England, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria, Prussia, Hamburg, Bremen, Oldenburg, Sweden, etc.

    Not only is our shipping industry threatened with complete destruction, but our flag is also threatened with dishonor; it would, indeed, be a great dishonor for our flag if the world's greatest commercial nation, whose shipping tonnage far exceeds even that of England, could not protect its flag against the attacks of a few privateers who are armed only with a few rusty cannon.

    4

    If our naval authorities proceed quietly the troublesome activity of Southern freebooters will soon cease; for in New York alone enough boats can be bought in a single day to drive the Rebel ships from the waters and support our blockade fleet adequately, so as to render its activity effective. There are approximately forty large steamers and five hundred American sailing vessels in New York. Some of these boats are well manned, but all are idle, and their owners would gladly lease or sell them to the Government. We hope that the selection is placed in the hands of competent men, so that no swindle or scandal can occur.

    In conclusion we would point out that the experiences of the past few weeks prove that we need many more war ships to protect our ever-growing commercial fleet.

    Both Houses of Congress are now about to adopt the bill "for temporary increase of our marine". The bill authorizes the Government to purchase more ships for the purpose of ...

    German
    I J, I G