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Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- April 02, 1861Address by Alexander Stephens on the New Gospel of Slavery (Editorial)
The address which the Vice-President of the Confederate States of America (that is, the Cotton States) made in Savannah might open the eyes of our Democratic fellow citizens, for it reveals the infamous fraud which the leaders of the Democratic party have practiced for many years. These leaders did not tire of accusing the Republicans of depriving slaveholders of their constitutional rights, (or of entirely invalidating these rights) and have continually maintained that the South, therefore, had good reason to suspect any Republican administration; that its act in leaving the Union was justified to some extent; and that great concessions, even changes in the Constitution of the United States, would be necessary to remove this suspicion.
However, one need only read the address of Stephens, or the Montgomery 2Constitution, to see that what is wanted is not merely a matter of granting great concessions, but of surrendering the fundamental principles upon which the Constitution of the United States is founded. Everywhere in the South it is argued that the "conflict" between slavery and free labor cannot be settled; that, therefore, a return of the Cotton States to the Union is impossible; and that the North must either recognize the Confederate States and permit them to go their way in peace, or accept the new "Gospel of Slavery" which is contained in the Montgomery Constitution and was explained with much pomp and show by Mr. Stephens. Wherein lies the fundamental difference between the ideas which are now prevalent in the South and those which are embodied in the Constitution of the United States?
Let us hear Mr. Stephens on the subject. He says concerning Thomas Jefferson and the other framers of the Constitution of the United States: "The leading thought which he and most statesmen had, at the time when the old Constitution was written, was that the enslavement of natives of Africa is contrary 3to the laws of nature; that it is wrong in principle, and from a social, moral, and political standpoint. It was an evil with which they could not cope very well, but the general opinion of that generation was that the institution would vanish in one way or another, under the government of Divine Providence. "These ideas were fundamentally wrong. They were based on the assumption that races are equal. That was an error; it was a foundation of sand; and when the storm came, and the winds blew, the government founded on it crumbled."
Thus we see where the difficulties of the slaveholders lay. It was not the victory of the Republican party and the subsequent apprehension which drove the South from the Union, but the insufficient guarantees offered by the old Constitution, in which the very word "slavery" has been carefully omitted, while "the stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner" in the Montgomery Constitution;
Stephens characterizes this new cornerstone as follows:4
"Our Government is founded on the very opposite idea; its foundation is laid, and its cornerstone rests, on the great truth that the negro is not the equal of the white man; that the natural and moral condition of the negro is slavery, subordination the a higher race."
Though the proof adduced for the correctness this moral precept, which does not permit the negro to eat the bread which he has produced in the "sweat of his brow" is very weak indeed, yet it is not the first time in history that selfish man has applied sophisms to justify very great injustices. And the South apparently is doing just that now. These new apostles of slavery are just as obsessed by their ideas as were the Anabaptists of Muenster in the year 1525, or the virtue-terrorists of the French National Convention (1792-95) during the French Revolution. They think that they are right and that the North is wrong. They consider themselves discoverers of new moral and economic truths, and look upon Northerners as narrow-minded fanatics.
Time alone can cure this evil delusion of the South; it would merely tend to 5increase the delusion if one attempted to apply violent measures. The Union is reaping the fruit of neglecting the education of both Southerners and Northerners. If the education of the people of the North had been more general and broader, the Democratic party would have been overthrown before the delusion of the South had grown as strong as it is now, and at a time when there was hope of healing the breach which had been created within the Union. Of course, the sly leaders are taking advantage of the ignorance of the mass of the poor whites to justify every manner of dubious act, from the lynching of an alleged "abolitionist" or a raise in price on all goods manufactured in the North (due of course to a tax imposed on such goods), to the attack upon United States forts and the conquest of new territory in the Southwest for slavery.
We shall not deplore the disadvantages and the confusion of the present situation, whether the Union is reconstructed or not. No doubt it will be, if only this one great truth is recognized and observed in practice: Our 6modern civilization must choose between a better, a more thorough education of the people and anarchy, whether it be in permanent form, as it is in South American republics, or a periodically moderated despotism, as it prevailed in ancient Rome and Greece.
The address which the Vice-President of the Confederate States of America (that is, the Cotton States) made in Savannah might open the eyes of our Democratic fellow citizens, for it ...
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Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1861German Companies in Camp (Editorial)
Various rumors have been spread concerning the situation of German companies. We advise our fellow citizens to be very careful about accepting reports that German companies are badly treated or disbanded. These rumors are seldom reliable, and it is much wiser to believe the statements of honest members of the companies themselves, and form one's opinion on the basis of what they have to say. Captain Schambeck visited our office and gave us an oral report on conditions, and we have received information through the mail from good honest Captain Lippert, who is at Camp Yates, and also from our friend Eduard Bornemann, ensign in the Turner Company.
All the German companies from Chicago, which are in Camp Cairo and Camp Springfield, have been accepted for service and assigned to regiments.2
These companies are:
At Camp Cairo (Turner) Union Cadets, Captain Kowalt Lincoln Rifles, Captain Mihaloz
At Camp Yates
Union Rifles, Number 1, Captain Lippert
Union Rifles, Number 2, Captain Iten
Washington Light Cavalry, Captain Schambeck
Washington Light Infantry, Captain Mattern
The troops are in good humor and are well cared for; as a rule enrollment into active service puts an end to any complaints, and everybody is satisfied. Captain Schambeck, who brought us this information, says that these conditions 3are a result of the ceaseless efforts of Lieutenant Governor Hoffmann. It will be interesting to the relatives of the Chicagoans who are in camp to know that Captain Schambeck will be at Hottinger and Kastler's, on Randolph Street, today from 9 to 12 A. M. and from 1 to 3 P. M., and again tomorrow, from 9 to 12 A. M., to give anyone wishing for reliable news a true account of conditions in his camp.
The Union Cadets are brave boys; they do not believe in half-way methods. Not only did they ask for the honor of filling the most dangerous positions in Camp Cairo; not only did they drill so diligently and energetically that they are now able to compete with the crack Zouave Company; but they have also reorganized their Turnverein in camp, Officers elected are: A. Erbe, First Speaker; C. Bornemann, Secretary; horizontal bars were erected, and 4so "Kinzie Hall" was transferred to Camp Cairo. That's the way, boys! Good luck to you!
Various rumors have been spread concerning the situation of German companies. We advise our fellow citizens to be very careful about accepting reports that German companies are badly treated or ...
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Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 06, 1861Do We Need Foreign Mediation? (Editorial)
We need foreign mediation as little as we need foreign help; in fact, we do not need any mediation, neither from home, nor from abroad. As far as foreign assistance is concerned, all that is necessary is that foreign powers, which are at peace with us, permit us to put out the fire that has been started in our house, and do not do anything to hinder us, and that they be not too critical of the method and means which we employ to extinguish the fire. We request the foreign powers to consider especially, that if we blockade Southern ports we are not blockading foreign ports, but our own ports, and that we have just as much right to do so, as the owner of a house has to lock the doors in order to capture a thief, or as the police have to barricade a street for the purpose of quelling a riot or protecting people against contagious disease. If the foreign nations, our friends, will bear in mind that the blockade of our Southern ports is more to our advantage than to their disadvantage, and 2that one section of international law specifically states: "No neutral power shall be incommodated or importuned by a military operation which is not more to the advantage of the warring nation than it is to the disadvantage of the neutral nation", and, accordingly, do not interfere with our conduct of the war, they will do all that we ask.
According to the London Times, the English cabinet will offer its mediation as soon as hostilities have actually begun, and Governor Hicks, of Maryland has already made the proposal that the whole dispute be submitted to Lord Lyons for adjudication. Such a proposal, made by an American, amounts to an act of treason, and if made by the representatives of a foreign nation it must be looked upon as meddling, and rejected. What would Great Britain have said if America had offered her mediation when England was at war with the sepoys? His Majesty's Government would have given us the same answer that we will be obliged to give, and shall give, namely, that we do not negotiate with rebels, and that we shall suppress and subdue the Montgomery sepoys, just as England suppressed and subjected the sepoys of India. The 3only notes which one is wont to exchange with rebels are the paper in which powder and bullets are conveyed, and which are called shells, in military language.
We need foreign mediation as little as we need foreign help; in fact, we do not need any mediation, neither from home, nor from abroad. As far as foreign assistance ...
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 07, 1861Meeting of the German Ladies' Society
The German Ladies' Society, which was organized for the purpose of furnishing lint, bandages and other materials for dressing wounds, and, above all, the money necessary to buy them, held a meeting [yesterday] at the German House. The attendance was not proportionate to the seriousness which German ladies and girls should show during times of great danger. The three members of the Committee, Mrs. Butz, Mrs. Schneider, and Mrs. Sparschuh waited patiently until 5 o'clock while a few individuals brought donations of lint, bandages, and money. The following contributions have been received to date:
Collected by Mrs. Butz $37.10 " " Mrs. Sparschuh 17.42 " " Mrs. Schlund 10.14 " " Mrs. Bahe 8.15 " " Mrs. Bohrmann 4.62 " " Mrs. Schneider 18.00 " " Mrs. Gindele 4.00 Total $99.43
The time of the next meeting will be published. In the meantime, ladies may leave their packages with Mrs. Butz, 127 North La Salle Street, or with Mrs. Schneider, 110 North Clark Street. German owners of dry goods stores are urgently requested to contribute some pieces of shirting, which is badly needed. The material may be left in the store of C. Vorpahl, 35 La Salle Street, where receipts for donations will be issued.....
The German Ladies' Society, which was organized for the purpose of furnishing lint, bandages and other materials for dressing wounds, and, above all, the money necessary to buy them, held ...
III B 2, II D 10, I G
Secondary listingsGerman // Contributions and Activities > Benevolent and Protective Institutions > Foreign and Domestic Relief (II D 10) ?
German // Attitudes > War (I G) ?
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 07, 1861The Meeting at the German House (Editorial)
A number of Germans of this city held a meeting at the German House last Sunday. Mr. C. Butz was elected chairman and Mr. E. Seckel secretary. Although the meeting was not very well attended, a laudable zeal was displayed by the assembly, and great progress was made in matter pertaining to the support of the families of the volunteers who have left home to defend the Union and uphold our laws against anarchy and rebellion. Mr. D. Kletz, second lieutenant of the Union Rifle Company (composed of Germans of Chicago), who happened to be here on furlough, reported on conditions in Camp Springfield. He said that food was ample, but that complaints were made in regard to two matters: a lack of shirts and shoes was causing considerable dissatisfaction; furthermore, members of this company were troubled by the thought that their loved ones at home would not be cared for. From the interesting report which Mr. Eschenburg, a member of the Central Committee, rendered later it was noted that the cause for the first complaint, which was justified, had been removed, since a shipment of 2shoes and woolen shirts consigned to the aforementioned company had gone forward last Friday. In regard to the support of the families of soldiers in camp, Mr. Eschenburg informed the assembly that it had been resolved to give each mother who has two children in the service $3.00 per week and that this sum is to be decreased or increased according to circumstances. He also pointed out that the Central Committee spends thousands of dollars for this and other purposes, and that it was necessary to devise some way of furnishing the Committee with more funds. After a long debate, it was decided to propose, through the German member of the Committee, that the Committee appoint three persons in each ward to solicit subscriptions for monthly contributions to be paid during the duration of the war, and to be delivered to the Committee when collected. We hope that our German fellow citizens, especially those who have been blessed with much of this world's goods, will not fail to show their patriotism by generous subscriptions. But also the ones who are not rich can, and should, place their mite on the altar of the Fatherland and remember that the proverb, "many grains make a pile", is still true.
A number of Germans of this city held a meeting at the German House last Sunday. Mr. C. Butz was elected chairman and Mr. E. Seckel secretary. Although the meeting ...
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Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 07, 1861The Germans (Editorial)
In the border states, even in Texas and the extreme Southern states, all the Germans are true Americans; all are loyal to our Government.
In Baltimore, Maryland, the Germans, one and all, are for the Union. The Germans in this city were the ones who hauled down the flag of the Secession, and everywhere in those parts of the city which are inhabited chiefly by Germans, the flag of the Union is proudly and boldly displayed.
In St. Louis, the German element holds the Secessionists in complete check and the authorities of that city did not hesitate to furnish these Teutons with arms taken from the arsenal of the United States. Three thousand of these Germans enlisted under The Star-Spangled Banner, ready to defend the Union, the Constitution, liberty and justice against any enemy. Had it not been for these Germans, the State of Missouri would have proclaimed secession long ago.2
Many of the volunteers who hail from our city are German. A number of companies are "all-German," and they were the first to be ready for combat. There are quite a few Germans in other companies also.
The German hates the flag of the rebels, and this hate knows no bounds, he will never fight under the flag of secessonists; on the contrary, he will take up arms against it, even when confronted by superior forces.
The hatred of the German race toward everything that savors of slavery is deadly. No doubt it emanates from the fact that the Germans are primarily a working people, who are very practical in everything they undertake, and that they have implicit trust in the possibility that some day humanity may be entirely freed from despotism, whether it be political, religious, or economic.
Thank God that we have this element among us during these perilous times, when the black cohorts of slavery have arisen to fight against the advocates of those human rights, in defense of which all Christendom is ready to take up arms at this very moment.
In the border states, even in Texas and the extreme Southern states, all the Germans are true Americans; all are loyal to our Government. In Baltimore, Maryland, the Germans, one ...
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Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 01, 1861Schambeck's Company (Editorial)
The Cincinnati Yolksfreund reports: "About six o'clock last evening Schambeck's Company arrived here from Chicago, via the Cincinnati and Chicago Air-Line Railroad, leaving the train at the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Railroad depot, Since the saddles and baggage of this stately cavalry contingent had been immediately transferred and sent on, the travellers were forced to lead their horses through the streets. Captain Schambeck had telegraphed to the local United States Quartermaster, requesting that official to make the necessary arrangements to care for the soldiers and their mounts. The Quartermaster ordered that the horses be taken to Benjamin Jennifer's Livery Stables, at the corner of 12th and Walnut Streets.
There the horses were fed and bedded, but neither meals nor sleeping quarters were supplied for the men. Some goodhearted and patriotic citizens saw the 2men standing on street corners, heard their bitter complaints about the ill treatment of the Government, and took some of them to the Turnhalle, and others to nearby halls, where the tired troopers received meals and then were lodged in boarding houses. So local citizens had to care for United States soldiers, while it is the duty of the United States' Quartermaster to provide for them. This is just another example of the deplorable and harmful negligence and disorder which prevails in all branches of our war administration.
Schambeck's Company consists of 102 members, all Chicago Germans who have seen service in the Old Country. They are strong, lanky men, and have all the necessary requisites to effective service in the cavalry of our army.
The Cincinnati Yolksfreund reports: "About six o'clock last evening Schambeck's Company arrived here from Chicago, via the Cincinnati and Chicago Air-Line Railroad, leaving the train at the Cincinnati, Hamilton and ...
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Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 04, 1861Compromise (Editorial)
It is possible that certain lukewarm men will express their desire for a compromise in the special session of Congress today, but we cannot believe that any such cowardly proposal will receive much serious consideration. On the contrary, we hope to hear requests that the administration cease its inactivity, that it proceed in Virginia, and carry on the war more energetically, until treason controls not an inch of ground in this Republic. The thought of suspending hostilities before the rebels have been dispersed and forced to obey, is so absurd that it would be an insult to the administration and to Congress to request them to consider it.
When the loyal states took up arms, when they declared that they were willing to sacrifice thousands of their men and millions of dollars in money and property to preserve the Union, when they sent many of their 2sons to camps and battlefields and exhausted their economic resources for years to come, when the loyal states displayed this splendid evidence of patriotism, did they do so merely to hear contemptible speeches favoring a compromise or to achieve a worthless peace? Did they do so, perhaps, merely to come to a friendly agreement with the rebels, who even now are under arms at the portals of Washington in defiance of the Constitution? No, a thousand times no! The loyal states have made great sacrifices, and they always will, when it is necessary to defend the Union, the Constitution, liberty, justice, and honor, and to destroy the rebels who are trying to overthrow the Republic. That was, and is, the purpose for which the loyal states armed at great sacrifices, and a pillory is ready for anyone who dares to desecrate the heroic efforts and offerings of the loyal states and their citizens by compromising with the rebels.
It is possible that certain lukewarm men will express their desire for a compromise in the special session of Congress today, but we cannot believe that any such cowardly proposal ...
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 08, 1861The Policy to Be Followed by the Patriots of East Tennessee (Editorial)
Elsewhere in this issue of the newspaper the reader will find information concerning the resolutions of the great Union Convention which the brave patriots of East Tennessee recently held at Greenville. This Convention, composed of staunch patriots from no fewer than thirty counties, was in session for three days. The proceedings were marked by harmony and the spirit of sacrifice. The declaration, made by the Convention and published in this newspaper, is characterized by great simplicity as well as an eloquent enumeration of the many crimes which the Secessionists and their ring leaders have committed against loyal citizens of the slave states. And what a contrast between this catalogue of heinous deeds and the description of the many benefits which the people of Tennessee also received at the hands of the 2Union, and which the loyal Tennesseans gratefully acknowledge!
But do the resolutions contained in the declaration offer the correct solution of the problem confronting those citizens of the slave states who remained true to the Republic? As indicated by the resolutions, the people of East Tennessee want to sever their part of the state from the rest of Tennessee and establish themselves as a separate state. As we know, the patriots of West Virginia were the originators of the idea; at first they, too, intended to effect a complete separation from their state and to found another state. This plan would be effective if a complete and permanent separation between the North and the South were brought about, and a Southern confederation were permanently established; in that case it would be laudable only if those portions of the southern states which are favorably disposed toward the Union should leave the Rebels and join the Union. However, since there can be no doubt that the Federal Government will prevent a permanent separation between the North and the South, and will disperse the Southern Confederation, the matter assumes an entirely different aspect. The question is whether or not it would be more practical, 3if, under these circumstances, the loyal parts of the slave states remained with their respective states? We answer in the affirmative; for we believe that the whole of the slave states can be cleansed, purified, and emancipated by these loyal, true citizens, as soon as the disloyal parties in those states have been subdued by the strong arm of the Federal Government. Indeed, we are convinced that their co-operation will be indispensible in the cleansing process. Then, too, West Virginia and East Tennessee are to be looked upon as wedges which free labor has driven into the heart of slavery; for example, not even one tenth of the inhabitants of East Tennessee are slaves, while in the secession counties of West Tennessee, in the neighborhood of Memphis, the slaves are just as numerous as the whites. So if there are any serious intentions of abolishing slavery in the whole state of Tennessee, East Tennessee, which favors and furthers the cause of free labor, must not under any circumstances, be separated from West Tennessee, which is "slavocratic". Similar conditions prevail in most of the border states, especially in Virginia. It was for just this reason that the patriots of West Virginia abandoned their plan of establishing a separate state as soon as they saw that the United States' 4Government would not permit a disruption of the Union. They are now endeavoring to elect an administration which is loyal to the Republic in order to eliminate the influence of the disloyal elements within its borders. Let us hope that the forceful message of the President will induce the patriots of East Tennessee to take similar measures.
In this connection we would like to call attention to the example of Switzerland. No canton was more loyal to the Swiss Republic than was Luzerne. And yet at one time Luzerne was a haven and stronghold of separatists. However, the canton was cleansed and purified by its loyal patriots who defeated the separatists at Gislikon and Meyers Kappel....
Elsewhere in this issue of the newspaper the reader will find information concerning the resolutions of the great Union Convention which the brave patriots of East Tennessee recently held at ...
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Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 09, 1861Home Guard (Editorial)
The President's message gives assurance that the War against the Southern Rebels will be carried on vigorously. A call for four hundred thousand men has been issued, and they will be enrolled by fall.
However, war takes its toll of human lives, and soon the ranks of our brave Union soldiers will be thinned. Therefore, the training of a general reserve, or home guard is of the utmost importance. It is well known that the reserves of Missouri have already rendered excellent services.
Everyone whose financial condition does not permit him to go to battle should endeavor to acquire at least some military training at home. And the home guard should be composed not only of married men and elderly men, but also of young unmarried men who have remained at home.2
We know that every army needs reserves from time to time, and we are aware of how very important it is that the replacement troops have a knowledge of at least the rudiments of military tactics. This is a fact which needs no further proof or explanation. We shall very likely receive pertinent military orders soon, since Senator Wilson's proposal for the establishment of a general national guard is now before the senior legislative body.
Here in Chicago it appeared that the citizens, particularly those of German extraction, were to begin training a reserve or home guard when hostilities began; several companies were organized, and we hoped that a number sufficient to establish a regiment would soon enroll. But the ardor quickly waned, and now only a small remnant of a formerly large body remains. Still it is gratifying that even a small group desires to continue its activity, and to obtain further military knowledge. Although a full company exists no more, on the West Side a comparatively large part of Company Three still drills very diligently and conscientiously; and though Company One, on the North Side, was reduced from one hundred ten to about half that number, the Company will 3undoubtedly compensate, with increased efficiency for what it lost in numerical strength.
Thus we see that many men take training seriously--in addition to exercising two evenings a week, they answer the call of the drum every Sunday, and it is only fair to say that they make good use of the little time that is at their disposal.
Captain Eshenburg, an officer who received a thorough education at a Prussian military school, deserves credit for the splendid progress made by Company One. He has succeeded in instilling a liking for military matters in his men, as each and every one of them will testify. They presented him with a sword, July 4, in recognition of his honest and conscientious efforts. Mr. E. Pruessing, Second Officer of the Company, made the presentation and addressed a few well chosen words to the leader. The spirit of this Company and the fine relation existing between the men and their officers is highly pleasing, indeed.
Finally, we most urgently request that all German men of Chicago who do not 4intend to or cannot enlist in the fighting forces immediately, join the reserves, at least, and devote a few hours of every week to military training. Men who live on the North Side may report at the headquarters of Company One in the German House, and residents of the West Side at West Market Hall.
The President's message gives assurance that the War against the Southern Rebels will be carried on vigorously. A call for four hundred thousand men has been issued, and they will ...
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Secondary listingsGerman // Assimilation > Participation in United States Service (III D) ?
German // Attitudes > Interpretation of American History (I J) ?
German // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
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