The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- October 14, 1861
    Semiannual Report of the German Society of Chicago

    Report Dated October 1, 1861, Submitted by F. Schlund, Agent

    Employment secured for 1037
    Reduced fares for poor 10
    Passes for poor immigrants 22
    Lodgings for homeless 7
    Located friends or relatives for 130
    Kept from straying 37
    Assisted in money or check matters 68
    Families lodged 17
    Medical aid or medicine furnished for 16
    Assisted with correspondence 301
    Loans 5
    Located baggage for 35
    Forwarded baggage to destination for 52
    Furnished groceries for 20
    Total 1757

    Report Dated October 1, 1861, Submitted by F. Schlund, Agent <table> <tr> <td>Employment secured for</td> <td>1037</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Reduced fares for poor</td> <td>10</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Passes for poor immigrants</td> <td>22</td> ...

    German
    II D 10, III G, II D 3, II D 6, II D 8
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 06, 1861
    Report of the Agent of the German Society of Chicago

    Report for Month of October

    Employment obtained for 117
    Passes for poor immigrants 2
    Located relatives or funds for 20
    Located baggage for 13
    Corresponded for 36
    Assisted in financial matters 12
    Families lodged 3
    Sick families provided with food 6
    Lodged for one night 1
    Provided medical care and medicine for 4
    Total 214
    2

    Report for Month of November

    Employment obtained for 95
    Located relatives or friends for 12
    Located baggage for 10
    Corresponded for 42
    Assisted in financial matters 14
    Sick aided 8
    Provided medical care and medicine for 5
    Total 186

    (On account of illness the agent was not able to compile and publish the report for October in due time.)

    Although immigration has decreased greatly during the past month, after the arrival of each ship a number of immigrants have come to Chicago from New York and an occasional few from Baltimore.

    3

    During the winter months there is a strong demand in rural districts for laborers at a salary of from eight to ten dollars per month; however the supply is not sufficient to meet this rural demand, although many workers vainly seek employment in the city, and continue their fruitless quest until they have spent their last dollar. There is always ample opportunity for employment for girls, and the wages paid are high. Since winter weather has made shipping impractical, many workers, some of them very able men who worked in the sawmills of Michigan, have returned here; they complain that promises with reference to wages were not kept, that it was difficult to collect wages, and that prices of food and clothing are abnormally high; they recommend that only strong men accustomed to hard work apply for work at the mills, and that they demand a written contract. A written contract and (at the final accounting) a note signed by a responsible employer would protect many workers and their families against losses. This advice is also good for workers who hire themselves to the first available farmer, and it would be profitable for the latter to bind workers to serve for the duration of the harvest, by demanding that they sign a written agreement to that affect--after the usual month's 4probational work.

    Winter weather having set in very early, some needy people come to the German House every day to ask for help; although Chicago has remained one of the most prosperous cities of the country despite the unfortunate conditions which generally prevail during these trying times.

    The first charitable offerings arrived at this office last week: two barrels of flour from a German merchant, and one dollar from a woman who does not wish to have her name mentioned. In this connection I wish to ask that the German citizens of Chicago continue to contribute to the support of the sick and the needy. Your agent will follow his custom of thoroughly investigating each case; and though some heartless people claim that the deserving poor are denied help, please do not believe them, for such statements are usually made by persons who have never done anything to alleviate the misery of unfortunates, and never will; they advance such claims merely as an excuse for not assisting in this cause. Where is there even one worthy person who can truthfully say 5that your agent refused to help him? Very often these suspicious statements come from people who provide vagabonds with letters of recommendations, and make strenuous efforts to secure aid for bums who have been driven out of nearby cities. I can cite many instances in proof of my statement.

    The agent is in his office every morning from 9 to 12 A.M., and will be glad to accept gifts and donations. The public may be assured that these will be used only to administer to the needs of deserving persons.

    Report for Month of October <table> <tr> <td>Employment obtained for</td> <td>117</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Passes for poor immigrants</td> <td>2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Located relatives or funds for</td> <td>20</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Located baggage ...

    German
    II D 10, III G, II D 3, II D 8
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- April 01, 1862
    Monthly Report of the Agent of the German Society of Chicago Report for February and March, 1862 by F. Schlund, Agent

    February March
    Employment secured for 92 68
    Passes secured for 1
    Shelter secured for 1
    Located friends or relatives for 6 4
    Located baggage for 9 7
    Claim entered for loss of baggage 1
    Mis-sent articles located for 3
    Claims for damage entered for dispossessed Unionists. 4
    Financial advice given 30 5
    2
    February March
    Medical aid and medicines secured for 5 4
    Provided fuel and food for 13 21
    Found living quarters for 3 2
    Wrote letters for 68 50
    Loaned money to 3 3
    Total 199(sic) 169 (sic)

    There is a great lack of farm laborers and I was not able to supply even one half of the requests although the employers offered thirteen or fourteen dollars per month, or one hundred and fifty dollars per year, and in spite of the fact that young men are unable to secure employment in the city. And the supply of domestic help is not nearly adequate to meet the demand.

    Again experience proves that the German public cannot be too careful in granting the power of attorney, in giving authority to collect inheritance, in purchasing transatlantic or transcontinental passage, etc. I have often been convinced that our countrymen have reliable or friends in 3the old country who are able and willing to do anything they can for immigrants; yet the latter prefer to trust Americans, whom they know only by name and who must engage a third party in Germany, to transact business, appear in court, collect money, etc.; and frequently both the American businessman and his representative in Germany are dishonest and defraud their clients of large sums of money. Therefore, I advise my countrymen to have whatever business they may have in Germany done by relatives or friends, and, in the absence of such, by the mayor or village president, and to have the respective American consul supervise the transaction. In this way much money can be saved, and there is practically no opportunity to cheat. And if anybody is unable to carry on the necessary correspondence he may apply to the agent of the Germany Society of Chicago and he may be certain to receive competent advice and aid.

    Many Germans in America think that bills of exchange receive the same preference over other claims in America that is accorded them in Germany, but that is not the case. If payment is refused in Europe on bills of exchange 4which were purchased in America, they have no more value than, and are granted no preference over, any other kind of demand. Thus, people of dubious character, and people who are not financially responsible, can carry on this type of business in this country. Banks in Germany, however, can not be licensed to operate unless they have furnished a sufficient guarantee in money and unless the sum guaranteed has been registered. Thus the purchaser of a German bill of exchange is protected not only by adequate security, but also by an exchange court which has the authority to give a bill of exchange preference over any other claim, and woe unto the dishonest banker!

    We have no such protection here; the avowed honesty of the banker is our only guarantee, and if he unexpectedly closes his doors, all the bills of exchange etc. which he has issued, and all the deposits which he has accepted may be considered lost. Therefore Germans should only do business with those bankers whose moral integrity cannot be questioned, and who may be relied upon to assume no greater financial responsibility than they are able to meet.

    5

    Any American bank which has no other means save the money of depositors must be regarded as very unsound, and has nothing to lose in case it is forced to go out of business.

    I cannot understand why the legislatures of the various states of this country do not enact laws which offer the working classes and businessmen more protection against dishonest moneylenders. If a Cook County delegate to the legislature in Springfield should sponsor a bill guaranteeing more security to bank clients as protection against the nefarious wiles and schemes of shylocks, he would at least have the satisfaction of knowing that he had made an attempt to promote the welfare of his constituents; and even if he did not succeed in having the bill passed, he would probably give a future legislature and incentive to provide some really worthwhile legislation for the people of Illinois.

    Germans should also be very careful about the source from which they purchase passage from Europe to America. There are many dishonest ticket agents here.

    6

    They accept money for tickets from local Germans and promise to send the tickets to the purchaser's relatives in Germany who wish to come to the United States, but very often the agents disappear and the tickets are never received. Thus a man in Hamburg, Germany waited for his ticket for five months, and then--he died from disappointment and worry.

    The Homestead Bill which undoubtedly will be adopted by Congress, will cause large numbers of Europeans to come to America; for the Union Army, which will return victoriously from the battlefield, is composed of the pioneer spirit necessary for the expansion of the Western Territories. It is hoped, however, that the Germans will avoid the mistake made by their countrymen who made their homes in Missouri, West Texas, and other Rebel States. The future immigrants should settle in colonies or groups, and not singly, so that they may more effectively promote freedom and progress in the state, as well as in their immediate surroundings. German farmers who live apart from their fellow countrymen are exposed to disadvantages and persecutions, and their best 7opinions and complaints will receive no notice; whereas they will receive attention and exert much good influence in the state as well as in their community, if they live near one another.

    Illinois Staats-Zeitung, Apr. 2, 1862.

    Co-operation is productive of much good. That is the experience not only of the German Societies in America, but also of the bureaus of emigration in the old world, and especially of the emigration authorities of the free imperial cities of Germany. And we hope that co-operation between these organizations will protect immigrants against swindlers.

    We warn all immigrants against buying farms or smaller parcels of land unless the seller tenders a valid abstract, and we emphasize the necessity of having the abstract examined by competent persons; for an abstract is the only official document which protects the purchaser. Furthermore, let no purchaser be persuaded to pay for the examination of the abstract, since the 8seller is legally obligated to defray the cost of such service. It is not sufficient to have a warranty and deed; one must have a legal title. It is also necessary that all debts on the property in question be liquidated, and that such liquidation be attested to by the issuing of a quitclaim deed, before payment for the property is made and ere the pertinent documents have been recorded. Recording should take place immediately after this procedure. One should not be too hasty about buying land, and should give due consideration to the effect of climatic conditions upon health before consummating the transaction. Good soil and good water are prime requisites. It often costs more that the land itself is actually worth to bring wooded or shrubbed land under cultivation, and it is easier to break rolling prairie soil.

    The farmer should make but very moderate use of credit; it is better to have twenty acres of unincumbered land than three hundred acres that are mortgaged for three hundred dollars, for to have debts is like having a rope around one's neck. Failure of harvest, sickness in the family, loss of horses or 9cattle are all sufficient to put the property in the hands of the sheriff, for there are still scoundrels who know how to make the position of unfortunates untenable by raising the interest to twenty five dollars per one hundred dollars and by other diabolical means. On the other hand, the farmer who is not harrassed and hampered by debt can make a good living, can look forward to a rich harvest, can improve upon his property, and even lay aside a sum for a rainy day, or for the days when he can work no more.

    There is one rule which may be considered a norm for every farmer--poor soil is not ungrateful, but they who occupy it will never grow wealthy; but good, rich soil makes work easy and yields riches in good harvests. Whenever possible a prospective purchaser should select a farm which is correctly proportioned with reference to meadows, woods, and land under cultivation; for one element is as necessary as the other, and if one is entirely lacking, the farm cannot be operated at a profit. An eighty acre farm should contain forty acres of land under cultivation, fifteen acres of meadow, and twenty-five 10acres of wooded pasture. It could be operated without many hands, excepting during harvest time.

    If one finds and buys a farm which has no wooded plot, it will be necessary to purchase a grove of two to five acres, in the vicinity, in order to have trees for fuel and lumber, otherwise it will be necessary to continually pay cash for this material, or to make debts; and let everybody beware of either, if he wants to be successful.

    A wise buyer will also give much attention to suitable places for erecting a house and other necessary buildings. Dry places on high parts of the farm should be chosen for the house and barns, so that the water can drain off and man and beast are amply protected against dampness. If the drainage is good it is possible to put a good cellar under the buildings, and a dry cellar is of very great value to a farmer.

    As a protection against rain and cold it would be advisable to put few 11windows or doors in the north and west walls of buildings, and as many windows as possible in the east and south walls; and if there are woods or hills to the north and west of the buildings to protect them and the inmates against the strong sharp winds that come from the North and the West, so much the better. Wholesome drinking water is, of course, an absolute necessity. It will be an advantage to build the barns on a basement, since the cattle will be warmer, and, as a result, the cows will give more milk; and all the animals will require less food. We do not mean, however, that they should not leave the barn, for they need fresh air and exercise just as well as human beings.

    However, let no one go into debt! If there is not sufficient money at hand to acquire a farm which has buildings with basements, or to erect such structures on new land, the farmer should either wait until he can pay cash, or erect one building and wait until he has the means to erect another. In forested areas blockhouses are preferable to boarded structures, though not as suitable; however, if there is a lumber mill near by so that freight 12charges may be eliminated, or if the farmer may obtain the necessary logs from his woodland, he may use boards in constructing his buildings, since they are just as good as logs and are more economical.

    Good fences, too, are necessary, as are also enclosures for animals. As to a choice between rails and boards for fencing purposes, all depends upon the amount of lumber which can be taken from the farm, the proximity of the cord wood market, and the price of the cord wood. If the market is not more than ten miles away and the farmer can get from eighteen to twenty shillings per cord for cord wood, and fence boards cost no more than ten dollars, it would be profitable to sell the cord wood and use the proceeds to buy boards.

    Immigrants who were farmers by occupation in Germany ought not spend much time choosing a calling in America, but should immediately acquaint themselves with local farming conditions and purchase a farm when they have the necessary money.

    13

    The price of land depends upon the market value of products; according to the present land value a bushel of wheat should not cost less than seventy-five cents, corn not less than twenty cents, oats not less than twenty-five cents, pork not less than four and one-half cents, and beef not less than four cents.

    During the first two years a new settler will have but few products, and little of them to take to market; but he will have to go to market to buy seed and food; hence, if he has the means to buy a partly improved farm, he should not fail to do so, for he will be able to progress much more rapidly.

    I have described precautionary measures in detail because I am convinced that many of the newcomers do not apply such measures, and do not ask for advice until it is too late.

    F. Schlund, Agent.

    <table> <tr> <td/> <td>February</td> <td>March</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Employment secured for</td> <td>92</td> <td>68</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Passes secured for</td> <td/> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Shelter secured for</td> <td/> <td>1</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Located friends ...

    German
    I J, I L, III G, II D 3, II D 7, II D 8, III B 2, II D 10
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- April 16, 1862
    Annual Report of the President of the German Society of Chicago

    The German Society of Chicago observes its eighth anniversary today. Although many opportunities to support community charities were presented during the past year, and the Germans in this city responded nobly to them all, the Teutons have displayed a laudable willingness to contribute towards the maintenance and blessed activity of the Society.

    It is true that the work of the organization is carried on through an agent, still I am sure that nobody will object if I, an officer, make a report on, and voice my opinion about the merits of the Society, especially its accomplishments of the past year. Among the many thousands of German residents of Chicago, there are undoubtedly hundreds who are unable to solve even the simplest problems of everyday life, and are therefore dependent upon the advice and guidance of an honest and intelligent person; then again, there are hundreds of others who need material assistance because they are unemployed, or because sickness or old age 2prevents them from working and earning a living. And all of them are directed to Mr. Schlund, the agent of the German Society of Chicago, and he will be gratefully remembered by many thousands of unfortunates for displaying a genuine German character--a kind, sympathetic disposition, and a willingness to aid in any way he can.

    Just a year ago we received reports that treasonable and atrocious deeds were being committed in South Carolina. On April 15, 1861, the President of this, our beloved adopted country, issued a call for seventy-five thousand volunteers to defend and vindicate the majesty of the law and the people. The patriotic zeal of the German men of this country was exceeded by that of no other nationality, and they immediately took up arms. They did not hesitate to leave their homes, their wives, children, or parents, to fight for liberty on the bloody battlefields, and, if necessary, to die in its cause. The many German citizens who stayed at home and continued to follow their daily occupation, and for whose safety the soldiers rushed to arms, soon recognized it to be their duty to care 3for the dependents of the soldiers. A meeting was held at Bryan's Hall where a citizen's committee on safety was appointed; quite a large sum of money was raised by subscription and entrusted to this committee for the purpose of administering to the needs of the families of soldiers by the contribution of certain sums for their weekly support.

    The nativists' spirit of knownothingism, which is becoming more evident as the War goes on, was dominant in the meeting to the extent that they failed to elect a single German to the citizens' committee, despite the fact that many married Germans who joined Captain Mihalotzy's company or enlisted for services with other contingents were the first soldiers to leave the city for the battlefields.

    As president of the German Society of Chicago, I considered it my duty to see that the dependents of German soldiers were not neglected when weekly allotments were distributed. Upon the instigation of the German Society of Chicago a mass 4meeting was held, and several men adduced proof that the citizens' committee was prejudiced against German women and had neglected them most shamefully.

    The meeting unanimously adopted resolutions expressing indignation at such treatment, had the resolutions published in German and English newspapers, and firmly demanded that a German be added to the committee. John W. Eschenburg was suggested as a suitable person, and though it was very humiliating to the gentlemen of the citizens' committee, Mr. Eschenburg was appointed a member of the committee and given the status of full membership.

    Later the Union Defense Committee was organized and the Germans were represented in that body by Mr. Georg Schneider, and then, when Mr. Schneider left for Europe, by Mr. Caspar Butz. All the while the agent of the German Society of Chicago was obliged to provide for the wives and children of German soldiers and has rendered invaluable services to these brave citizens. The agent's detailed 5report is proof of this, and is submitted for your careful perusal.

    Against his will Mr. A. Borcherdt was elected treasurer in the last annual meeting of the Society, and he did not perform the duties of office. By his personal efforts in behalf of needy and unfortunate German families during the past few years, Mr. Borcherdt has become known as a sympathetic, able, and experienced social worker, and his reluctance to accept the position as treasurer of the German Society of Chicago should not have been considered, since the organization had no treasurer, and, partly because of the monetary chaos created by the Stumptails, no dues were collected during the first half of the year.

    In January we had an annual meeting which I am reporting in detail. It shows that no other society in America has accomplished so much good at so little expense. Receipts and disbursements were as follows:

    6

    Receipts

    Dues .............................................. $86.66

    Proceeds from annual ball .................... $319.85

    Total ............................................. $406.41

    Disbursements

    Salary (Mr. Schlund)............................. $300.00

    Mrs. Fischer's fare to Germany................... 27.00

    Coal and cartage ................................... 27.00

    Miscellaneous (food, small loans, etc.) .......... 17.01

    Total ............................................... $371.01

    7

    In addition, quite a sum was collected by the Chicago Arbeiterverein for the families of soldiers. Following is a detailed account of sources:

    Chicago Arbeiterverein ........................... $205.00

    Mr. C. Butz, lecture ............................... 28.50

    Riverside Rifle Company........................... 42.62

    Soldier's ball ......................................... 111.45

    Total .................................................. $387.57

    Statement of Assets:

    Invested in Chicago Municipal Bonds............... $500.00

    8

    Balance of previous investment ..........................$ 11.29

    Balance at Greenbaum Bank ................................. 50.00

    Balance in treasury............................................. 79.29

    Total..............................................................$635.56 (sic)

    Heretofore the management of the German House provided office room for our organization gratis, thus saving us an expenditure which was above our financial ability. For a long time a rumor prevailed that the management of the German House intended to deprive us of this facility. In our semi-annual meeting I broached the matter, and the chairman and several members of the board of management of the German House assured us that there was no truth to the rumor. To my great surprise our agent recently informed me that he had been ordered to vacate the premises because they had been rented. I also received a notice from 9the management of the German House and asked for time to put the matter before the Society in today's general meeting.

    Gentlemen, I do not intend to attempt to influence your opinion on this affair, however I doubt very much that your idea is different from mine. I invested two hundred dollars in the establishment of the German House, and for that reason I have paid no attention to the way it has been operated, because I never thought that there was the remotest possibility that the institution would ever be used for speculative purposes, or that the German Society of Chicago would be ejected from it for the sake of a little rent.

    Thus we shall be obliged to give the management of the German House a little more attention.

    I also wish to remark that the German Society of Chicago is faithfully aided in its work by loyal doctors and druggists who have made many sacrifices in the 10interest of charity. I do not wish to mention any names. The gentlemen referred to no doubt consider themselves amply rewarded by the satisfaction of having lightened the burden of many an unfortunate, and by the knowledge that they have the respect and gratitude of the Society. I also wish to express the gratitude of our organization to those who have donated clothing, shoes, meat, flour, fuel, and other foods.

    Before relinquishing my office I wish to express my hope that the members of the German Society of Chicago will continue to demonstrate their zeal in the cause of humanity and charity and leave no doubt that they intend to do everything they possibly can to insure the permanency of the organization.

    Respectfully,

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President of German Society of Chicago.

    11

    Thereupon the agent of the German Society of Chicago submitted the following report:

    Report of the Agent of the German Society of Chicago

    Since the German Society appointed me as its agent a year ago, I deem it my duty to make the following annual report:

    Immigration decreased during the War, but not as much as was generally expected. Among the immigrants who arrived in Chicago via the various railroads, about twenty per cent remained here, the others going to other points in Illinois, or to Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Iowa, or Nebraska. Before they left the old country many of these immigrants had planned to settle in Missouri, where there are a great many Germans, but because of the unrest created by the War in the state which was their original destination, they remained in Illinois. Let us hope that through the events now transpiring in Missouri immigrants will receive 12the protection which the Constitution of the United States guarantees everyone who comes to her shores seeking freedom, and that the United States Government will not fail to take the measures necessary to make such atrocities as were committed in North Missouri against the lives and property of German immigrants impossible in the future, otherwise not only Missouri, but also Kansas and Nebraska will be subject to great suffering and will be bereft of the wholesome effects of immigration.

    Following is a detailed account of the agent's activity:

    Secured employment for......................................1546

    Secured passes for..............................................25

    Passes secured through county agent for ....................6

    Reduced rates secured for....................................10

    13

    Secured passage by depositing baggage as security for.... 58

    Secured lodging for.............................................11

    Recommended to county agent............................... 6

    Secured admission to County Hospital for................... 3

    Secured admission to poor house for......................... 6

    Referred to county agent for funeral expenses.............. 7

    Attended to correspondence for ............................. 559

    Corresponded officially with ................................. 520

    Attended to financial matters for............................ 153

    14

    Collected debts for......................................... 3

    Provided food for........................................... 488

    Provided wood for .......................................... 60

    Provided coal for ............................................ 56

    Provided medical aid and medicines for.................. 42

    Provided clothing and shoes................................ 17

    Located relatives and friends for.......................... 184

    Located and reclaimed lost baggage for.................. 88

    Loans against security to.................................... 9

    15

    Gift of money to indigent ......................................... 2

    Kept from straying .................................................. 37

    Total ................................................................... 3396 (sic)

    Aid to families of Illinois Volunteers:

    Cash distributed to .................................................. 167

    Coal (ten tons) delivered to ........................................ 36

    Delivered wood (21/2 cords) to .................................... 6

    Secured shoes for .................................................... 4

    Secured meat (176 pounds) for ..................................... 15

    16

    Secured bread (270 loaves) for .........................72

    Secured beans (21/2 bushels) for ....................... 24

    Secured brooms (5) for ................................... 4

    Secured tea (4 pounds) for............................... 2

    Secured coffee (31/2 pounds) for ........................ 4

    Secured butter (41/2 pounds) for ........................ 5

    Secured meat (61/2 pounds) for .......................... 6

    Secured ham (31/2 pounds) for ........................... 4

    Secured sugar (2 pounds) for............................... 6

    17

    Secured medicine for ................. 14

    Though the Society had but little material at its disposal, the undersigned has the satisfaction of having helped a great number of unfortunates and indigents in their hour of great need.

    It must be surprising to every German that in order to rent the room to a private teacher the management of the German House has deprived the German Society of Chicago of office space to carry on its great humanitarian work.

    Since it is one of the chief parts of the agent's work to store baggage for immigrants and provisions for the poor and needy, he would gladly continue this benevolent work, if he had a suitable place; however he feels that he can not accept responsibility for these articles, if, as is the case at present, they are kept in a rat infested basement.

    Respectfully,

    F. Schlund, agent.

    18

    The report of the treasurer showed a receipt of $86.66 in dues. The receipts and disbursements are included in the president's report. All reports were unanimously adopted.

    The agent then submitted a notice to vacate which was delivered to him by Constable Kaufmann on behalf of the management of the German House.

    Following is a transcript of the notice:

    To Mr. Fidel Schlund: You are hereby notified that the management of the German House demands that you immediately relinquish and yield possession of the space granted you by above named organization, said space being located in the city of Chicago, county of Cook, in the building called the German House, and known as the building next to the southeast corner of North Wells and Indiana Streets.

    Mr. H. A. Kaufmann is hereby authorized to take possession of the space referred 19to in the name of the German House.

    Given under the signature of the president and the secretary of the German House on this twelfth day of April, 1862.

    E. Schlaeger, President,

    H. Eschenburg, Secretary.

    On recommendation of Caspar Butz it was resolved:

    1. That the members of the German Society of Chicago are willing to pay the management of the German House an adequate rent for the space heretofore occupied, if the management of the German House can reconcile it with humanitarian principles to demand money from a benevolent organization merely to enrich the stockholders of the German House;

    2. That we appeal from the act of the management of the German House to the 20stockholders of the German House and to their better nature, and that we instruct the agent of the German Society of Chicago not to comply with the demand that he vacate the property;

    3. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the management of the German House, and that they be published in the German press together with the annual report.

    An amendment that his place be taken by Mr. Conrad Diehl, a justice of the peace, was offered by Mr. Brentano, heretofore the secretary of the Society, to the proposal that all members of the board of directors serve another year. This amendment was accepted, and a vote of thanks was accorded all members of the board for past services.

    On recommendation of the treasurer Mr. Haarbleicher and Caspar Butz were appointed to revise the books of the treasurer. Since many quarterly dues are in arrears 21and it may be difficult to collect the full sums at one time it was left to the board of directors to decide whether the dues are to be collected or payment is to be dispensed with.

    Adjournment followed.

    Chicago, April 13, 1862.

    Verified by

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President,

    L. Brentano, Secretary.

    The German Society of Chicago observes its eighth anniversary today. Although many opportunities to support community charities were presented during the past year, and the Germans in this city responded ...

    German
    I J, IV, I G, III G, III D, III B 2, II D 10
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1863
    The German Society

    The general meeting of the German Society of Chicago was held in the German House, May 3, 1863, with President Heinrich Greenbaum presiding.

    The report of Agent Schlund was read and adopted, and the matter relating to the Reform School was referred to a committee which will endeavor to persuade the executive board of the Reform School to act in line with Mr. Schlund's suggestion.

    The financial report was adopted as read. Election of officers took place with the following result: president, Heinrich Gindele; treasurer, Karl Vergho; secretary, Conrad C. Diehl. Butz and Schneider were appointed to inform the above of their election. The following rules were adopted:

    1) The newly elected officers may not refuse to serve.

    2

    2) Minimum membership fee shall be two dollars. [Translator's note: The secretary does not state whether this sum is the annual or monthly fee.]

    3) Anyone who pays fifty cents or more shall be permitted to speak and vote in the general meetings for the period of one year.

    4) The salary of the agent shall be three hundred dollars per year.

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President.

    Report of the Agent of the German Society of Chicago for April and May, 1862

    April May
    Secured employment for 93 85
    Secured railroad passes for poor 3 1
    Secured railroad passes for wounded soldiers 3 1
    Found baggage for 11 2
    3
    April May
    Located relatives for 5 3
    Families allotted food 7 5
    Assisted in financial matters 8 6
    Found lodgings for families 6 2
    Secured medical aid and medicines for 7 5
    Soldiers' families supported 6 6
    Assisted immigrants to proceed on their journey 4 1
    Corresponded for 120 98
    Referred to county for aid 5 2
    Total 281 219
    Total for April and May 500

    My activity as agent of the German Society of Chicago was interrupted by the President's call for the organization of volunteer state militia. In my spare time I have devoted myself to helping needy immigrants and 4countrymen without remuneration from the Society, until the Conscription Act was passed; but now my term of service has expired.

    The German public of Chicago, a city where fifty thousand Teutons live, should pay more attention to immigration which is the cause of the great and rapid development of the city.

    While Americans annually spend large sums of money for benevolent purposes, as for instance, for orphan homes, homes for the friendless, and homes for the aged, the German Society of Chicago, which has become a refuge for helpless immigrants and needy German citizens, ought not fall asleep; for the German Society of Chicago is the only German organization which aids needy Germans without respect to origin or creed

    If our German citizens would cease helping every beggar and bum who comes to their door or approaches them in the streets, especially in the winter, and would donate corn, flour, meat, potatoes, etc., no Chicago family 5that is worthy of support would have to go hungry.

    The German Society has done much to increase the school attendance of poor children by exercising a "moral" compulsion--by giving shoes and clothing to those poor pupils who attend school regularly.

    We take great pleasure in commending the work done in the Juvenile Home, where German children were always heartily welcomed and well cared for.

    The Home of the Friendless is maintained for the benefit of children of dissolute or criminally inclined parents, or children who are in danger of entering upon a life of crime, and it has proved to be very effective. However the Home of the Friendless is not a suitable place for the children of poor but law-abiding parents; these children should be placed in more pleasant and less dangerous surroundings, so that they are not estranged from their parents and do not fall prey to greedy employers.

    6

    The Home for Workers is in its infancy. It is the most pleasant and most necessary of all branches of charity; for who is more deserving among the needy than the man or woman who is diligent and faithful and would like to work but is prevented from doing so by age and physical disability, and would rather starve than become an inmate of a poorhouse?

    In the Reform School there are proportionately few German boys; and the majority of them have been placed there because of youthful carelessness or indifference on the part of their parents, who either send their boys out to gather old iron and other junk, or permit them to loiter idly about the streets and alleys. In time the lads meet bad companions and finally are confined to reform schools, where they come into contact with confirmed and hardened offenders, and as a result the boys are totally demoralized.

    I hope that the German Society of Chicago endeavors to have juvenile delinquents classified, so that light offenders, first offenders, or those who do not participate in evil deeds, but just accompany the offenders, are not 7placed on the same level with, treated as, and confined with, real criminals, thieves, robbers, murderers, etc., but are kept separate from the latter.

    The inmates of the Reform School should be classified in the following manner: 1) Non-participating observer; 2) Seduced; 3) Corrigible; 4) Incorrigible.

    As in Germany, the societies "for the protection of German emigrants" are expanding their activity, so we also should take greater precautions to protect immigrants in our country.

    In conclusion I wish to emphasize that if the German Society of Chicago is not more alert, the thieves and confidence men in New York and other ports will have a gay time; for the German Society of Chicago and the St. Louis Immigrant Society have done more to prevent swindling than any other organization in the United States. The German Society of Chicago may justly be proud of the fact that it has exposed several attempts to defraud innocent people of large sums of money and valuable property, and has also succeeded 8in locating much valuable baggage.

    If the German immigrants who come to Chicago are left without a source of information or material aid, the city will not only lose its wide-spread reputation for the assistance rendered immigrants, but also will soon be deprived of the valuable services of these people.

    The Chicago Turnverein and the Chicago Arbeiterverein have done much for charitable purposes; however, the great majority of the members of these organizations are of the laboring class; many of them are members of the German Society of Chicago, and their zeal is commendable. Yet it is desirable that those who have wealth--home owners, businessmen, and professional men--take a greater and more active interest in benevolence. And they really are obligated, for they avail themselves of the services of the Society when they need help in their offices, stores, or homes.

    I wish to thank our president, Mr. Heinrich Greenbaum for the valuable 9aid he has given me in my work. He was always willing to assist me whenever difficulties presented themselves, though at times it was necessary that he neglect his business in order to comply with my request.

    I have always tried to be just toward everybody; if I appeared to be unsympathetic in some instances it was only because I wished to discourage people who are not worthy of assistance. There are a great number of beggars who journey from city to city; they are very successful in arousing the sympathy of the public, much more so than worthy applicants for aid. They manage to lead the existence which appeals to them by carefully avoiding any flagrant offense against the laws pertaining to vagrancy. When I refuse to feed or house these lazy persons, they slander the German Society of Chicago. And the public, not knowing that these professional beggars have been driven from some neighboring city by the civil authorities, believes their stories about about inhuman treatment.

    .......[The next paragraph of this article contains a repetition of previously 10expressed thoughts.]

    Respectfully,

    F. Schlund, Agent.

    ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT

    Receipts for 1862 and 1863 $652.07
    Disbursements for 1862 and 1863 246.50
    Balance $405.57

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President.

    May 2, 1863.

    The general meeting of the German Society of Chicago was held in the German House, May 3, 1863, with President Heinrich Greenbaum presiding. The report of Agent Schlund was read ...

    German
    III B 2, III G, III D, II E 3, II E 2, II D 3, II D 5, II D 4, II D 7, II D 8, I B 3 b, I D 1 a, II D 10

    Card Images

    Card Image #1 Card Image #2 Card Image #3 Card Image #4 Card Image #5 Card Image #6 Card Image #7 Card Image #8 Card Image #9 Card Image #10
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 12, 1866
    Report of Agent of German Society for the Protection of Immigrants for the Month of May 1866.

    Following is the report of my activities during the month of May, 1866:

    Applications for work 279
    Secured employment for 214
    Letters received 33
    Letters written 40
    Families aided financially 15
    Information and advice given to 132
    Located baggage for 4
    Secured railroad passes for 7
    Depots and landing places visited 14
    Caused arrest of "runners" 2
    Secured passage at cost of Society 2
    Issued recommendations to 26
    2

    On May 20, I found Mrs. Henriette Stroeger, widow of an immigrant who died en voyage, her infant child, and her sister lying sick and helpless near the Milwaukee Railroad depot. I had them brought to the Hospital for Women and Children, on Ohio Street where they were restored to health at the Society's expense. Another immigrant who was brought to this institution was treated gratis by Dr. G. Schloetzer. This man has not yet recovered from his illness.

    Our Police Commissioner should place a special policeman who is able to speak both English and German at the various depots to protect travelers, especially immigrants; this officer ought to be present at the arrival and departure of every immigrant train to see to it that immigrants are not mistreated or defrauded by railroad agents, confidence men, expressmen, or by "runners" or proprietors of saloons and hotels which are patronized by immigrants. By making it the sole duty of a policeman to patrol the depots and landing places, the Police Commissioner would do much to prevent the many just complaints that I hear frequently.

    3

    Immigrants who travel from New York to Iowa are often forced to pay the transportation charges on excess baggage from Chicago to Iowa twice, once in New York and again in Chicago, at the depot of the Galena division of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad. This railroad will accept a ticket issued by the railroad agent in Castel Gardens, New York only if the weight of the baggage is written thereon plainly in ink, so that the charges on excess baggage for the trip from Chicago to Iowa can be collected from the agent at New York. However, these agents are frequently intent upon their own interests and they use a lead pencil rather than pen and ink. The figures recording the amount of excess baggage are then written so illegibly on the tickets that the officers of the Northwestern Railroad refuse to accept them as valid. I have brought these facts to the attention of the Commissioner of Immigration stationed at Castle Gardens, New York, and shall follow up the matter until it is disposed of in favor of immigrants.

    On May 30, Mr. Thiener, a German immigrant, bought his passage from Chicago 4to Gillmon, Illinois from the agent of the Illinois Central Railroad. The fare is $3.65. Mr. Thiener gave the agent a twenty-franc piece, expecting to receive $1.35, the premium of exchange, in return. The agent refused to pay the premium, as did the acting superintendent of the railroad when I complained to him. The latter informed me that their agent had been instructed to accept gold or paper money but not to refund the prevalent premium on gold, and that none of the railroads of the West were accepting gold at the market value. Therefore, our German citizens ought to warn all immigrants with whom they come in contact against paying gold for railroad passage.

    About a thousand trunks and other articles--among them much baggage that belongs to German immigrants--is stored in the warehouse of the Illinois and Michigan Central Railroad, where they are kept for two years. Could not these railroads show their appreciation for the many dollars the public pays into their coffers by publishing an exact list of these articles in local newspapers?

    5

    W. C. Boeckmann and Johann Colljung, who arrived here via the steamship "England", which left Liverpool on March 29, have asked me to issue the following warning: The English steamship "England" sailed from Liverpool with 1,312 passengers aboard; 667 of these died at sea or in quarantine at Halifax. There were 563 German immigrants on the ship, and about one half of them died. The food that was served during the voyage was of very poor quality; the fish and the potatoes were spoiled. The rooms on the ship were overcrowded, the ventilation in the steerage was very poor, and everywhere there was filth. Many German passengers were "relieved" of their baggage, or their baggage was taken from them, by health officers at Halifax, who made no reimbursement.

    Frequently, immigrants complain that the transportation of baggage from Baltimore to Chicago by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad leaves much to be desired. This company has not yet introduced the check system, and although C. F. Hillebrand, the Baltimore and Ohio agent at Baltimore, always assures immigrants that their baggage will arrive at Chicago at the same time they 6do, they often must wait ten to fourteen days at Chicago, or continue their journey without their belongings.

    In conclusion, I wish to acknowledge and commend the conduct of John H. Gund, a Police Sergeant, who so kindly and sympathetically cared for the needs of the family of M. J. J. Tagg, who was friendless and destitute when he arrived in this city.

    Ernst J. Knnobelsdorff, Agent.

    Following is the report of my activities during the month of May, 1866: <table> <tr> <td>Applications for work</td> <td>279</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Secured employment for</td> <td>214</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Letters received</td> <td>33</td> ...

    German
    II D 10, III G, II D 8
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 08, 1867
    Report of Secretary of Aid Society for German Immigrants

    October 1, 1866 to January 1, 1867.

    Balance on hand $386.00
    Dues for quarter 418.73
    Rent for quarter 22.50
    Total $827.23

    Disbursements.

    Charitable purposes $239.45
    Printing 4.50
    Agent's salary 180.00
    Rent 60.00
    Miscellaneous 57.50
    Total $541.45
    Balance in treasury $285.78
    2

    The Society has loaned $229 to immigrant families. This amount is secured by promissory notes.

    C. Knobelsdorff,

    Secretary.

    October 1, 1866 to January 1, 1867. <table> <tr> <td>Balance on hand</td> <td>$386.00</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Dues for quarter</td> <td>418.73</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Rent for quarter</td> <td>22.50</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Total</td> <td>$827.23</td> </tr> ...

    German
    II D 10, III G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 26, 1867
    The Temperance Movement and German Immigration (Editorial)

    Emigration from Germany will reach new heights this year. The New York Herald estimates, on basis of reports received from its correspondents at Berlin and Munich, that at least 150,000 persons will leave Germany and come to America during the period from March to December, 1867. When we consider that conditions in Germany are unstable, that another war will be waged as soon as the necessary preparations have been completed, and that compulsory military service will cause every able bodied man who is not kept at home by uncontrollable circumstances to seek a new and quiet home in the Western Hemisphere, where the principles of liberty, justice and equality have been firmly and permanently established, the estimate of the New York Herald does not seem too high in the least. And this greater immigration quota not only increases our national wealth by adding substantially to our man power, but also greatly augments our supply of gold and silver, since the people who are persuaded to leave their mother country because of reasons previously 2mentioned usually belong to the class of property owners.

    Therefore, the American people should give these immigrants every possible consideration. The Germans who come to the United States seek more than material gain; they are bent on attaining freedom of action, freedom of thought, and freedom of conscience. While they are seeking economic independence, they wish to have freedom of movement, and especially they want to be unhampered in their enjoyment of harmless pleasures. The German nation is a thinking nation, an enlightened nation, and it cannot be convinced that nature and the gifts of nature have not been created for the satisfaction and pleasure of human beings. Although they were oppressed in the old country, they were never prevented from pursuing innocent pleasures, either at home or in company, and nobody ever dictated to them regarding what they should or should not eat or drink.

    Germans are sober people. Their national drinks are of a light and harmless nature. Drunkards are an exception to the rule. Thus a German immigrant 3would be surprised to find that efforts are being made in this country, where he sought freedom, to prohibit the use of beer, wine, and even distilled liquor.

    And yet, just at this time, when many immigrants are expected, bigotry, hypocrisy, and rumors of temperance are rife. Nobody will object to the organization of temperance societies, and nobody will attempt to prevent the members of those societies from promising to abstain from beer, wine, hard cider, and whisky. Anyone is privileged to establish or join such a society, just as everyone has the right to drink water. Indeed, we advise everybody who cannot use the gifts of nature in a moderate and humane way, and who, like a wild animals, must continue to drink after taking the first few sips, to Join one of the many temperance societies immediately, to vow complete abstinence from alcoholic liquors, and thus to save whatever human dignity he may still possess. Nor do we object when these advocates of moderateness proselytize through lectures, pamphlets, and books, in their endeavor to reform drunkards. As long as they do one more than try to convince people, 4they are within their constitutional rights; but as soon as they attempt to control the legislative body of the state, and to create moderation through punitive laws, they exceed their rights.

    This opinion seems to be gaining adherents. 'Tis true, the legislatures of some states, for instance, New York, Pennsylvania, a few of the New England States, either one or the other Western States (Iowa or Kansas) are still laboring under the delusion of ignorance and are trying to reform drunkards by legislation; however, the Anglo-American press is beginning to take a decisive stand against the fanaticism and bigotry of temperance agitators. The New York Herald says in an article on German immigration:

    "We do not intend to permit anyone to interfere with the harmless amusements and entertainments to which the Germans are accustomed, and which were not prohibited even by the oppressors in their native country. We are very determined in this matter, since there is a marked tendency in the legislatures of some states towards pharisaism which would work a severe hardship on 5our German fellow citizens. When we consider their sobriety and their diligence, their preference for outdoor amusements, and the beneficial effect of their example upon other nationalities, we must protest against any restriction which would cause them to dislike our institutions and urge them to remain away from our shores."

    This last argument, pointing as it does to the danger of material loss emanating from fanaticism, is very well taken. When the bigots and adherents of temperance in Iowa, Kansas, and other states which depend upon immigration for their development, find that Germans avoid them and settle elsewhere, they will soon have a change of heart. Here in Illinois temperance is an antiquated idea, and in Chicago, especially, there is as much freedom in regard to the consumption of liquor as there is anywhere in Germany. The German element has gained so much political influence in the Prairie State, and the Anglo-American press of that city is so strongly opposed to temperance fanatics, that nobody would think of trying to increase the virtue of moderateness through prohibition or punitive laws. In an article published 6in last Sunday's issue of the Chicago Tribune, and reprinted on Monday, that newspaper proves how foolish and unenforceable all temperance laws are. Of course, the Tribune, too, is ready to do everything it can to promote sobriety and prevent crimes that are caused by intemperance.

    "But" says the Tribune, "when the law essays to regulate the private life of people, and trys to dictate what they shall, or shall not, eat or drink, to what church a citizen must go, and how often he must attend services, etc., then the law becomes tyrannical, violates the feelings of everybody, and engenders an opposition which is directed not only against liquor dealers."

    The Tribune concludes the article thus: "Such a law was proposed in our state legislature as long as twelve years ago, before the experiment was made in other places; and it failed then. Any attempt to revive it, after it has been condemned by the experience of twenty years, would be just as practical as it would to warm up the old theory of the Know-nothings, to introduce the old blue laws in the state of Connecticut, or to place the 7old law against witchcraft once more upon the statutes of Massachusetts."

    The Chicago Times, once a Copperhead paper, but now an organ of progressive Democrats, expresses a similar opinion, and is surprised that any appreciable number of intelligent people who claim the ability to rule themselves--and that includes the ability to think for themselves--could possibly revive the "old humbug that was advocated and tried by the Massachusetts School".

    Emigration from Germany will reach new heights this year. The New York Herald estimates, on basis of reports received from its correspondents at Berlin and Munich, that at least 150,000 ...

    German
    I B 2, III G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 03, 1867
    Immigration and the Poll Tax (Editorial)

    Four years ago, Congress recognized the principle that immigration is a national problem, and not a problem for the individual states, by setting up an immigration commission; and every sensible person agrees with this view. In nine cases out of ten, Irish or Germans do not come to America with the intention of selecting a certain one of the thirty-six states for their future home, but rather with the purpose of settling in any part of the Republic where they will find opportunity to work or where friendly neighbors attract them. And although after a stay of some duration, they adopt certain customs and work for the causes in which their community is interested, they never develop a sense of individuality which is as intense as that prevailing in European communities. They do not become specifically New Yorkers, or Pennsylvanians, or Kentuckians, but rather German-speaking Americans. The whole country benefits from their immigration. How often 2do we not hear American economists say that each immigrant represents a contribution between $1,000 and $1,500 to our national wealth!

    However, although this truth is simple and clear, yet a practice which is directly at variance with it has taken root in respect to the care of immigrants. Immigration, which concerns the whole nation, is rightly considered to be a specific matter of those states in which the landing ports are located; or, since four fifths of all immigrants disembark at New York, immigration is specifically an affair of that State. And New York levies a poll tax of $2.50 upon each immigrant--and has no more right to do so than it has to place a customs tax on imported goods.

    It is true that the authorities of the State of New York try to justify the tax by claiming that it is a kind of premium for insurance. Every immigrant, they say, purchases with this small sum a claim to assistance in case he becomes a public charge during the period when he is not a citizen, that is, 3during the first five years of his residence in America. The principle itself is good, but it is not applied. The State of New York levies a poll tax upon every immigrant who lands in New York, or a total between $400,000 and $500,000 every year. The sum thus realized is to serve as an insurance fund for some 200,000 immigrants; but only a fraction of that number (one fifth, or one fourth at the most) stays in New York. The result is that those immigrants who settle in other states and become indigent through misfortune are deprived of the benefits which they purchased by paying the poll tax, and, since they have no legal claim to public assistance, they are dependent upon the meager aid which private charitable organizations render. During the past few years, we have come across several cases of this swindle (to call a spade a spade) practiced by the immigration authorities of New York.

    No wonder that the Commission has so much money in its treasury; no wonder it could erect several magnificent buildings on Ward's Island during the past fifteen years and still maintain a reserve fund of more than half a 4million dollars. And now we understand, too, why the Commission is so eager to rush immigrants out of the State while they still have enough money to pay for passage (including the enormous commission of the pashas of Castle Gardens) to some Western State, for the poll tax paid by all immigrants who leave the State of New York is "net profit" for the Commission.

    It is in the interest of all Western States, and especially of large cities which are railroad centers, to see to it that Congress brings about a change in this situation, that the poll tax system is thoroughly reformed, and that this be done on a national basis.

    The solution of the problem is very simple. The poll tax is either a customs tax, and in that case no individual State ever had authority to levy or collect it; or it is an insurance premium, and any State has a just claim to a part of the fund amassed through collection of poll taxes, a part which is in proportion to the number of immigrants who settle in that State.

    5

    As soon as Congress is again in session, local groups will propose a bill restricting the levying and collection of a poll tax to the Federal Bureau of Immigration and providing that the fund collected by that agency be distributed to each State in proportion to the number of immigrants who remain therein. Common sense, and a sense of justice toward all, dictate such a measure, no matter how loudly and vigorously the New York authorities protest against it and cite the present arrangement as a precedent.

    The poll-tax rate could well be increased without being burdensome or unjust. It is much better, and more honest, to charge the immigrant five dollars for a real value, that is, insurance against need resulting from no fault of his own, than to take two dollars from him and give him nothing but unkept promises in return. An insurance company which knows beforehand that it cannot meet the just claims of three fourths of its insured can lower its premium rate more easily than a company which proposes to cover the losses of all its customers. However, that is a point of only minor importance. The premium rate of honest insurance will always have to be computed on the 6basis of an exact statistical theory of probabilities. The main thing is that immigrant insurance or poll taxes should be taken from the jurisdiction and control of the individual States and placed under the supervision and administration of the Federal Government.

    Four years ago, Congress recognized the principle that immigration is a national problem, and not a problem for the individual states, by setting up an immigration commission; and every sensible ...

    German
    III G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 06, 1867
    July Report of Agent of Aid Society for German Immigrants

    Requests for work and advice 680
    Employment secured for 135
    Letters received 47
    Letters written 82
    Baggage located for 268
    Secured railroad tickets from County Agent for 13
    Secured aid from County Agent for 19
    Secured admission to County Hospital or Poorhouse for 8
    Depots visited 16
    Aided 28 families with $89.20
    Charges filed before a justice of the peace 1
    Charges filed in a police court 1
    Tickets secured from the Great Eastern Railroad for poor immigrant families 4
    2

    So many complaints and requests for aid are coming to our office from immigrants and others that it is hardly possible to take care of all the work connected with my duties.

    The activity of the Agent benefits our city to some extent, and it is very desirable that our local authorities furnish a policeman for our headquarters, as New York does for the German Immigrant Society of that city. The policeman could devote all his time to the protection of immigrants who arrive at, and leave from, our railroad depots, and to the investigation of complaints made by immigrants that they have been cheated and abused.

    The greatest evil prevailing in Chicago is that certain hotel owners, whose establishments are frequented by immigrants, hire dishonest, unprincipled runners, who exploit immigrants for personal gain, or, in some cases, for the enrichment of their employers. This sad condition should be eliminated; and it could be done easily: The Mayor would merely have to cancel the license of dishonest 3runners if they persisted in their nefarious work after having been fined in police court. And I consider the city authorities to be guilty of a great breach of justice in so far as they are wont to grant a license without previous investigation of the moral character of applicants who have been previously punished by a police judge. The same evil exists in other large cities. It is reported that the city of Detroit has withdrawn all licenses issued to runners.

    On June 25, Johann Hassel, a German immigrant who now lives at Neenah, Wisconsin, gave a baggage master of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad $20 in gold in payment of an excess tariff of $12. The agent returned him only $8 in paper money as his change. The railroad knows nothing about this fraud, and so the baggage master can keep the difference between the value of $8 in gold and its value in paper money. The railroad ought to put a stop to this type of swindle. If, however, the railroad wants its ticket agents or other employes to retain the premium on gold, because they don't have the time to take care of exchange 4transactions, it is the duty of the company to so notify the traveling public.

    A German girl, Amalie Schlichting, now living in Chicago, arrived in Quebec on June 20 via the sail-boat "Roret Brigham". Then she was brought with other immigrants to Sarnia, Canada, the journey lasting three days and four nights. At Sarnia, the immigrants were put aboard the steamship "Montgomery," which was under the command of Captain Nichols, and were taken to Milwaukee and Chicago, where they landed on June 28. Thus the entire trip took six days and eight nights. According to a statement made by Miss Schlichting, so many immigrants were taken aboard the ship that there was hardly room to move, and it was not possible to lie down to sleep at night. The entire journey from Sarnia to Chicago could be truthfully called "cruelty to animals". Captain Nichols should be made to answer for his infamous conduct. Witnesses will not be lacking.

    Furthermore, the immigrants received no baggage checks in Quebec or Sarnia, 5and although Miss Schlichting delivered her baggage to the officers of the "Montgomery" at Sarnia, it was lost in transit. My request that the general agent of the Grand Trunk Line reimburse Miss Schlichting for the loss of her baggage was rejected. The young lady has brought suit against the company, and I hope that the law will see to it that she is dealt with justly.

    Ernst J. Knobelsdorff, 97 Kinzie Street.

    Chicago, Illinois, August 2nd, 1867.

    H. Claussenius, president,

    C. Knobelsdorff, secretary.

    <table> <tr> <td>Requests for work and advice</td> <td>680</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Employment secured for</td> <td>135</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Letters received</td> <td>47</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Letters written</td> <td>82</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Baggage located for</td> <td>268</td> ...

    German
    II D 10, III G, II D 8