The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- April 04, 1862
    Hold Meeting in Behalf of Sigel Effort to Secure Estate for Him

    The Chicago Arbeiterverein held a meeting last evening for the purpose of starting a national movement to acknowledge [General Franz] Sigel's deeds in behalf of the Union. The meeting was very well attended. Mr. Heinrich Greenbaum was elected chairman and Mr. Schulz secretary.

    Dr. Ernst Schmidt then made a long speech in which he explained that if German-Americans wish to offer an adequate expression for Sigel's unselfish devotion and endeavors, then a sword of honor will be insufficient, and that they will have to provide an independent and carefree existence for Sigel by way of national subscription.

    Mr. Wilhelm Rapp, Mr. Eduard Schlaeger, and Mr. Theodor Hieschler also spoke and voiced their approval of the recommendations made by Dr. Schmidt.

    2

    The following resolutions, formulated by Dr. Schmidt, were adopted by enthusiastic acclaim....[Translator's note: The resolutions have been clipped from the issue, so we shall be satisfied with the above.]

    The Chicago Arbeiterverein held a meeting last evening for the purpose of starting a national movement to acknowledge [General Franz] Sigel's deeds in behalf of the Union. The meeting was ...

    German
    I J, IV, III F, III D, III B 2
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 07, 1862
    The Celebration of the Fourth of July

    In commemorating the birth of the nation, Chicago showed greater enthusiasm this year than ever before. In the early hours of the morning, a great throng of people, among them many farmers in Sunday attire, some afoot, some riding in wagons, could be seen moving along the streets. Nearly all the stores were closed, the Stars and Stripes waved gaily from all public and many private buildings, and most business places, German places of course, were decorated with birch foliage and wreaths of flowers.

    The first part of the celebration was not noticed by most residents; only a few heard the roaring of the cannon at Camp Douglas or the solemn tolling of bells.

    The various divisions of the festive procession gathered at their respective meeting places before proceeding to Michigan Avenue, where the whole 2procession was formed under the direction of the marshals. The paraders then marched down Michigan Avenue, each division led by a band.

    The Fourth Division, consisting entirely of Germans who came to participate in the festivities to be held in honor of General Sigel was particularly impressive. It constituted nearly three fourths of the whole procession. Along with the turners, the cavalcade of butchers attracted special attention. The vendors of meat wore white aprons, white sleeves, red sashes, and were mounted on splendid horses, with Jakob Kock, first marshall, and Wilhelm Woelffer, second marshall, at their head. The Fire Department--which unfortunately was called upon to show its ability that very afternoon--likewise attracted much attention with the brilliant display of its highly polished and beautifully decorated apparatus.

    When the procession reached Washington Park, where the English Division held 3its program, the German Division separated from the throng and proceeded to Wright's Grove. A large crowd had gathered at the Grove very early, and thousands of people--men, women, and children--made merry on the green grass, in the shade of fine, large trees, eating, drinking, jesting, singing, dancing, and watching splendid demonstrations of gymnastics by the turners. We estimate the attendance at about ten thousand.

    At three o'clock, the multitude gathered around the speaker's platform, on which the Sigel Committee, the marshals, and the speaker had seated themselves. Mr. Wilhelm Rapp was the first speaker. He had chosen as the theme of his address the words which John Adams wrote on July 4, 1776: "I know right well that it will require much trouble, money, and blood to maintain this Declaration of Independence and to defend the States; but I also know that the object is much more important than the means to attain it. And through all these dark clouds, I see the enchanting rays of light and 4glory." The speaker cited a number of instances to prove that the first war for American independence involved more alarming and desperate situations than the present war does, and that victory was won only because the political and military leaders during the Revolution were convinced that their cause was sacred. He also pointed out that the prospects for final victory in the present struggle are much better, not only because our resources have been greatly developed and expanded, but also because the present generation is much more devoted and much more ready to make sacrifices than were the people at the time of the Revolution. On the other hand, he said, our situation is worse, inasmuch as our political and military leaders are not equal to their task, while in the first war for liberty men arose whom the whole world still admires for their intellect.

    Then the speaker compared the "achievements" of our present native [i. e., American-born] generals with the deeds of Sigel. Referring to the Revolution 5again, he drew a parallel between the bitter experiences of General Steuben, the great predecessor of Sigel, and those which Sigel himself has undergone. At the same time, he cited several instances to show that German-Americans had displayed great courage, ability, and, above all, a fervent patriotism in the first war for independence. He mentioned big-hearted Margaretha Arkularius, a German-American woman, who was Washington's loyal self-sacrificing friend, who cheered him in the dark days of the Revolution, and consoled and tended to his sick and wounded soldiers, as a shining example for present-day German-American women.

    In conclusion, the speaker remarked that if our Government will rise above its indecision and corruption, it will be successful, despite the severe blows which have been dealt our cause lately, and despite the many dangers by which we are surrounded. He urged that we inscribe upon our banners the great ideal of liberty and emancipation in order to create the enthusiasm which is absolutely necessary to victory. Mr. Rapp's final words were a quotation from the speech which General Sigel made a few weeks ago from the 6balcony of Tremont House: "Even if our armed forces meet with unexpected reverses, final victory cannot be in doubt as long as the Nation fights for the great principles of liberty and emancipation."

    Thereupon Doctor [E.] Schmidt was called to the stand. He admonished the people to persevere during the present crisis, recalling to their memories the words which Lord Nelson addressed to his men before the Battle of Trafalgar: "England expects every man to do his duty."

    Then Mr. Heinrich Greenbaum, one of the marshals, spoke a few well-chosen words in behalf of the Sigel Fund. The Reverend Rentch was the fourth speaker. He contrasted the depravity of our present statesmen and representatives of the people with the sublime patriotism of our illustrious [German] forebears; he pointed to the crime which the Rebels committed in begging the most infamous character of all time, Louis the Fourteenth, King of France, for help against the advocates of liberty and justice, while our forefathers were 7casting off the yoke of dependency. [Translator's note: The reference is undoubtedly to some epoch in German history.] And he continued: "Only by the spirit of 1776 can we overcome this crime [of slavery] which is the worst that has ever been perpetrated. Cain wants to murder his brother Abel; he wants to be master of his brothers, and lord of the whole country; else he will bring destruction and ruin upon all. We can defeat the Southern rebels only if we are inspired by a sacred love for our fatherland and the freedom it offers to all who live within it's borders."

    The speaker expressed his dissatisfaction with the manner in which the graduates from West Point, especially Halleck and McClellan, had conducted themselves during the war. He said: "Bull Run, Ball's Bluff, Manassas, Yorktown, Shiloh, Corinth, and Richmond are proof of the inability of the leaders who have received their military training at West Point. These men evidently lacked the right spirit and the necessary knowledge of warfare.

    8

    Contrast with them the heros of Carthage, Pea Ridge, Island Number 10, Fort Donelson, and New Orleans. What glorious feats of arms they performed! Never has the German name gained greater glory! When all were fleeing at Bull Run and an American officer asked General Blenker and his Germans to save the capital and the country, the much-maligned man answered: 'We Germans are not in the habit of fleeing before an enemy.' And the Germans stood their ground and saved the capital. Our illustrious leaders, Sigel, Willich, Osterhaus, Annecke, and others deserve a place next to Washington in the pantheon of liberty, for they are fighting for the divine ideal, the freedom of humanity. Emancipation is the only principle which will finally defeat the Confederates. Sigel and the Union! A free path for justice, the God-given heritage of all men!"

    Thunderous applause was the reward of this speaker, who considered it a sacred duty to perform his part of the program, although he had to appear on 9crutches and was unaware that his home and all that he owned was being destroyed by fire while he was making his address.

    In commemorating the birth of the nation, Chicago showed greater enthusiasm this year than ever before. In the early hours of the morning, a great throng of people, among them ...

    German
    III B 3 a, IV, I J, I G, III F, III D
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 25, 1870
    A Statement to the People of the United States Issued by the Delegates to the Convention of the German Patriotic Aid Association of the Union

    When Louis Napoleon put an end to the French Republic, he considered it necessary that the French people approve of this act of violence. The president became emperor "by the grace of God and the will of the French people." Thus he claimed that God approved of the perjury which he committed, and that the French people wished that the will of the traitor to the French Republic should thereafter be the will of the French people. So the Second Empire was founded on an infamous lie, and legitimitized itself from the outset as the genuine successor to the First Empire; for the whole history of the Napoleons is proof of the fact that the entire Napoleonic system is based upon a gross falsehood. The first Napoleon represented himself as the standard-bearer of the French Republic which always claimed that it was wont to fight only in self defense. Napoleon III said, "Imperial rule is equivalent to peace." However, during the reign of Napoleon I, as well as during the reign of 2Napoleon III, the history of France is a nearly continuous succession of wars of offense. The Napoleons established their rule by military force and maintained it by sword and cannon. Imperial rule is equivalent to war, for the glory of war is the only basis on which the reign of the Napoleons can rest. Only when France can prescribe laws for other nations can she forget the disgrace resulting from the fact that she knows only obedience on her own soil. Napoleon I and Napoleon III both declared publicly that France could dictate laws to the other nations of Europe only if Germany were weak and disunited.

    History has proved the truth of that statement once, and is about to do so again. The world dominion of Napoleon I collapsed when the German people, defying the wish of most German rulers, rebelled; and now all Germany, united under able leaders, is opposing the tottering power of Napoleon III. There can be no doubt about the result. It was Napoleon himself who said, "A great nation that is fighting for a just cause is invincible." However, in France there is much dissension; it is the emperor who is doing the fighting, and his 3cause is criminal, for it is he who is attacking without a reason for doing so, solely for the purpose of cementing his tottering empire together for his son--with German blood. Only on the German side are the people, a united people, fighting for a just cause, for they are defending their honor and their land. The King of Prussia is merely the unanimously recognized leader of the German people. From the moment France declared war, there has been only one Germany, and in this one Germany there is only one party, the German party. Whatever differences individuals or parties have to settle among themselves, or with their rulers, have been put aside until it has been made impossible for the French emperor to force himself upon the German people as absolute judge of all German affairs.

    What a nation needs most is independence, since it can be or become really free only if it is independent; this freedom must be won, it cannot be given, least of all by a foreign despot. Therefore, the sympathy of all Germans, even of the Republicans and of the Martyrs of the Revolution of 1848, are 4with the German National Army which is led by the most powerful German rulers, because the principal right of the German people, their complete independence of the arrogant dictates of the rulers of other nations, can be accomplished only under that leadership. However, although the people need that leadership, yet, as far as Germany is concerned, the war is not dynastic, that is, it is not a war for the promotion of the interests of the present German rulers, but a people's war in the full sense of the word. This fact is realized and acknowledged by both the German rulers and by the German people, and, therefore, both rulers and people are presenting a united front.

    Thus Napoleon III completed what Napoleon I began; his desire for conquest has welded torn Germany together--against his wish or intentions. Germany, once voluntarily united, will always remain united, and a united Germany is the most reliable guaranty for the peace of all Europe, since it would erect a wide rampart against those nations whose greed is the principal cause of fear; a wall that would afford sufficient protection for the weak and innocent 5and, owing to the character of the people who erect it, would be sufficient security that the rights of neighboring states will be respected. German princes, like many other princes of Europe, have followed a policy of conquest; but the German people had only one intention, one object--to live in peace on their soil. However, if Germany is united, then the people must dictate her future policies.

    Only because nature planted the desire for freedom so deeply into the heart of Germans, did they struggle against being amalgamated, just as Americans, during the early history of the Republic, fought against submission to a strong centralized common government; and rulers of Germany were able to put their will above the will of the people only because the latter were divided. The jealousy prevailing among the various tribes was the fire by which the princes forged the chains by which the people were held in bondage. The history of the year 1866 is irrefutable proof of that fact. The first thing the king of Prussia did, after peace had been concluded, was to ask the people's representatives to grant him immunity against the penalty for those of his 6acts which were contrary to the constitution. In Prussia, as it was prior to 1866, the king could have made his will the sole law of the country; but after 1866 the Prussian king was subject to the law as embodied in the constitution. However, if half of Germany was able to obtain this concession from the Victor of Sodowa, no future ruler will have sufficient power and influence to defy entire Germany.

    So no matter from what standpoint we view the Franco Prussian War, our desire must be that Germany win, unless our judgment is impaired by prejudice, selfishness, or jealousy. Even though the French people make the cause of their emperor their own, that will not change matters in the least. France is responsible for the acts of Napoleon, having served as his willing tools for nearly two decades, and having approved his policies and deeds, while qualified to sit in judgment of them. According to justice and right, the French must, therefore, bear the consequences, and the whole civilized world must sympathize, not with France, but with Germany.

    7

    The American nation has many more, and much weightier reasons to do so. The United States was the first nation to lay down the two principles that government is not invested in rulers, but in the governed--the people--and that no nation has a right to interfere with the affairs of another nation. These two principles constitute the foundation of modern constitutional law, and Germany is defending them in this war. Napoleon presumed to prescribe, to the Spanish people, to whom they might offer the crown of Spain, and he has assumed the authority of dictating, to the king of Prussia, whom the latter must forbid to accept the Spanish crown. He has just as much right to do so as he had to tell the Mexicans whom they were to choose as their ruler. The United States objected to, and frustrated, Napoleon's "Mexican plan," because our country could not tolerate a violation of the afore-mentioned principles on the American continent. Can we Americans find a justification for Napoleon's late command, without being inconsistent and untrue to American principles?

    However, the question of succession to the Spanish crown was merely a pretext 8for war; the real causes of the war are to be found in the results of the Battle of Sodowa. France's claim that she was the foremost among the great powers of Europe was questioned, and Napoleon feared that Prussia would become even more powerful. This fear was well founded, for the conduct of Southern Germans proved that they were by no means opposed to the change in Prussia's position in Germany; but is Germany obliged to remain a weak nation, just because the Napoleons can maintain their status as emperors only as long as France is the most powerful country of Europe? Perhaps Napoleon sympathizes with the Rebels (Confederates), because the Republic's rise to such gigantic power obscures the glory of the Empire. And does the chimera called "balance of European power" alter the matter even one whit? Just as nobody would have a right to interfere if the United States should become more powerful than all of the countries of Europe combined, so nobody has cause for just complaint, or a right to interfere, should Germany become the most powerful nation of Europe, as long as she did not increase her power at the expense of other nations. In dynastic interests, the princes of Europe have invented this system of artificial balance, which 9makes it necessary to regulate the scale every day. The peoples of Europe do not need this balance, for their interests are inseparably connected with, and dependent upon, an uninterrupted peace, a peace that is not wrought or maintained by the power of arms. Only the Napoleonic system of armed peace makes it necessary to use might to keep one nation within a certain limit of power, because another nation cannot keep pace with another nation's rate of economic development. It may profit princes to weaken neighboring countries, but the interests of the people of one nation are better served when the people of all other nations progress in every respect. The more the history of princes becomes the history of the people, and the history of the people becomes the history of the world, the more the term "balance of power" will become a meaningless phrase. Anybody who uses the brutal power of the sword to revive the chimera is an enemy of mankind, and anybody who destroys it will do the world a great service. The Napoleons must preserve this balance--as they understand it--at all events, even though they would have to fight a world war every year, for their throne will fall as soon as the "balance" of France is a notch below that of the 10other nations. The United States, on the other hand, has done more to prepare the way for the realization of true cosmopolitanism. Can Americans, then, sympathize with those whose entire political system (according to its innermost nature) demands that the barbarous medieval ideas that are opposed to freedom and all other interests of free people be preserved by the application of violent measures?

    Thus, Germany is fighting for those principles on which the whole history of America hinges. And there is not even one circumstance which could make it difficult for America to live up to her principles, while there are many good reasons why she should act in accordance with her convictions, as far as that is possible, without violating her neutrality laws. Some American news-papers have not been ashamed to conjure up the ghosts of those "Hessians" who fought on the side of England in the Revolutionary War, to prejudice our people against Germany. Do they not know, or do they not want to know, that those unfortunate Hessians were sold like cattle and forced to take up arms, and that not only the prominent men of Germany, like Schubert and Schiller, 11but also the entire German nation, condemned and execrated this crime? Is it right to make the present people of Germany responsible for the abominable acts which some German "noblemen" committed more than a hundred years ago? And then those newspapers contrast Lafayette and Louis XVI of France with those Hessians, to remind Americans of the "gratitude" which they owe France. But they say not a word about the Germans, who had settled in America before the Revolutionary War, and who fought side by side with the Americans during the entire war; they say not a word about von Steuben and DeKalb; not a word about Frederick The Great, the first, the best, and the truest friend of the struggling Republic. They glorify that momentary alliance made by jealous cousins for political reasons, and are silent about the harmony which existed among brothers for more than a hundred years, and which was disturbed for only a short time by unscrupulous, infamous dealers in human flesh. The French aided America only once, because it was to their advantage to do so; but time and again they caused our country great distress, in fact so great was that distress that even Washington and the misguided people felt that the hitherto 12imperturbable mutual confidence was faltering. And why refer to the musty past when the great deeds of yesterday are vivid in our memory? Who was it that wept and laughed with the Republic, while it was fighting for its very existence? And who was it that tried to undermine the very foundation of our country, and did everything possible to bring about the fall of the Union? We Americans of German descent fought with your native Americans from the battle of Bull Run to the battle of Appomattox, we bled with you, we conquered with you. And we do not ask your gratitude, for we know that we did no more than we were obligated to do as citizens of our beloved country. However, we expect you to sympathize with us, just as we felt toward you with every fiber of our being when the preservation of the Union was at stake. And the cause for which war is now being waged abroad concerns us personally. The men who are giving their lives in this cause are blood of our blood, and they are sacrificing themselves so that the graves of our fathers shall not be desecrated, and that our brothers may be independent and free. Do you expect us to be indifferent toward the outcome of this war, because we have become citizens of another country, and 13are safe? Woe unto this country, if that were the case, for anyone who can stifle his feeling for the land of his birth and youth, can have no feeling for his adopted country. And even though we have only done our duty as American citizens, can America forget the nation that gave her moral support when she was in very great danger?

    During the Civil War, Napoleon ordered that no American bonds should be quoted on the stock exchange of Paris; in Germany even tradesmen and laborers used their pitifully small life's savings to buy them,for they were convinced that right and justice and liberty would finally win. If there are some who find the afore-stated facts inadequate to guide them in choosing between the present belligerents, let them be persuaded at least by their own interests, and they cannot fail to make the correct decision. England and France sided with the Rebels; the former because she considered that step to be of advantage to her manufacturers, and the latter, because Napoleon again was dreaming of an empire; Germany at once took sides with the cause of justice and liberty, and her judgment proved to be correct, despite Bull Run and all the other battles 14which the North lost. America will do well to follow this example, no matter how the fortunes of this war change from day to day. However, disregarding the final result, which will undoubtedly be in favor of Germany, America's immediate economic interests make it desirable that Germany be victorious. Heretofore, Germany has sent 100,000 immigrants to America every year. This valuable addition to our population, which was essential to the development of the West from a wilderness into rich rural communities, has come to a standstill during this war. The United States was deprived of an immense source of money and man power, which would still be available, if Napoleon had let matters take their natural course. And this rich fountain of wealth will flow again in wonted streams only if Germany triumphs. 'Tis true, immigration would gradually begin again, even if France should win; but few Germans would come to America. Thousands upon thousands, who would like to settle here, would be prevented from doing so because they would not have the money to pay for transportation; and thousands would be beggars when they landed, and soon would become public charges. But the saddest feature of an eventual French victory would be the fact that 15the Germans, who would come to the United States, would be gloomy and dejected in spirit, and thus would be unable to do effective pioneering. After the War of Independence the United States became a prosperous and thriving nation, not because some oppressive laws were abolished, but because every citizen went about his duties cheerfully. Anybody who has been successful in one undertaking will feel the urge to seek new laurels in other fields of endeavor; but once a person is dejected in spirit, he will find it difficult to regain cheerfulness. If Germany wins the war, every future German immigrant will be worth three from a defeated Germany.

    Thus America is bound to the cause of Germany by national principles, by more than a hundred years of peaceful relations, and by economic interests. We do not expect the United States to enter the war. Peace is the life-sustaining air of a nation. Germany's cause is a just one, because she was forced to take up arms to restore peace, which Napoleon wantonly broke. We would be the first earnestly to advise against participating in the war, and 16have made it a strict rule to observe our American neutrality laws while aiding our former fatherland in caring for needy German soldiers and their widows and orphans. Americans, too, can make effective demonstration of their sympathy without transgressing any of our neutrality laws. The Napoleons have always been, and will always be put to shame, because in all their calculations they ignore the great power of moral sense. Man's innate perception of right and wrong, and not gun, cannon, and sword will decide this war. The more plainly and forcefully the world pronounces its judgment in favor of the Germans, the more firmly the latter will be convinced that, in defending their own country, they are fighting for the cause of the entire world.

    And the moral support of no other country can be of as much value to them as that of America, which was the first nation to take up arms in the cause of justice and liberty. If America's opinion concerning the cause and purpose of this war agrees with German opinion, then history has pronounced its judgment on this conflict in advance. Now, if the cause for which Germany 17is fighting is your cause, as it is ours, then help us in our efforts to assist those who are sacrificing their lives and the happiness of their families in behalf of that cause. Do not close your hands, now, for they have always been open when it was a matter of soothing pain or drying tears. You know from experience how bravely and well a soldier will fight, when he knows that the wounded in hospitals and the widows and orphans of men who have lost their lives in battle are cared for. The knowledge of having helped where help was necessary will be sufficient incentive to join us in our benevolent endeavors. Naturally, the moral and material support which America gives to Germany will be richly rewarded, for this war can end only with the destruction of all Napoleonic ideas, and the creation of a united Germany; and thus peace will be restored in Europe 18for years and even decades.

    Edmund Juessen,

    Doctor von Holst,

    Caspar Butz,

    A. Rosenthal,

    Doctor Wilhelm Taussig.

    Committee on Resolutions.

    Chicago, August 19, 1870.

    When Louis Napoleon put an end to the French Republic, he considered it necessary that the French people approve of this act of violence. The president became emperor "by the ...

    German
    I G, IV, I J, I C, III H, III G, III F, III D
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 01, 1872
    The German Library Association.

    At the start of the meeting, the secretary, Mr. Carl Proebstring, being absent, Mr. Richard Michaelis was elected temporary secretary. Then the election of a board was undertaken. Mr. Georg Schneider was elected president with fourteen votes, against nine for Claussemius, three for Rosenthal. For vice president Claussemius received nineteen votes, Rosenthal three, Hesing and Grunhut, one each. Mr. Hermann Eschenburg became treasurer, and Justice of the Peace Max Eberhardt, librarian. Mr. Proebstring and Mr. Julius Rosenthal were elected corresponding secretaries.

    2

    The President, Mr. Georg Schneider, gave a short address about the death of Mr. T. G. Gindele. He said, "The Germans of Cook County and the movement for the creation of a German public library have suffered a grievous loss. He has left our association a part of his valuable collection of books.

    "I knew Mr. Gindele since 1851. He was one of the few, who had the courage to start the anti-Slavery Movement. On January 29, 1854, the first meeting against Slavery took place, here in Chicago. It was a German meeting against the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Mr. Gindele belonged to the resolutions committee. The Germans in Chicago were the originators of the political agitation against Slavery."

    At the start of the meeting, the secretary, Mr. Carl Proebstring, being absent, Mr. Richard Michaelis was elected temporary secretary. Then the election of a board was undertaken. Mr. Georg ...

    German
    II B 2 a, IV, III F, II B 2 d 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 21, 1872
    The Evangelical Community in Chicago. By Rev. M. Stamm.

    Late in the summer of 1836, a considerable number of German families, mostly Alsatians, moved from the town of Warren, Pa., to the state of Illinois, and settled in four different groups, partly in the city of Chicago, at Dutchmans Point, and at Wheeling, Cook County; also at Naperville, and at Sharon on the Rock River. As they were in these vast prairies without any pastoral care, they addressed together several petitions to the Western Conference of the Evangelical Community, whose activities at this time extended to Ohio, to send them a preacher. In the first days of July, 1837, a member of the Conference, Rev. F. Boos, undertook the long and hazardous journey on horseback, arriving in Chicago, after endless hardships, on July 23rd. He was the first Protestant minister to proclaim God's word in the German language to the Germans of Chicago, 2Dutchmans Point, Wheeling, and Naperville. In these places he organized the first German Protestant communities in the Northwest, and made them elect so-called class leaders who would preside over their meetings till they could get their own ministers. This done, Rev. Boos immediately returned to his district in Ohio, which had an extent of 300 to 400 miles.

    For eight months these communities were without a preacher. Then the Western Conference took up activities in Illinois and sent Rev. M. Hauert. Mr. Hauert reached Chicago on September 3rd, 1838, and travelled, as the second German Protestant minister, to most of the German settlements in Illinois. His salary for a whole year then amounted to only $74.32. At the Conference he could report a total of 78 members in Illinois.

    3

    The first German Protestant church in all the Northwest states was built by the community in Wheeling of squared logs. Wheeling became the center of all church activities of this Protestant community. From 1840 on, every Sunday a German sermon was given in Chicago. In this year the Rev. J. Hoffert and Rev. D. Kern preached; in 1841 Rev. H. Stroh, and again D. Kern; in 1842 the Rev. Dr. Wahl and Rev. A. Plank. Wahl who, a few years later, left the church on account of his insufficient salary, became the first permanent German minister in Chicago. His community was given two excellent lots by the "Canal Camp ", corner of Wabash and Monroe, on which they built the first German-Protestant church in Chicago. Rev. G. Augenstein succeeded as minister in 1844.

    In 1854 the community sold its property for $6,000 and split into two parts, each receiving $3,000. One part built with this a church, first on S. Clark Street, sold it, and built in 1856 on the corner of Third Ave. and Polk Street, for $8,000, one of the best German churches of brick, which it still owns.

    4

    The Illinois Staats Zeitung gave a detailed account of its dedication. This community was again divided in 1864, on the initiative of the Illinois Conference, and on a far part of it, Rev. J. G. Escher built a pleasant mission chapel, on the corner of 12th and Union streets.

    The other half of the old Wabash Avenue community built a church, corner of N. Wells street and Chicago Avenue. Internal difficulties led to a division in 1869. One part built one of our best city churches under the leadership of Rev. J. Schafle on Second and Noble streets. The main part of the Wells Street community built in 1869 our biggest and finest church at Sedgwick and Wisconsin streets, under the active guidance of Rev. J. Miller. The third and smallest part of the old Wells Street community built a magnificent hall on N. Wells Street community built a magnificent hall on N. Wells Street with three beautiful shops; separated completely from the Evangelical community, and elected the Rev. J. P. Kramer 5its temporary minister. In the great fire this hall and the church on Wisconsin Street were destroyed. The Wisconsin Street community will rebuild early in the summer. The independent community has already built during the winter, under the supervision of the Rev. Augenstein. At the dedication they declared themselves willing to return to the Evangelical community..........

    To sum up: The Evangelical community now has five communities with 550 members, five churches and four parsonages, and 3,000 volumes in its libraries. Out of the five small communities of 1836 have grown in 36 years, six conferences with about 725 permanent ministers, 30,000 church members, 400 Sunday schools, and a flourishing college at Naperville. This church also possesses the oldest and largest German church paper in the U. S., with 20,000 subscribers distributed over most of the Western States. A similar spiritual propagation no church or organization in the whole United States can boast.

    Late in the summer of 1836, a considerable number of German families, mostly Alsatians, moved from the town of Warren, Pa., to the state of Illinois, and settled in four ...

    German
    III C, II F, III H, III G, III A, V A 1, I A 2 b, II B 2 d 1, III F
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- October 30, 1873
    (No headline)

    We do not know of one professional politician who deserves more contempt than Phil[gap]. When he succeeded two years ago in [gap] his [gap] put on the [gap] forced the committee to [gap] by every one.

    Shall we elect [gap] short [gap] reaches farther [gap] kin[gap] citizens. His great-grandfather immigrated [gap] 1720 to settle in the Lebanon Valley in Pennsylvania. Both his grandfathers were born in [gap]. Independence under the comand of [gap] ington. [gap]was born in Lebanon in 1819. At the age of fourteen he became apprentice in a printing shop and remained there four years. In 1839 he founded at [gap]iles, [gap] English paper, the Republican, 2and in 1844 he moved to Kalamazoo where he founded another English paper, the Telegraph.

    In the year 1845 he moved to Buffalo, where he became publisher of a German paper, the Telegraph. In 1849 he was appointed by President Taylor as chief inspector of the lighthouses of the great lakes.

    Later he became contractor of public works. Buffalo elected him in 1858 as state congressman. Later he came to Chicago. He is now chairman of the county council of Cook County.

    Every means is being used by Horace White, Charles Wilson and their ilk, to defeat Miller, simply because he is not ashamed of his German origin. The fact, that he speaks German instead of English while with other Germans, makes him a foreigner, a Dutchman. Better a full blooded American swindler than an honest Dutchman is the motto of our political adversaries.

    We do not know of one professional politician who deserves more contempt than Phil<span class="gap">[gap]</span>. When he succeeded two years ago in <span class="gap">[gap]</span> his <span class="gap">[gap]</span> put on the ...

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    IV, I C, II A 2, III D, III F, I F 5, II B 2 d 1
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- September 06, 1876
    The Old Colonists.

    The day before yesterday at Wright's Grove the second annual picnic was held by the old settlers...

    Mr. Joseph Kaufmann opened this festival, remarking he thinks the assembled guests would be thankful to the committee, that it selected for this occasion speakers from among the old settlers themselves, and presented as first speakers Mr. John Wentworth, who said:

    "Ladies and Gentlemen!

    I belong to those, who think it is a good idea, to set aside one day in the year, to forget all politics and sectarian differences and to spend it in friendly social company and reminiscences of old times. The custom of entertaining old settlers exists in many States and has proven very advantageous to the history of the land. You have laid the foundation of a society of 2the oldest settlers and hope, that it will succeed and will be kept up.

    Just go back to the time, when Cook County first was organized, at that time, anyone who wanted to get married, had to travel to Peoria. The first German who voted here, was John von Horn, whom I knew well, and who was here already in 1830; the second was John Wellmacher, a baker, who made a nice profit by selling bread to the Indian settlers. Those two were the only Germans I knew, until the time of the organization of Cook County. In the year 1836 many more had arrived, There already was a German hotel, that of Adam Berg in La Salle Street, almost opposite of my present office. There I danced for the first time with a German woman.

    At that time only one Catholic priest was here, and he was a German. The first German who received an appointment was Clemens Stose. He was the alderman in the second ward."

    The speaker read then from a list the names of German settlers, whom he 3remembers from the year of 1839, and gave quite a few characteristic nicknames: or told little anecdotes about them. Nicholas Barth, five Baumgarten, of which a few now live in Freeport, Illinois, Adam Berg and four sons, two of whom Joseph and Anton, are still living in Chicago; also Bernhard Blasy, John B. Busch, Michael Diversy, L. Falch, A. Getzler, Philipp Groll, Wm. Hass, F. T. Heyman, Mathias Kastler, Nicholas Kastler, Friedrich Letz and two Ludwige brothers, Louis Marlfacher, Joseph Marbach, Christoph Metz, Rudolph Miguly, Mathias Muller, Nicholas Neudorf, Philipp Petri, two Periolat brothers, Wm. Perrior, John Pfund, Philipp Raber, Chas, Sauter, Jacob Sauter, Adreas Schall, Andreas Schaller, Henry Schuck, Mathias Schmidt, Peter Schedler, Clemens Stoss, Martin Straussel, Peter Reis, Winkler, Doney, Nicholas Bendell. There is still one other German settler by the name of Peter Curn, the speaker is not positive if he was here before 1840.

    Among the anecdotes was one about the butcher Joseph Marbach, who in 1838 or 1839, when Stephen Douglas for the first time ran for office, came to a meeting in his working clothes and gave the above mentioned Catholic priest, who was essaying the role of a party leader a piece of his mind-in so thorough a way, and in the election won by so large a majority that 4since that time, the speaker observed priests have not had much influence on elections.

    The speaker then continued:" The Germans have their own way, to struggle through life and their own views about life, I have mine. They are very industrious, thrifty citizens, and he who works hard, one can with confidence regard as a good citizen. It is to be hoped, that your descendants will inherit your good habits in every respect. What concerns your religious views, I always was of the opinion, that we have to let them go their own way; when we cross the river, we all will have to look out for ourselves, and with this opinion I have lived in peace with everybody.

    We wanted to colonize Illinois and make it great, and therefore we had to be liberal and had to leave it to the newcomers themselves, how they wished to live. Therefore I always defended the principle, that you have just as much right to perform Shakespeare on a Sunday, as the Bible, and if you want to indulge in drinking, this is a matter of public order; that if in a tavern things go on in an orderly fashion, a police officer has just as little right to invade it as of going into a preacher's house to investigate 5if he is not perhaps making counterfeit money. The speaker closed with the remark, that it would be exceedingly interesting to be able to see ahead how the morals and social customs of America would be a hundred years hence, and once more strongly advocated, to proceed in earnest with the founding of a historical society.

    The German festival speech was given by Mr. Henry Greenebaum, who said:

    "Ladies and Gentlemen!

    He who comes over here nowadays cannot feel lonesome and forsaken because he sees himself surrounded by 100,000 sympathizing German hearts but it was quite different in those gray olden times, when the first ones, who came over here were obliged to start digging at the canal for less than $1 per day... In 1849 there were only a few Germans in Chicago. Since that time however, we can record an excellent development. In those days the German way of thinking and German sociability found its first harbour in the first 6singing society, the men's singing assocaition and a few years later the Chicago Turn Community, to whom we are obligated with many thanks for today's and last year's festivals. Since that time Germandom has unfolded splendidly in every direction, and to this development the simultaneously rising German Press has very vitally contributed. The idea my predecessor mentioned, namely the founding of a Historical Society.

    We hope the Chicago Turn Community will take in hand. We want to preserve the names of all those who through their diligence and perseverance and honesty have made the German a name among the natives, such as no other nation possesses."

    We add that the vote about the arm chair that was to be given to the most popular old settler, had the following resukt: L. Haas, 612 votes; Greenebaum 325; Klinger 268; C. Seipp 31; J. Rosenthal 15; L. Haarbleicher 13; Huck, Beutenmuller and Herting each 10; Gollhardt 11; Petri 7; Wehrli and Berg each 5: Dietzsch and Degenhardt each 1 vote.

    7

    From the records of the old settlers who participated at this festival we selected those who immigrated before 1856= from 1833, 3; from 1834,5;1835,3; 1836,9; 1837,7; 1838, 2; 1839,8; 1840,12; 1841,5; 1842,16; 1843,13; 1844,16; 1845,17; 1846, 51; 1847,46; 1848,40; 1849,30; 1850,32; 1851, 39; 1852,71; 1853,60; 1854,109; 1855,41; 1856,24.

    The day before yesterday at Wright's Grove the second annual picnic was held by the old settlers... Mr. Joseph Kaufmann opened this festival, remarking he thinks the assembled guests would ...

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    III F, III C, I F 4, I F 1, II B 3, III G, III A, III B 2, II B 1 c 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- September 06, 1876
    The Old Settlers.

    At the Old Settlers' picnic Mr. John Wentworth gave the following historical data:

    "Let's go back to the time when Cook County was first organized. Before that, anyone wishing to get married, had to go to Peoria. The first German who voted here, was John von Horn, whom I knew very well and who was established here in 1830; the second was John Wellmacher, a baker who made good money by selling bread to the Indians. These are the only two Germans I know of up to the organization of Cook County.

    "In 1836, we had the German hotel of Adam Berg on LaSalle Street. I danced for the first time with a German lady. At that time there was only one Catholic priest here and he was a German. The first German who obtained an office was Clemens Stose. He was alderman of the second ward."

    At the Old Settlers' picnic Mr. John Wentworth gave the following historical data: "Let's go back to the time when Cook County was first organized. Before that, anyone wishing to ...

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    III F, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 13, 1878
    A Singing Festival in the Country

    Last Sunday, the United Male Choirs of Arlington Heights, Palatine, Jefferson, and Niles Center, celebrated a big choral festival at River Grove in Desplaines.

    At 3 o'clock, Mr. George C. Klahm, President, began his address. The speaker gave an effective description of the beginning of German colonization, in the North of Illinois, and the wearisome fights with Indians. He mentioned the increase of the German element, how it obtained its recognition by perseverance and diligence, and how it fought victoriously the battle with know nothings, until the prominent participation by Germans in the Civil War, on the side of the Union, assured them, for ever, an important place in the nation. The once despised and weakened "Dutchman" whose churches and schools were burned, who was shot down in open streets like games, has now risen to be such an important political factor, that no party can expect success without paying consideration to the German element.

    Last Sunday, the United Male Choirs of Arlington Heights, Palatine, Jefferson, and Niles Center, celebrated a big choral festival at River Grove in Desplaines. At 3 o'clock, Mr. George C. ...

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    III F, I C, I F 4, III D, III A, III B 2, II B 1 c 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 16, 1880
    [Obituary] (Katherine Spohrer's, Demise)

    Katherine Spohrer, perhaps the oldest German female settler of Chicago, born in Weingarten, Baden, died here last Thursday at the age of 78 years. She came to Chicago with her husband in 1833 at the time when the Indians still were here where later on was Diversey's Brewery (near the present main water works.) They sold at that time ten acres of land near town for $200 and the present Lincoln Park could be had at $1.25 per acre.

    Her Husband who was a mason and later a gardener, bought three acres of land on Clark and Division Streets, for $280. He died twelve years ago. Mr. Spohrer remained after the death of her husband at the old homestead. Mrs. Spohrer saw the development of Chicago from its beginning to a city of the world having half a million inhabitants as it has been permitted to a very few and it is a pity, that it is too late to get her statements of the first view of the town and the first Germans living here.

    Katherine Spohrer, perhaps the oldest German female settler of Chicago, born in Weingarten, Baden, died here last Thursday at the age of 78 years. She came to Chicago with her ...

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    V A 1, III F, II A 2