The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 07, 1862
    The Celebration of the Fourth of July

    In commemorating the birth of the nation, Chicago showed greater enthusiasm this year than ever before. In the early hours of the morning, a great throng of people, among them many farmers in Sunday attire, some afoot, some riding in wagons, could be seen moving along the streets. Nearly all the stores were closed, the Stars and Stripes waved gaily from all public and many private buildings, and most business places, German places of course, were decorated with birch foliage and wreaths of flowers.

    The first part of the celebration was not noticed by most residents; only a few heard the roaring of the cannon at Camp Douglas or the solemn tolling of bells.

    The various divisions of the festive procession gathered at their respective meeting places before proceeding to Michigan Avenue, where the whole 2procession was formed under the direction of the marshals. The paraders then marched down Michigan Avenue, each division led by a band.

    The Fourth Division, consisting entirely of Germans who came to participate in the festivities to be held in honor of General Sigel was particularly impressive. It constituted nearly three fourths of the whole procession. Along with the turners, the cavalcade of butchers attracted special attention. The vendors of meat wore white aprons, white sleeves, red sashes, and were mounted on splendid horses, with Jakob Kock, first marshall, and Wilhelm Woelffer, second marshall, at their head. The Fire Department--which unfortunately was called upon to show its ability that very afternoon--likewise attracted much attention with the brilliant display of its highly polished and beautifully decorated apparatus.

    When the procession reached Washington Park, where the English Division held 3its program, the German Division separated from the throng and proceeded to Wright's Grove. A large crowd had gathered at the Grove very early, and thousands of people--men, women, and children--made merry on the green grass, in the shade of fine, large trees, eating, drinking, jesting, singing, dancing, and watching splendid demonstrations of gymnastics by the turners. We estimate the attendance at about ten thousand.

    At three o'clock, the multitude gathered around the speaker's platform, on which the Sigel Committee, the marshals, and the speaker had seated themselves. Mr. Wilhelm Rapp was the first speaker. He had chosen as the theme of his address the words which John Adams wrote on July 4, 1776: "I know right well that it will require much trouble, money, and blood to maintain this Declaration of Independence and to defend the States; but I also know that the object is much more important than the means to attain it. And through all these dark clouds, I see the enchanting rays of light and 4glory." The speaker cited a number of instances to prove that the first war for American independence involved more alarming and desperate situations than the present war does, and that victory was won only because the political and military leaders during the Revolution were convinced that their cause was sacred. He also pointed out that the prospects for final victory in the present struggle are much better, not only because our resources have been greatly developed and expanded, but also because the present generation is much more devoted and much more ready to make sacrifices than were the people at the time of the Revolution. On the other hand, he said, our situation is worse, inasmuch as our political and military leaders are not equal to their task, while in the first war for liberty men arose whom the whole world still admires for their intellect.

    Then the speaker compared the "achievements" of our present native [i. e., American-born] generals with the deeds of Sigel. Referring to the Revolution 5again, he drew a parallel between the bitter experiences of General Steuben, the great predecessor of Sigel, and those which Sigel himself has undergone. At the same time, he cited several instances to show that German-Americans had displayed great courage, ability, and, above all, a fervent patriotism in the first war for independence. He mentioned big-hearted Margaretha Arkularius, a German-American woman, who was Washington's loyal self-sacrificing friend, who cheered him in the dark days of the Revolution, and consoled and tended to his sick and wounded soldiers, as a shining example for present-day German-American women.

    In conclusion, the speaker remarked that if our Government will rise above its indecision and corruption, it will be successful, despite the severe blows which have been dealt our cause lately, and despite the many dangers by which we are surrounded. He urged that we inscribe upon our banners the great ideal of liberty and emancipation in order to create the enthusiasm which is absolutely necessary to victory. Mr. Rapp's final words were a quotation from the speech which General Sigel made a few weeks ago from the 6balcony of Tremont House: "Even if our armed forces meet with unexpected reverses, final victory cannot be in doubt as long as the Nation fights for the great principles of liberty and emancipation."

    Thereupon Doctor [E.] Schmidt was called to the stand. He admonished the people to persevere during the present crisis, recalling to their memories the words which Lord Nelson addressed to his men before the Battle of Trafalgar: "England expects every man to do his duty."

    Then Mr. Heinrich Greenbaum, one of the marshals, spoke a few well-chosen words in behalf of the Sigel Fund. The Reverend Rentch was the fourth speaker. He contrasted the depravity of our present statesmen and representatives of the people with the sublime patriotism of our illustrious [German] forebears; he pointed to the crime which the Rebels committed in begging the most infamous character of all time, Louis the Fourteenth, King of France, for help against the advocates of liberty and justice, while our forefathers were 7casting off the yoke of dependency. [Translator's note: The reference is undoubtedly to some epoch in German history.] And he continued: "Only by the spirit of 1776 can we overcome this crime [of slavery] which is the worst that has ever been perpetrated. Cain wants to murder his brother Abel; he wants to be master of his brothers, and lord of the whole country; else he will bring destruction and ruin upon all. We can defeat the Southern rebels only if we are inspired by a sacred love for our fatherland and the freedom it offers to all who live within it's borders."

    The speaker expressed his dissatisfaction with the manner in which the graduates from West Point, especially Halleck and McClellan, had conducted themselves during the war. He said: "Bull Run, Ball's Bluff, Manassas, Yorktown, Shiloh, Corinth, and Richmond are proof of the inability of the leaders who have received their military training at West Point. These men evidently lacked the right spirit and the necessary knowledge of warfare.

    8

    Contrast with them the heros of Carthage, Pea Ridge, Island Number 10, Fort Donelson, and New Orleans. What glorious feats of arms they performed! Never has the German name gained greater glory! When all were fleeing at Bull Run and an American officer asked General Blenker and his Germans to save the capital and the country, the much-maligned man answered: 'We Germans are not in the habit of fleeing before an enemy.' And the Germans stood their ground and saved the capital. Our illustrious leaders, Sigel, Willich, Osterhaus, Annecke, and others deserve a place next to Washington in the pantheon of liberty, for they are fighting for the divine ideal, the freedom of humanity. Emancipation is the only principle which will finally defeat the Confederates. Sigel and the Union! A free path for justice, the God-given heritage of all men!"

    Thunderous applause was the reward of this speaker, who considered it a sacred duty to perform his part of the program, although he had to appear on 9crutches and was unaware that his home and all that he owned was being destroyed by fire while he was making his address.

    In commemorating the birth of the nation, Chicago showed greater enthusiasm this year than ever before. In the early hours of the morning, a great throng of people, among them ...

    German
    III B 3 a, IV, I J, I G, III F, III D
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 30, 1871
    (No headline)

    (Report on the Peace Celebration runs to about 18,000 words. Only a very abbreviated abstract can be of interest. The Staats-Zeitung estimates the number of people who participated in the parade at 25,000, the number of hourses 11,000, and the cost at $200,000.) "The parade has the importance of a victorious battle against the prejudices and erroneous opinions of the other nationalities."

    Exactly at 4:30 A:M drums and trumpets awakened the sleeping on all sides of the city, and a few minutes later 101 cannon shots - fired by Captain Tobey at Lake Park rang out over the city. The streets were at 6 A:M busier than they are on great holidays at noon. The centers of activities were on North Clark and North Wells Streets. In the German House, the headquarters of the parade committee (North Wells) the historical part of the parade - 500 men and boys - donned its costumes. Punctually at 9:15 the participants in the parade started from there towards the real starting where they arrived at the intended time.

    On the west side the festival marshal and adjutants reported to the Assistant, Peter Hand, at exactly 7 A:M. It was hard work to bring order into the chaos, 2but against all hope the head of the train started on its way already at 10 o'clock. The route of the march, by the way, was changed at the last moment so that the parade marched past the windows of the Tribune, Staats-Zeitung, Evening Post, Union, Mail and so forth. The police functioned excellently, policemen on horseback having "cleaned up" the streets for the sake of the parade.

    The head of the parade was composed of Police Commissioners Gund (one of the festival marshals), at the left and right of him two police superintendents in gala uniforms. On a fiery grey horse followed Capt. Miller with 20 policemen on horseback, Capt. Hickey with 20 policemen on horseback, and Capt. Fox likewise. Then the leaders of the police and the band of the Great Western Light Guard.

    Then the Festival Marshal, Henry Greenebaum, with a brilliant staff: General-Adjutant Dominick Klutsch, First Assistant Marshal; Peter hand, Second Assistant Marshal: Frank Schweinfurth, Third Assist. Marshal: August Neuhaus, 3First Assist. General-Adjutant: John Herting, Second Assist: General-Adjutant: Henry Schmehl, and approximately 60 aides de camp. In an open car followed the Festival Organizer, Mr. George Schneider, the Festival orator, Mr. Franz Arnold, the Festival Director, Mr. Otto Lob, and several more cars with members of the arrangements committee.

    The First Division was accompanied by Nitschke's music corps in Prussian uniforms. Then came a squadron of Blue Hussars under Captain Matthieu. In spite of the short time of their organization they were splendidly in trim. Their uniforms were, to put it into few words, genuine and immaculate. The 1st Regiment of the National Guards, under Col. H. Ostermann, started, after long preparations for the first time. It was 400 men strong, of whom 80 wore spiked helmets with the tuft of feathers. One saw that they have an able commander in Col. Leon, because they all kept themselves as straight as if they were parading before old William himself. The German Field Battery of four pieces which then followed, led by Captain V. Reisenegger, looked like well-trained German troops and the same is to be said of the Red Hussars under the Command of Captain Munch. This whole military Division, aroused, especially among the German onlookers, immeasurable enthusiasm.

    4

    The 2nd Division belonged entirely to the Lodges. They marched in the following order:

    Marshal of the Division: Col. F. Rollshausen

    Assistants: Otto Fischer, Heinrich Schroder and Jacob

    Button

    The Music Corps

    The Chaldi

    Liberty Lodge No 6

    Order of the Sons of Herrmann

    The Druids - Another Band - The Harugari.

    It is natural that the Lodges impress most by the development of masses, and they showed that they are indeed very numerous. The Sons of Herrmann, who had to leave some of their members to other organization (like all of the societies) appeared about 600 men strong. They count approximately 900 members in Chicago. Their Festival Marshal was Mr. Heinrich Schroder.

    5

    The historical part of the parade consisted of the 3rd, 4th and 5th Division. The 3rd Division represented the oldest times of German history. The Marshal was Mr. Henry Kenkel and the Assistants, Gustav Giese, Adolph Muller and Wilhelm Diefenbacher. They were followed by a band, and by Hermann the Cherusean (Herr Heinrich Glade) and Thusnelda(Frau Muller). Then came 40 Teutons on horseback, and 60 on foot in old costumes, flesh colored tricots, bear skins over the saddles and shoulders.

    Then came Barbarossa (Mr. Henry Frick) preceding a band, ten bearers of lances, twelve Hospitallers, completely in mail, with helmets, shields and swords, three Heralds, four Templars, eight Pages etc. He was followed by 33 Princes and Knights in most sumptuous costumes. Still to the same Division belonged a representation of the Age of Inventions. The Illinois Staats-Zeitung presented on two large wagons the most recent development of the art of printing. While on the first carriage type setters were busily at work, on the second a steam press threw steam out of its chimney high into the air. During the parade the press was kept busy printing the Kutschke Song" in six languages, with the music by Otto Lob. A poem by Governor Gustav Koerner was likewise distributed to the public.

    6

    Next came 350 shoemakers with two carriages; on the first Hans Sachs, impersonated by Jakob A. Schmidt; on the second Hans von Sagan ( Adam Imhof). Finally the Middle Ages were concluded with a representation of the Peasants' War. In the center six famous knights:

    Ulrich von Hutten Herr S. Danden
    Gotz von Berlichingen Herr Jac Enders
    Franz von Sickingen Dr. Fr. Koch
    Ulrich von Wurttemberg Herr Kretzschmar
    Fvohnsberg Herr Miehle

    The Fourth Division pictured the Modern Ages. Fifteen musicians were followed by the Marshal, Wilhelm T. Wallis and his assistants Jacob Thielen, Wilh. Burkhardt and Otto Igel. The Great Elector was preceded by 12 Grenadiers and two officers carrying banners. He was followed by ten Cuirassiers, then Frederic the Great, six Hussars, eight Grenadiers....

    7

    The Free Singing Association represented Handl and Hayden, arranged by Messrs. Philipp Kroech and Henry Baust.

    The "Orpheus " had a magnificent carriage drawn by six horses with colossal Beethoven bust, surrounded by seven beautiful ladies. The whole created by architect Theodor Karl.

    The Germania Male Choir had four cars representing all the roles of the opera. "Freischultz". Arrangement by Messrs. A. Nover and Haarbleicher.

    The Association Humor followed a copy of the Goethe-Schiller monument in Weimar, made by Herr Almendinger. The members dressed as German students. While some of the young fellows had not yet any scars on their faces, others could boast these honor marks of academic life. They were followed by an imposing carriage representing episodes from Schiller's poem, "The Bell",with a gigantic bell. in This car was the contribution of the Illinois Volks-Zeitung. There followed Alexander von Humboldt surrounded by mariners and miners (sent by Mr. Kraschell.

    The Fifth Division represented the age of the Wars of Liberation, headed by 824 Turners, the Great Western Band, Division Marshal F. Metske with Assistants Wm. Wischendorff and C. H. Plautz. Then followed four carriages, arranged by Mr. Louis Kindt, representing the Lorelei, the "Watch on the Rhein", a Turn field and "Father Jahn". With this driving and marching a great number of Turners. (Father Jahn was given the motto: "Frisch, froh, frei und tren", a deliberate error, - his slogan having been: "Frisch, fromm, frohlich, frei".)

    Then followed the Kaiser train. First, with splendid horsemensip, the Uhlans led by Col. Hugo Dreyer, and Lieut. Charles Hillscher, then the Imperial carriage drawn by six white horses with two jockeys. His majesty was very faithfully represented by Mr. Saddler. Crown Prince Frederick William was impersonated by Mr. Charles Kemper, the Dollar - Bismarck - pardon me - Bismarck by Herr E. H. Stein (this is a pun the Staats-Zeitung permits itself about one of its most faithful advertisers. Mr. Stein who sold everything in his department store for $1.) Mr. Wilh. Levy as Moltke was stern and silent.

    The 6th Division consisted of 300 veterans of the Union War under Capt. Arthur Erbe. They aroused everywhere enthusiasm. Then followed the Union Veterans Assistance Association, 50 men and a car with six horses, and in an open carriage three veterans of 1812:

    9
    Major Marsches who fought at Waterloo and Leipzig
    Carl Bose non-commissioned officer under Gen. York and
    Ludwig Klapp, a hussar under Blucher and also a veteran of Leipzig and Waterloo.

    Then came a car of the Schleswig-Holsteiners, followed by veterans of 1864 and 1866, also 1848 and 1849. Among the latter we observed Mr. Spanier. -

    The 7th Division: Marshal T. B. Grunhut
    Assistants: John Kolsch, Ad. M. Heflebower, Philipp Steinmuller and Wilh. Heinemann.

    The 7th Division was composed of post-officials and lithographers. On the top of a triumphal arch of one of the carriages sat the famous living post-eagle of Chicago. The profitableness of the art of lithography could be seen from the sumptuousness of the carriages of the lithographers, created by Mr. Louis Kurz. In this division also marched the Chicago Workers' Union, the Social Workers Union ("der sociale Arbeiter-Verein"), the Six Corners Club, the North Chicago Workers Union, the Great Union (workers' aid association), the Sixth Ward's Citizens Club, the Seventh Ward Club, and the South Chicago Workers Club I and II.

    10

    The 8th Division belonged to the beer brewers, coopers and butchers. It was one of the most important inthe parade. Division Marshal: John A. Huck; Assistants K. G. Schmidt, Ferdinand Wheeler, Rudolph Wehrle, Moritz Berg. The brewers counted about 250 men and 23 cars.

    (The extremely numerous poetic attempts on the parade cars may be exemplified by the following quatrain from a beer wagon:

    "Die Manner deutscher Wissenschaft

    Die Liebten stets den Gerstensaft

    Oft uber Buchernund Papier

    Erfrischte sie das braune Bier"

    (German scholars always have loved the barley juice. Often while they were pouring over books and paper they were refreshed by brown beer).

    While the milkmen had rhymed: -

    11

    "Die Milch der Frommen Denkungsart

    Die ist bei uns jetzt Futschke,

    Die weil ganz Deutschland einig ward

    Dusch Bismarck und durch Kitschke".

    (The milk of pious thinking is now destroyed, because all Germany became unified through Bismarck and Kitschke)(Kutschke was the author of a humorous poem on Napoleon III.)

    The butchers, 600 men, all on horseback, were led by Festival Marshal Koch, Division Marshal Morris Berg and the Section Marshals Wm. Reinhard, Gottlieb Schlecht and Mr. Wieland.

    At the head rode 12 unusually large butchers with big axes, followed by a band of 12, also on horseback, a committee of 15 all on horseback, and five decorated carriages.

    The 9th Division consisted of the bakers and milkmen. Division Marshal: Timothy Berdia, Assistants: Schnabel, Phil. Schweinfurth, Charles Harm. The 12bakers were particularly rich in poetical inspiration, declaring in one of their inscriptions the Germans to be "the leaven of spiritual fermentation. They stand in the whole world for progress and instruction".

    The 10th Division: Division Marshal Franz Amberg; Assistants, Heinrich Amberg, Wilh. Gahne, Clemens Hirsch. The cabinet makers were led by their Marshal, T. Biersdorf, on horseback, and his Assistant, Cl. Helmetag.

    The 11th Division: Division Marshal, Ambrose Andre; Assistants, Otto Neff and John Morper.

    This division consisted of masons, stone cutters, chimney sweeps and house-painters. The Feast Marshal of the painters was Mr. H. Kleinofen. On their float, among other branches, portrait painting was represented by Herr Wallerstein, landscape Frank Boche, Fresco Kiersdorf, drawing Wehrmann etc.

    The 12th Division: Division Marshal: Isac Rutishauser - consisted of the Chicago Sharpshooters Guild, with their president, Mr. George Oertel, and their treasurer Mr. S. A. Deschoner.

    13

    Then followed the Diana Hunting Club, led by president George Zirngiebel, the wine dealers with four floats arranged by Messrs. Dahinden and Schroeder, the Grutli Association, led by their president, Herr Enderis and his aides de camp General Lieb and Sam Kirchhoff.

    The Grutli Association carried three flags; its own, the Swiss and the Stars and Stripes. On the top of their float was a rhymed inscription: "To celebrate German union, free Swiss are always ready". The German longshoremen came led by Mr. Martin Hessler.

    The 13th Division, including nine cars full with school children and representation of the Germania Fire Insurance Company, Teutonia Life Insurance Company, the German National Bank, the German Savings Bank, and the Germania Bank, was led by Feast Marshal Theo Schintz (Assistants, Carl Wunsche and T. C. Richberg). The Marshal of the 14th, 15th 16th and 17th Divisions were: Jacob Gross, R. Charles Feldkamp, Carl Gindele, L. Wolf.

    Two particularly luxurious floats, representing the city of Paris, were sent by Stein (of the dollar store), a globe, 6 ft. 8 high and costing $600. by Sonne's Book Store.; pyramids of musical instruments on four cars by J. Bauer 14and Company. Herr Ernst Knabe, of Baltimore, the head of the firm participated in the parade with his private equipage, likewise Herr Julius Bauer. In a car drawn by four horsex one saw the Messrs. H. Eisendrath, C. Knobelsdorff, C. Daegling and C. Hirsch, directors of the Teutonia, the only Life Insurance Company in the west founded and directed by Germans. The officers of the Germania Fire Insurance, the Messrs. F. Jager, S. Florsheim, A. Bauer, B. Lowenthal, Joseph Rollo and F. O. Affeld came in three open barouches.

    A tribune had been erected near the North western wing of the Court House. Invitations had gone out to Governor Korner, Belleville; Fr. Hecker, Lebanon; Carl Schurz; Franz Sigel; Pastor Wagner, Freeport; and Judge T. B. Stallo, Cincinnati. The guests were addressed by Mr. Louis Wahl; in their name answered Mayor Mason. While the 14th Division passed the Court House a rainstorm hit the city, but in an hour and a half the weather had cleared up again.

    The festival place was on the east side, in the so-called "Grove", and was adorned by a triumphal arch of 50 feet high, a tribune on which 1500 people found seats, two dance floors, 15 beer bars, enough tables to seat 10,000 hungry people at a time, thousands of colored lights and 8 calcium flames 15that made it almost as bright as in broad daylight. The orchestra was directed by Otto Lob. The first address was given by Feast President, Georg Schneider.

    He said, after at length reviewing the history of German unification since Napoleon: "Peace at last prevails - and here, too, in the great Republic, we will forget that we as Germans did not have very numerous and sincere friends. It should have been different...when the dark spirit of slavery dominated the Republic, it was primarily Germans who collaborated with the Anglo-American opponents of slavery and helped to rid the country of the curse....And again a sombre spirit stalks through the country, corruption and immorality raise their Hydra heads. Gigantic monopolies threaten the free development and the well-being of the country. The great cities are honeycombed with corruption, like the Babel on the Seine, and the halls of the legislatures swarm with unscrupulous demagogues. Disinterested patriots look to the closed German phalanx as to the providential saviour. She comes! She comes! And when the battle starts who doubts the overthrow of the lie and the victory of true liberty, of right, and eternal truth? Long live the Republic! Long live united Germany!"

    The next very long speech was made by Herr Frank Arnold: "The titanic struggle 16between the two most powerful nations of Europe was a fight for world domination between the Germanic and the Romanic element... The world belongs to the Teutons!... Italy, the Netherlands, England, Germany have marched at the head of civilization - France never!... Germany has created a literature before which the French must retreat...Who would today still read Racine or Voltaire?....In painting only a few things in French galleries are above mediocrity. What are the best French painters in comparison with a Cornelius, Kaulbach, Lessing, Schnorr and so on.... We ourselves, at this victory celebration, we will exclaim:.. Here, where freedom, united with education, makes prosperity possible for everybody, here we will show you in the old fatherland the way in political and social development, so that America be always as powerful as Germany, and Germany soon as free as America!"

    The final speech was made by ex-Mayor Rice.

    (Report on the Peace Celebration runs to about 18,000 words. Only a very abbreviated abstract can be of interest. The Staats-Zeitung estimates the number of people who participated in the ...

    German
    III B 3 a, III H, II A 2, II A 1, I C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 06, 1871
    The "Battle" of Wright's Grove.

    Five companies of infantry and two companies of cavalry (both of the militia) together with many citizens, mostly of German extraction, celebrated the national holiday in Wright's Grove. Everything was harmonious till about four o'clock in the afternoon. Next to Wright's Grove, namely, is Behringer's "Garden," which - so it almost seemed - the Irish element had selected for its headquarters. The Garden is separated from the Grove by a fence, on which people climbed from the Garden side, making a great deal of noise. Finally some jumped down into the Grove. So the militia posted a watch consisting of five infantrymen and two hussars at the fence to prevent any others from coming over; first because they caused disorder and secondly because the people in the Grove had paid for admission. The watch tried to quiet the people on the fence, and to make them climb down. In answer, "steins" and stones began to fly around their heads. The militia did not want to pocket insults, and attacked. A general confusion resulted, that was, however, anything but bloody. As far as we could find out, in Wright's Grove only four and in Behringer's Garden only two people were slightly wounded. When one knows that among those whose scalps were slightly scratched happened to be the reporter of the Times, the excitement of that paper becomes somewhat more comprehensible.

    2

    Toward six in the evening, out of an encounter between a man named Wilson, who seemed to lead a gang of notorious rascals and who did not want to pay, and the waiter who presented his bill, developed another riot. In other words the bullies, hoodlums, and pickpockets seemed to be resolved to disturb the festivity and to fish in troubled waters. They intended to terrorize the Germans as in old times. But the Germans were represented by the militia companies who - like their brothers in Germany had made up their minds to oppose the Celtic blood with force and determination. Now that the Germans have succeeded in that; now that the friends of the Times have brought home bumps instead of "greenbacks," bloody heads instead of golden watches that don't belong to them; that paper describes the scenes in Wright's Grove in the blackest colors.

    The Staats Zeitung then goes on trying to prove - without too much conviction - an anti-German conspiracy, and gives in corroboration the testimonies, one after the other, of Colonel Leon, Major Mathier, Colonel Ostermann (who claimed an attentat had been committed against him the day after the battle) and Captain Paul; that is to say, of four German officers of the militia.

    Captain Paul said that two of the militia, the Messrs. Heckmeir and Hinze, were rather severely wounded and badly messed up, but the other side had 3also sustained some bloody heads. To the German eye it was a magnificent view to see how the mob scattered in every direction when the fifty blind shots were fired; how a big Irishman fell on his belly, shouting, "I am dead! I am dead!" (though he was somewhat less than dead) and so on, and so on.

    So that justice could be done to all, the Staats Zeitung sent one of her reporters also to Mr. Behringer and Captain Forrest. As a matter of course, their statements do not exactly coincide with the above given. (After describing the genesis of the fight, Mr. Behringer continued): "The soldiers tore down the fence and chased the boys, at the points of their bayonets, before them. Women and children fled screaming into my bar room." He remonstrated most vehemently with the soldiers about their action, but without any effect. Police Captain Forrest of Lake View confirms essentially the statements of Behringer, but thinks the Times report incorrect. One of his men, named Philips, got a blow with a sabre across his head when he tried to make peace.

    4

    If the attacks of the Times and its hangers-on are always so energetically answered as on the 4th of July, then this paper will learn to understand that the Germans can do more than drink "Lager" and eat "Limburger."

    (Footnote of the translator: The Illinois Staats Zeitung had no edition of July 5. On that day the Times brought forth a probably one-sided report on the "battle." This improved the Staats Zeitung's chances, by pointing to some exaggerations, and making fun of the other paper, to play down the whole affair. There can be no question - from the Staats Zeitung's own report-that militarism, not refined by being imported, had run wild; nor that this unexpected outbreak of the old "furor" must have been deeply embarrassing to German leaders, engaged in fighting temperance legislation.)

    Five companies of infantry and two companies of cavalry (both of the militia) together with many citizens, mostly of German extraction, celebrated the national holiday in Wright's Grove. Everything was ...

    German
    I C, I F 4, III H, III A, III B 3 a
  • Skandinaven -- May 22, 1872
    [Celebrate Liberty Day]

    The 17th of May, the Norwegian day of Liberty was celebrated by several Norwegian societies. The weather was as though made to order. "Nora-Lodge" celebrated in the Orpheus Hall; Norwegian Dramatic Lodge celebrated in Turner Hall; and the Norwegian Society in its own Hall.

    All members had invited non-members to participate in their celebration. In Nora Lodge had a special celebration. Norwegian ladies presented the Lodge with a beautiful banner. Mr. Jacob Johnson gave the banner to the Lodge and made a very nice speach in English. Mr. Hans Anderson thanked the ladies in behalf of the Lodge. In the Norwegian Dramatic Club a Norwegian play was presented "Tordenskjold in Dynekilen" which was well staged and later a dance was held which lasted until morning.

    The 17th of May, the Norwegian day of Liberty was celebrated by several Norwegian societies. The weather was as though made to order. "Nora-Lodge" celebrated in the Orpheus Hall; Norwegian ...

    Norwegian
    III B 3 a, II B 1 c 1, III B 2
  • Chicago Times -- July 19, 1872
    Norway's National Day Chicago Descendants of Thor and O'din Celebrate the Event

    One of the local events yesterday was the celebration by our Norwegian residents, of the 1000th anniversary of their federation or union.

    The day was celebrated in a manner befitting the occasion. Thousandth anniversaries do not occur every day. They are scarce even in the all-embracing cycle of nature.

    The sturdy and jubilant Northmen and Northwomen, gathered about Norwegian Hall 170-188 North Peoria Street, and by eight o'clock the assemblage numbered about 2000.

    At 8:30 a procession was formed of the following participants: Northmen Singing Society; Carpenter Union No. 5; Workingsmens' Society; Sailors' Society, in uniform; ten carriages containing the chorus of young ladies dressed in white.

    2

    The attendance at Haas Park was estimated at about 5000 and the exercises at the park were of a varied and interesting character.

    The park was decorated with garlands and Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, and American flags. The musical part of the program was under the direction of Prof. Lindner. This was followed by the speeches delivered by Rev. Petersen, in Norwegian. Mr. Ingwell Olsen, in Norwegian. Dr. Julson followed in a short address on Norway's half sister, Denmark, and the chorus sang a Danish song.

    A grand ball, at Aurora Turner Hall on Milwaukee Avenue, was given under the auspices of the Harmonic Society.

    In the evening, besides the festivities at Aurora Hall, a select company under the guidance of E. T. Thorsen met at the Barnes House and partook of supper. Toasts and speeches also came in order and the festive occasion closed amid congratulations and the expression of the hope that all might again together celebrate another thousandth anniversary, if not in this, in the next world.

    One of the local events yesterday was the celebration by our Norwegian residents, of the 1000th anniversary of their federation or union. The day was celebrated in a manner befitting ...

    Norwegian
    III B 3 a
  • Skandinaven -- July 24, 1872
    [Celebrate Anniversary]

    The Norwegians of Chicago celebrated the 1000 Anniversary of Norway at Haas Park. The Norwegians gathered in front of the Norwegian Hall. Then a Norwegian silk banner was brought in by the ladies of the colony and presented to the Norwegian Men's Singing Society of Chicago. Pastor Peterson gave the banner to the singers after which they walked to their place in the parade. The band leader, Mr. Lindther, gave the command to start the march. The parade was led by twenty police officers, under police sergeant Johnson's command. The band played the Norwegian national anthem. Next came a division of Norwegian sailors dressed as though attending a regatta and marching under the Norwegian flag. Next under the various Scandinavian flags came the Scandinavian turners in their white uniforms; after them came the Norwegian societies under their new silk flag. After them came the following: The Workmen's Society; Norwegian Men's Singing Society; a row of carriages carrying the speakers of the day, and 2fifty Norwegian ladies wearing the Norwegian national costume. At the R.R. station forty-three coaches waited and they were taken to the park, only one half mile from the city.

    The start of the festival was announced by three cannon shots. Pastor C.J.P. Peterson made the special speech and he was stopped several times by enthusiastic applause. He finished his speech with "Hurrah for Norway" and a telegram was sent to Norway. Nine cannon shots shocked the neighborhood.

    The Norwegians of Chicago celebrated the 1000 Anniversary of Norway at Haas Park. The Norwegians gathered in front of the Norwegian Hall. Then a Norwegian silk banner was brought in ...

    Norwegian
    III B 3 a, III B 2
  • Hejmdal -- June 14, 1875
    Danish Liberty Day (Summary)

    Twenty-six years ago Denmark was given its Constitution and the people their liberty. Slavery was removed as a condition of labor; arrangements were made to secure everyone a bit of the social cake. Everyone was permitted an education; hence the celebration on June 5. Every county, every city or village is permitted to conduct its own political business, since it is permitted to hold elections for its own officials. We hope and pray that our old fatherland will always celebrate the Fifth of June.

    [In the celebration held here] Dr. Petersen, Editor Salmonsen, and Mr. Johnson spoke, and the Dania Singing Society sang. The festival was a success.

    Twenty-six years ago Denmark was given its Constitution and the people their liberty. Slavery was removed as a condition of labor; arrangements were made to secure everyone a bit of ...

    Danish
    III B 3 a
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 27, 1875
    The Christmas Festival

    The Christmas festival, with all its joys and surprises, is now a thing of the past. Life and activity on the streets and in the stores--the inevitable concomitant of the holiday--have returned to normalcy and quiet--if such a word as "quiet" can find a place in the description of an American "big city".....

    Although the pleasures of the family circle cannot be surpassed, one is nevertheless seized with the desire to seek companionship among friends and acquaintances. And opportunities to satisfy this desire were not lacking in Chicago. Everywhere, at the Christmas season,festivals and entertainments were arranged; various invitingly-decorated and spacious [turner and singing society] halls were sought out by a gay, motley crowd. One might, for example, mention the following programs:

    2

    CENTRAL HALL

    Corner Wabash Avenue and 22nd Street

    The Concordia Maennerchor arranged an evening entertainment for the Christmas celebration. Although this organization has arranged excellent musical performances in the past, its outstanding programs have been especially frequent recently, ever since Oscar Schmoll has been the Maennerchor's leader. The society's ambitions and efforts are commendable, and the success attained by Mr. Schmoll is worthy of profound recognition.

    The program chosen for last Saturday evening's entertainment revealed good taste and artistic perception. A varied program was offered. The separate numbers left nothing to be desired; in fact, many of those who took part in the concert were rewarded with especial acclaim. Verdi's overture to "Nebuchadnezzar," played by the orchestra, was the first number. It found unanimous approval, as did the following two selections of the Concordia Maennerchor--one of which, the song "Mein Fruehling," deserves special mention.

    3

    Miss Thomas played a piano concerto by Thalberg. All of this composer's works are very difficult to execute; they contain passages which require considerable exertion for their rendition. In view of this fact, Miss Thomas deserves profound recognition for her masterly performance. The same can be said of Oscar Schmoll. In playing his selection, "Ossian," Mr. Schmoll proved again his mastery of his instrument [the piano]. The other offerings, solos and duets, earned deserved applause.

    A dance was held after the concert, obvious proof that the members of the Concordia Maennerchor not only dedicate themselves to art, but are a jovial lot besides. All enjoyed the terpsichorean pleasures, and at a late hour gay melodies were still coming from the brightly illuminated hall.

    AURORA TURNHALLE

    On the same evening an entertainment was given by the Aurora Turnverein. This was also a very pleasant and gay affair--indeed this Verein has the reputation 4of being a center of good-natured comradeship.

    The program was entirely different from that of the Concordia Maennerchor.... While music held sway among the members of the singing society, gymnastics were indulged in by the Aurora Turnverein, and all the gymnastic exercises were performed with precision and confidence. The gymnastic feats performed on parallel bars, horizontal bar, and ladder were excellent. The exercises without equipment were likewise very good.

    The club-swinging exercises met with great acclaim. They provided an opportunity for the fair sex to demonstrate its prowess. Then followed the manifestation of the Christmas spirit--the distribution of presents. This proved highly amusing. Gifts of all kinds were raffled off--some were beautiful and valuable; others were noteworthy for their originality.

    At the end of the festival, a dance was held which lasted until morning. 5Joy and gaiety also prevailed at the Vorwaerts Turnhalle on Saturday evening. The Vorwaerts Verein has a certain knack for arranging festivals and entertainments, and so it provided an enjoyable evening. While no speeches were on the program, and no perfectly synchronized gymnastic exercises were performed for the elation of the spectator, the festival was notable for the spirit of genuine sociability which reigned throughout the celebration.

    Here, too, the raffling of presents provided much amusement..... The ball terminating the festival proved to be a very delightful affair.....

    THE CHICAGO TURNGEMEINDE

    The Chicago Turngemeinde celebrated Christmas in its own hall with a concert and raffling of presents.

    The Great Western Band played an overture for the opening number, displaying the precision and self-assurance for which the orchestra is so well known. The 6Turner Maennerchor then sang Maehring's "Jagdlied" and it was quite evident that the chorus had made gratifying progress.

    Mr. Schmoll's rendition of Thalberg's "Grande Fantasie De Concert" was excellent, and he received deserved applause. The Turner Maennerchor then offered "Das Deutsche Lied".

    The Christmas festival, with all its joys and surprises, is now a thing of the past. Life and activity on the streets and in the stores--the inevitable concomitant of the ...

    German
    III B 3 a, II B 3, II B 1 a
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 04, 1876
    The National Festival.

    Yesterday was the second day of celebration for the Chicago Turngemeinde in honor of the Centennial Memorial of the Declaration of Independence. According to the program yesterday was exclusively restricted to gymnastics of youngsters; 240 boys and 28 girls were marching to the tunes of a band at Wright's Grove, under the guidance of the gymnastic teacher Lang. The procession was divided in eight sections, of which each had their own flag.

    In the center was carried the Stars and Stripes.

    After resting from the march the youngsters started at 2 P.M. with their gymnastics, with a march and mass exercises with all the boys participating,after this followed by a short running race and at the closing individual prize gymnastics in section form.

    Yesterday was the second day of celebration for the Chicago Turngemeinde in honor of the Centennial Memorial of the Declaration of Independence. According to the program yesterday was exclusively restricted ...

    German
    III B 3 a, II B 3, III A, II B 1 c 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 06, 1876
    [The Centennial Jubilee]

    The Centennial Jubilee is happily over.--- The citizen of German extraction showed the most interest in this day of jubilee. While in the American and Irish quarters on their houses, festive decorations were hardly noticeable and in a few instances flags could be seen. In contrast to this the houses of the Germans were more or less abundantly decorated with wreaths, inscriptions and pictures of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.

    The Centennial Jubilee is happily over.--- The citizen of German extraction showed the most interest in this day of jubilee. While in the American and Irish quarters on their houses, ...

    German
    III B 3 a, I C, III A, II B 1 c 3