The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1863
    The German Society

    The general meeting of the German Society of Chicago was held in the German House, May 3, 1863, with President Heinrich Greenbaum presiding.

    The report of Agent Schlund was read and adopted, and the matter relating to the Reform School was referred to a committee which will endeavor to persuade the executive board of the Reform School to act in line with Mr. Schlund's suggestion.

    The financial report was adopted as read. Election of officers took place with the following result: president, Heinrich Gindele; treasurer, Karl Vergho; secretary, Conrad C. Diehl. Butz and Schneider were appointed to inform the above of their election. The following rules were adopted:

    1) The newly elected officers may not refuse to serve.

    2

    2) Minimum membership fee shall be two dollars. [Translator's note: The secretary does not state whether this sum is the annual or monthly fee.]

    3) Anyone who pays fifty cents or more shall be permitted to speak and vote in the general meetings for the period of one year.

    4) The salary of the agent shall be three hundred dollars per year.

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President.

    Report of the Agent of the German Society of Chicago for April and May, 1862

    April May
    Secured employment for 93 85
    Secured railroad passes for poor 3 1
    Secured railroad passes for wounded soldiers 3 1
    Found baggage for 11 2
    3
    April May
    Located relatives for 5 3
    Families allotted food 7 5
    Assisted in financial matters 8 6
    Found lodgings for families 6 2
    Secured medical aid and medicines for 7 5
    Soldiers' families supported 6 6
    Assisted immigrants to proceed on their journey 4 1
    Corresponded for 120 98
    Referred to county for aid 5 2
    Total 281 219
    Total for April and May 500

    My activity as agent of the German Society of Chicago was interrupted by the President's call for the organization of volunteer state militia. In my spare time I have devoted myself to helping needy immigrants and 4countrymen without remuneration from the Society, until the Conscription Act was passed; but now my term of service has expired.

    The German public of Chicago, a city where fifty thousand Teutons live, should pay more attention to immigration which is the cause of the great and rapid development of the city.

    While Americans annually spend large sums of money for benevolent purposes, as for instance, for orphan homes, homes for the friendless, and homes for the aged, the German Society of Chicago, which has become a refuge for helpless immigrants and needy German citizens, ought not fall asleep; for the German Society of Chicago is the only German organization which aids needy Germans without respect to origin or creed

    If our German citizens would cease helping every beggar and bum who comes to their door or approaches them in the streets, especially in the winter, and would donate corn, flour, meat, potatoes, etc., no Chicago family 5that is worthy of support would have to go hungry.

    The German Society has done much to increase the school attendance of poor children by exercising a "moral" compulsion--by giving shoes and clothing to those poor pupils who attend school regularly.

    We take great pleasure in commending the work done in the Juvenile Home, where German children were always heartily welcomed and well cared for.

    The Home of the Friendless is maintained for the benefit of children of dissolute or criminally inclined parents, or children who are in danger of entering upon a life of crime, and it has proved to be very effective. However the Home of the Friendless is not a suitable place for the children of poor but law-abiding parents; these children should be placed in more pleasant and less dangerous surroundings, so that they are not estranged from their parents and do not fall prey to greedy employers.

    6

    The Home for Workers is in its infancy. It is the most pleasant and most necessary of all branches of charity; for who is more deserving among the needy than the man or woman who is diligent and faithful and would like to work but is prevented from doing so by age and physical disability, and would rather starve than become an inmate of a poorhouse?

    In the Reform School there are proportionately few German boys; and the majority of them have been placed there because of youthful carelessness or indifference on the part of their parents, who either send their boys out to gather old iron and other junk, or permit them to loiter idly about the streets and alleys. In time the lads meet bad companions and finally are confined to reform schools, where they come into contact with confirmed and hardened offenders, and as a result the boys are totally demoralized.

    I hope that the German Society of Chicago endeavors to have juvenile delinquents classified, so that light offenders, first offenders, or those who do not participate in evil deeds, but just accompany the offenders, are not 7placed on the same level with, treated as, and confined with, real criminals, thieves, robbers, murderers, etc., but are kept separate from the latter.

    The inmates of the Reform School should be classified in the following manner: 1) Non-participating observer; 2) Seduced; 3) Corrigible; 4) Incorrigible.

    As in Germany, the societies "for the protection of German emigrants" are expanding their activity, so we also should take greater precautions to protect immigrants in our country.

    In conclusion I wish to emphasize that if the German Society of Chicago is not more alert, the thieves and confidence men in New York and other ports will have a gay time; for the German Society of Chicago and the St. Louis Immigrant Society have done more to prevent swindling than any other organization in the United States. The German Society of Chicago may justly be proud of the fact that it has exposed several attempts to defraud innocent people of large sums of money and valuable property, and has also succeeded 8in locating much valuable baggage.

    If the German immigrants who come to Chicago are left without a source of information or material aid, the city will not only lose its wide-spread reputation for the assistance rendered immigrants, but also will soon be deprived of the valuable services of these people.

    The Chicago Turnverein and the Chicago Arbeiterverein have done much for charitable purposes; however, the great majority of the members of these organizations are of the laboring class; many of them are members of the German Society of Chicago, and their zeal is commendable. Yet it is desirable that those who have wealth--home owners, businessmen, and professional men--take a greater and more active interest in benevolence. And they really are obligated, for they avail themselves of the services of the Society when they need help in their offices, stores, or homes.

    I wish to thank our president, Mr. Heinrich Greenbaum for the valuable 9aid he has given me in my work. He was always willing to assist me whenever difficulties presented themselves, though at times it was necessary that he neglect his business in order to comply with my request.

    I have always tried to be just toward everybody; if I appeared to be unsympathetic in some instances it was only because I wished to discourage people who are not worthy of assistance. There are a great number of beggars who journey from city to city; they are very successful in arousing the sympathy of the public, much more so than worthy applicants for aid. They manage to lead the existence which appeals to them by carefully avoiding any flagrant offense against the laws pertaining to vagrancy. When I refuse to feed or house these lazy persons, they slander the German Society of Chicago. And the public, not knowing that these professional beggars have been driven from some neighboring city by the civil authorities, believes their stories about about inhuman treatment.

    .......[The next paragraph of this article contains a repetition of previously 10expressed thoughts.]

    Respectfully,

    F. Schlund, Agent.

    ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT

    Receipts for 1862 and 1863 $652.07
    Disbursements for 1862 and 1863 246.50
    Balance $405.57

    Heinrich Greenbaum, President.

    May 2, 1863.

    The general meeting of the German Society of Chicago was held in the German House, May 3, 1863, with President Heinrich Greenbaum presiding. The report of Agent Schlund was read ...

    German
    III B 2, III G, III D, II E 3, II E 2, II D 3, II D 5, II D 4, II D 7, II D 8, I B 3 b, I D 1 a, II D 10

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- October 16, 1867
    Premiums on Arson (Editorial)

    The recommendation which the grand jury made to the recorder yesterday contained a severe criticism of the methods used by so-called fire insurance companies. If the statements of the grand jury are true, these corporations should really be called stock companies for the promotion of incendiarism. No stranger can spend more than a few days in this city without unwittingly applying the not very flattering, but true words, "confounded nest of incendiarists" to the metropolis of the West. And no resident of Chicago is so blind and so ignorant that he does not know that eight, or even nine, of ten fires are started intentionally. Unfortunately, it is seldom possible to prove this, since no crime can be concealed as easily as arson; but we are morally convinced that arson exists whenever the amount of insurance is more than double the amount of damage or the actual value of the property.

    2

    The grand jury hit the nail on the head when it stated that the real cause of this evil, which is becoming more unbearable every day, lies in the fact that "insurance companies, in their greed for money, often insure property for as much as ten times its real value, a risk which is certainly not in agreement with sound business principles". The companies are actually levying high premiums on arson. The assumption that it is in their own interest to reject bad risks does not apply. Free competition becomes an inane, foolish, wild chase, a steeplechase, in which a few broken ribs or a broken neck do not count. Impertinent, "high-powered" agents talk the owners of tinderbox shacks into buying a thousand-dollar policy, although their dwelling, or rather their hut, is not worth, at the most, no more than three hundred dollars. Is it a wonder that many succumb to the temptation to do the company out of the money it is so anxious to get rid of?

    The public is not only interested in removing this evil, it has also the right, yea the duty, to do so. And the greater the evil, the more radical and severe 3the remedy must be. If the insurance companies themselves do not take the necessary steps to prevent these "wholesale fires," then the legislature ought to take a hand in the matter and enact a law which provides:

    1. That no house may be insured for more than three fourths its actual value.

    2. That no policy is valid unless the County Board, co-operating with the assessor's office, has testified that the first provision has been complied with.

    Perhaps a more thorough method would be to permit insurance not to exceed in amount the assessed value of the property. That procedure should be effective in reducing the number of fires by at least ninety per cent.

    The recommendation which the grand jury made to the recorder yesterday contained a severe criticism of the methods used by so-called fire insurance companies. If the statements of the grand ...

    German
    II E 3, I F 3, II E 2
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 01, 1871
    [A Bohemian Tragedy]

    Tuesday afternoon at 3, A Bohemian named Nartin Benada killed first his fiancee Catherine Nicolan, and then himself. They both were working in the tailor shop of Mr. Thomas Hocohm, 403 W. 16th Street. Last Monday Catherine expressed to her fiance the desire to view the German parade. Martin flatly refused. Resenting his attitude Catherine declared that she would go anway, and that she would have no difficulty in finding an escort. She found one and had a good time watching the hated "nemetz" without Martin. Tuesday the two met again in the shop. Martin was quiet and did his work as usual. In the afternoon, he went away but returned after a while with a revolver that he had bought from an innkeeper at Blue Island Avenue. Again he took up his work, but only for a few minutes. Walking towards his sweetheart, he said in Bohemian: "Farewell Catherine'" pressed the revolver toward her left temple and fired.

    The girl fell bleeding to the floor. Before anybody could interfer, Benada had fired another bullet into his own brain. He died immediately. He was only 20, one year younger than his victim who died yesterday at half past eleven.

    Tuesday afternoon at 3, A Bohemian named Nartin Benada killed first his fiancee Catherine Nicolan, and then himself. They both were working in the tailor shop of Mr. Thomas Hocohm, ...

    German
    II E 2
  • Skandinaven -- December 11, 1872
    Scandinavian National Bank Bankrupt

    Yesterday the Times stated that the Scandinavian National Bank was bankrupt. Fred S. Winslow, president, closed the bank today. Naturally, the Scandinavians are rather worried because they are among the largest depositors. Nobody knows the outcome yet. We can report, however, news from the Chicago Evening Journal. As a rule the Journal always has been dependable. Following is the report:

    The bankruptcy is due to president Fred S. Winslow's mismanagement. It has been reported that he lost heavily in European speculations; a receiver took possession of the bank at once. We all anticipate that the bank will be able to pay back the people's savings accounts. Two weeks ago the assets were estimated at $536,516. Again a case of a banker using bank money for speculation. A committee of nine men, at 911 Milwaukee Avenue, are trying to have Mr. Scavil of Prairie Lake take possession of Winslow's bank and take care of the creditors' interests.

    Yesterday the Times stated that the Scandinavian National Bank was bankrupt. Fred S. Winslow, president, closed the bank today. Naturally, the Scandinavians are rather worried because they are among the ...

    Norwegian
    II A 2, II E 2
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 09, 1875
    Equality before the American Law (Editorial)

    Another "pretty" example of the highly vaunted "advantage" of America!

    The wealthy Americans of Long Island, who shot and killed Masher and Douglas, two burglars whom the former caught in the act, were not even arrested because of their act, and the coroner's jury not only acquitted, but also commended, them for "their efforts in behalf of the welfare of the community". In connection with this case, Charles O'Conor (sic), one of the foremost jurists of our country, rendered an opinion, stating that it is permissible, even commendable, to kill a burglar, and that a burglar, from the moment he sets out to do his evil deed, has not the rights which an honest man, or the man who is threatened by the burglar, enjoys.

    Since that time, a 72-year-old German citizen, who also lives on Long Island, shot a robber who sought to deprive him of his meager property, and the robber 2died as a result of the wound. This elderly German gentleman, who took this means of protecting his property against the robber, is logically entitled to the immunity from punishment and the praise that the rich men from Long Island, who killed a burglar, received. Moreover, his deed is logically more justifiable, because he would have suffered more by the loss of his property than the wealthy men would have, if the burglar, whom they killed, had attained his object. According to the conclusions contained in O'Conor's opinion, the old German was fully within his rights. His act is also justified by the fact that he is old and could not have protected himself against an attack by the burglar.

    However, in the same Brooklyn where the rich men who killed a burglar were greatly commended for their deed, the poor old German, who committed a like act under more extenuating circumstances, was arrested; and instead of acquitting and praising him, the coroner's jury rendered a verdict in which the man whom this German shot is expressly called a burglar, but which recommends that the German be held "for bringing about the death of a person through too rash 3an act". He will be tried for manslaughter, and is now held in jail.

    The New York Belletristic Journal makes these bitter, but true, comments on this matter:

    "This is a public declaration that our institutions give only to the wealthy the right to protect their property, and that the poor have not that right. To shoot a thief who steals the silverware of a rich person is a commendable deed, but if a man shoots down the thief who steals the pig or chicken of a pauper, he is guilty of a criminal act. The rich judge's brother, who, with his well-armed company, could easily have captured the thief, was justified in using his gun--but the 72-year-old German, who faced the thief alone and did not know but that he might have had one or more accomplices who might fell him immediately, acted "rashly" when he fired his weapon. According to the opinion of the coroner and his wise jury, the German should have waited until he was attacked, and then defended himself as well as he could, or permitted the thief to do his wicked deed unmolested.

    4

    "There is a vast difference between burglarizing the villa of a rich judge and stealing the chickens of a poor German!"

    Another "pretty" example of the highly vaunted "advantage" of America! The wealthy Americans of Long Island, who shot and killed Masher and Douglas, two burglars whom the former caught in ...

    German
    II E 2
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- November 01, 1875
    The Germania and A. C. Hesing.

    "To Mr. A. C. Hesing,

    Dear Sir:

    Since Mr. Huck has omitted to refute the accusation made against him by the Illinois Staats Zeitung, that he was a tax cheater, my friends and myself are forced to believe this accusation to be true. Consequently no other choice is left to us but not to vote at all, or to vote for you. We wish to ask you to be kind enough to answer the following questions:

    1. Were you a shareholder and an official of a bankrupt fire insurance company?

    2. Have you as such fulfilled your obligations toward the poor people who have suffered losses through fire?

    3. Was the capital of the company insured according to the state laws; or were not such assurances given to state officials? 2Should you be able to give a satisfactory answer to these questions through your newspaper, you may rely on my vote and on the votes of my friends.

    In the name of many friends.

    Achill Sperber."

    "I have answered these questions in a public statement several months ago. At the time, as the note, for which I had given shares of the Germania, became due, I was not able to pay it. The note and the shares of the Staats Zeitung which served as collateral, were then sold upon the direction of Judge Blodgett. The sale did not realize the complete amount and I consequently still owe the difference between the amount received and the amount of the nots. This debt I have publicly acknowledged and I shall pay it to the last penny, provided time is given me. I expect to have paid off this debt before the end of 1876.

    A. C. Hesing."

    "To Mr. A. C. Hesing, Dear Sir: Since Mr. Huck has omitted to refute the accusation made against him by the Illinois Staats Zeitung, that he was a tax cheater, ...

    German
    I F 5, IV, II E 2, II B 2 d 1
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 28, 1876
    The Whiskey War.

    A. C. Hesing yesterday appeared in federal court. Three accusations were made against him. The first and principal one is against J. Rehm, A. C. Hesing, and J. F. Hoyt and covers not less than forty pages. Stripped of its legal terminology, the accusation can be summarized as follows: That on February 2, 1873, Jacob Rehm, A. C. Hesing and J. F. Hoyt with G. Miller, H. Fredericks and many others entered into a conspiracy to place 1,000,000 gallons of untaxed brandy on the market. That between January 1 and February 7, 1873, 110,000 of these gallons actually appeared on the market.

    2

    The second accusation stipulates that A. C. Hesing and other persons had conspired on February 2, 1874 to cheat the Federal Government out of a seventy cents tax on a million gallons of brandy to be made in the distilleries of Lake Shore in Chicago and of Union Copper in Calumet.

    The third accusation states that on June 1, 1874, A. C. Hesing, Miller, and Fredericks conspired to put 100,000 gallons of untaxed whiskey from Lake Shore distillery on the market.

    For the first indictment against Rehm, Hesing, and Hoyt, the federal prosecuting attorney requested from each one of the accused $50,000 bond; for the second indictment against Hesing alone $50,000 bond; 3no new sentence for the third indictment against Hesing and Neuhaus, $10,000 bond.

    The total bond of A. C. Hesing thus ran up to $110,000. Upon the request of the attorney for the defense, Judge Blodgett put the bond for A. C. Hesing at $30,000, for Rehm at $30,000, and for Hoyt at $20,000. Tuesday was then chosen as the day on which the accused would have to plead guilty or not guilty to the indictment. J.Rehm put up bond through Julius Jonas and A. Loeb, A. C. Hesing through H. Raster, C. F. Pietsch, and Washington Hesing.

    Needless to say, the indictments against A. C. Hesing and J. Rehm were the talk of the city yesterday.

    A. C. Hesing yesterday appeared in federal court. Three accusations were made against him. The first and principal one is against J. Rehm, A. C. Hesing, and J. F. Hoyt ...

    German
    II E 2, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 16, 1876
    (No headline)

    J. F. Hoyt, who was indicted with A. C. Hesing and Jac Rebin for evasion of the income tax, has become a fugitive from justice. In a letter to his lawyer Mr. J. R. Doolittle, the fugitive Hoyt had this to say:

    "Since I met you last time, I have been told that corrupt witnesses have given perjured testimony against me. Under these circumstances, innocent as I am, I have to look for security."

    Mr. Hoyt's lawyers are not very proud of thier client. Mr. Hoyt's bondsman, Chas. Jerome, will have to pay the sum of $10,000 he put up for bond.

    J. F. Hoyt, who was indicted with A. C. Hesing and Jac Rebin for evasion of the income tax, has become a fugitive from justice. In a letter to his ...

    German
    II E 2, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 18, 1876
    A. C. Hesing.

    Yesterday the trial of Rehm, Hoyt and Hesing took place in the Federal Court building. There were three indictments against A. C. Hesing. The main indictment accused him of having conspired with Rehm and Hoyt to defraud the Government of brandy taxes. The other indictments were against Hesing as being a distiller. Hessing's position was made clear at yesterday's proceedings. The indictment which accused Hesing of having taken part in a conspiracy to bribe tax officials and to put up an organization aiming at tax fraud was dropped.

    Except for passing of the sentence, the legal proceedings against A. C. Hesing are thus at an end. That the prosecuting attorney dropped the main indictment to try A. C. Hesing on the same charges as the other distillers is the best proof that Hesing has taken no part in the bribing of tax officials.

    2

    The connection of Mr. Hesing with the tax fraud is solely due to the fact that he has always been ready to stand by his friends, when they needed his help. Out of pure friendship he guaranteed some years ago the obligations of a few distillers and signed the bonds required by the Government. For this risk, which was considerable at the time, the distillers gave him a part of their net profit and only in so far as this made him appear as a participant, did he become involved in this unfortunate affair. The moneys advanced to him occasionally by a few distillers to meet the election expenses, might have come partly from the profit of the brandy distillers, but it did not occur to him, to refuse on such suppositions, moneys given for general political purposes.

    Anyone who is acquainted with Mr. Hesing knows that in his long political life he has made great contributions to party purposes. If now, reasons of friendship have made him appear as a participant in the 3conduct of his business partners, it must be remembered that, the indictment charging criminal intention having been dropped, he has been freed from reproach of unethical motives.

    Yesterday the trial of Rehm, Hoyt and Hesing took place in the Federal Court building. There were three indictments against A. C. Hesing. The main indictment accused him of having ...

    German
    I F 6, IV, II E 2, II E 1, II A 2, I D 1 a
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 18, 1876
    The Trial.

    When the bailiff called the names of the defendants, Rehm and Hesing answered, but not so Mr. Hoyt, who had fled to Canada. Mr. Cambell, Mr. Rehm's attorney, got up to state that his client wished to withdraw his plea of guilty and desired to hand in the following answer instead: "Jacob Rehm wishes to withdraw his former plea and states that all the accusations are due to one conspiracy and not to several ones and to this one conspiracy the defendant pleads guilty." The judge then asked the prosecuting attorney, if this plea was sufficient and the latter answered in the affirmative. When Hesing's name was called, his attorney , E. Jussen, remarked there was an agreement that the accusations against Hesing as being an accomplice of Rehm and Hoyt, should be ignored. Regarding the accusation against Hesing as being a distiller and part-owner of the Lakeshore Distillery, the latter wishes to plead guilty in helping to dispose of untaxed brandy.

    2

    (We wish to say here, that A. C. Hesing has never set foot in this distillery and has taken no part in its business administration).

    When the bailiff called the names of the defendants, Rehm and Hesing answered, but not so Mr. Hoyt, who had fled to Canada. Mr. Cambell, Mr. Rehm's attorney, got up ...

    German
    I F 6, IV, II E 2, I D 1 a