The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- November 01, 1875
    Waldheim

    A meeting of the shareholders of the company cemetery Waldheim took place yesterday afternoon in Clare Hall on North Clark Street. This entire German enterprise has encountered many difficulties during the last two years. The secretary, Mr. Wm. Tstel said: "When all our efforts to settle the differences between the Waldheim society and the original owner of the property, Mr. Haase, had failed it was only due to the intervention of Mr. Hesing, that a peaceful settlement was reached and that the controversy was kept out of the courts." Mr. F. S. Schweinfurth remarked: "I too, have heard much about the intervention of Mr. A. C. Hesing. But the carrier of the Chicago Tribune, although unsolicited, also delivered a copy of the Neden Freie Presse. It contained a letter signed by John Pfeifer, which not only discounts any effort of A. C. Hesing and F. Haase in favor of the Waldheim cemetery but accuses these gentlemen of having worked against this German enterprise." President F. Mass answered: "I give my word of honor that thanks to the intervention of Mr. A. C. Hesing and due to the friendly attitude of Mr. Haase good results have been obtained as is proved in our latest financial report."

    Mr. Pfeifer then made the following declaration: "The letter published in the 2Neuen Freie Presse under my signature, does not represent my opinion. My signature was obtained through a subterfuge. A member of the editorial staff submitted a stenographic letter for my signature, claiming it was for the benefit of the Waldheim cemetery; for that reason I gladly signed it. I am very sorry that my name should have been used for such misrepresentation."

    The meeting then expressed its thanks to the board of directors to Mr. Hesing, to Mr. Haase and then adjourned.

    A meeting of the shareholders of the company cemetery Waldheim took place yesterday afternoon in Clare Hall on North Clark Street. This entire German enterprise has encountered many difficulties during ...

    German
    II C, IV
  • Chicago Tribune -- May 21, 1877
    The Schuetzenfest.

    The annual opening of the Schuetzen Park, on the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway, about a mile south of Washington Heights, took place yesterday, and was participated in by about 800 of Chicago's German citizens. The day was set apart for the purpose because it is that upon which Whit (Pfingst) Sunday fell. The weather was anything but propitious, but notwithstanding, the opening day was a success and passed off pleasantly to all who took part in the exercise.

    About 10 o'clock yesterday morning a procession composed as follows left Schuetzen Halle, on North Clark Street: Platoon of police, North Side TurnGemeinde, etc. etc.... The procession marched north on Clark Street to Chicago Avenue, west on Chicago Avenue to Wells Street, south on Wells Street to Ohio Street, east on Ohio to Clark Street, south on Clark to Randolph Street, west on Randolph to Clinton Street, and north to the Kinzie Street Depot, whence the excursionists embarked.

    Just after the procession started the rain poured down in torrents, and when the procession arrived at the depot the Turners and the Marshal and his aids 2looked not unlike half-drowned rats. But this little inconvenience was quite forgotten in the foaming mug of lager and the hilarity which it occasioned. In good time the party arrived at the Park, where Schnitzel, Schinken, and other light edibles and much lager were done away with as repasts. The excursionists scattered about as they saw fit, but, as the grass was wet, the great hall formed the main attraction, and soon, amidst the strains of Strauss, merry dancers were whirling in the merry waltz.

    At 4 o'clock President John B. Gartenman introduced Mr. William Rapp, of the Staats-Zeitung, who made a happy speech, appropriate to the day and occasion. Prof. Honne showed how he could walk the tight rope. Shooting was indulged in by the Schuetzen Corps. The best shots at the union target were Schotter, etc. etc.... Taken as a whole, the opening was a success.

    The annual opening of the Schuetzen Park, on the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway, about a mile south of Washington Heights, took place yesterday, and was participated in by ...

    German
    II C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 16, 1877
    Humboldt Park

    The dedication of Humboldt Park was witnessed by 30,000 persons. Not only the North Side people, but every Chicagoan was anxious to be present at the opening of this park....Mr. John Buhler introduced the first speaker, Mr. Wilhelm Vocke. Mr. Vocke said:

    Only Forty years ago this was nothing but a swamp, and now, we look upon a large city of 500,000 vigorous and diligent people. The park which we are dedicating today bears the name of the greatest German scientist...When we think of the accomplishments of the next ten years, our hearts must be filled with pride and satisfaction, knowing that we participated in these activities.

    The dedication of Humboldt Park was witnessed by 30,000 persons. Not only the North Side people, but every Chicagoan was anxious to be present at the opening of this park....Mr. ...

    German
    II C
  • Skandinaven -- April 22, 1879
    The Leif Ericson Fund (Editorial)

    To our forefathers belong undeniably the honor of being the first white men ever to tread upon American soil. We have authoritative historical data evidencing their early arrival on this continent, while reports of still earlier discoveries of this hemisphere are vague and uncertain and shrouded in mythological fog.

    In a couple of decades it will be nine hundred years since this great discovery took place, and it is now proposed to erect a monument in memory of this historical event, near the coast where Leif Erikson and his men landed after having sailed their tiny goat across the ocean. On this same continent, which Leif discovered, thousands of his nationals, men and women, have later found their homes, and this monument will for the coming generations, bear proud witness of the race which counts America's first discoverer among its 2sons.

    But if this undertaking, so honorable for the Scandinavians, is to attain the national significance which it merits, the funds necessary for its completion should be contributed by our own people. The amount of each individual contribution is not so important but the participation should be general, so that it can truly be said that Scandinavians in America erected this monument. If, for instance, every man and woman of our nationality were to donate 25 cents, on the average, a sufficiently large sum would be collected to really show the world that we, as a people, honor our ancestors.

    But if a national subscription is to be undertaken, the invitation should be issued by our most prominent men. Supposing Ole Bull and Professor R. B. Anderson took the lead? The honor and fame which the violin virtuoso has won in the old as well as in the new world, has been reflected back on the nation, and among our countrymen on this side of the ocean, none has done more to 3spread the knowledge of our people's history than Professor Anderson. Both of these men feel warmly for the mother country and our precious memories, and we hope that for the sake of promoting our national honor and dignity, they will go to the front and organize a national subscription for the Leif fund.

    To our forefathers belong undeniably the honor of being the first white men ever to tread upon American soil. We have authoritative historical data evidencing their early arrival on this ...

    Norwegian
    II C, IV, I J
  • Der Westen -- August 31, 1879
    The Cannstatt Festival

    Today marks the beginning of the second Cannstatt festival which, to judge from the preparations, will be even more successful than last year's. Particular care has been taken in arranging the pageant, which is to represent scenes from the glorious history of the Swabians; anything savoring of advertising is, of course, taboo. No efforts or expense have been spared in providing historically accurate costuming; this will make the festival highly interesting from an educational standpoint, as well as most entertaining.

    The festival grounds (Ogden's grove), have been especially decorated for the occasion at considerable expense. The festival pillar, a veritable work of art, will be unveiled amid ceremonies which include a speech by Dr. Herman Sigel. A parade is to be held at the grove, grouping the various districts of Swabia, to provide a better opportunity for people of the several sections of that province to become acquainted.

    2

    A prize is to be given to that child which wears the most authentically accurate costume; that will be quite sufficient to assure a very picturesque gathering. "Der Ueberfall Im Wildbad" will be presented in pantomime amid Bengal illumination. Fireworks and other attractions also have been planned.

    The surplus proceeds are to be given to a fund for a Schiller monument in Lincoln Park which, in itself, gives assurance of a large attendance at the festival.

    Today marks the beginning of the second Cannstatt festival which, to judge from the preparations, will be even more successful than last year's. Particular care has been taken in arranging ...

    German
    II B 1 c 3, II C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- September 01, 1879
    The Cannstatt Festival Immense Crowd at Ogden's Grove

    The Cannstatt festival, towards which the Swabians looked with eager anticipation, began yesterday. It started off to be a cloudy day, but it eventually turned out to be very pleasant and warm. The affair was very successful and no one regretted the rather long trip to Ogden's grove, since everyone present was in a most jovial mood.

    The farmers of the Neckar district who gather annually at Cannstatt on September 28, could not enjoy themselves any better than did yesterday's crowd. The festival proved particularly attractive, since our Germans here do not often find an occasion to revel in genuine Swabian surroundings.

    THE PAGEANT

    The crowd gathered during the early morning hours at Randolph, Desplaines, and 2Halsted Streets. Here Germans from Bavaria, Baden, Wuerttemberg, and other regions, appeared in their Sunday clothes; men, as well as women, were garbed in the costumes of Southern Germany. Appearance and conduct showed that young and old had resolved not to let any untoward incident mar the peaceful gathering. The committee on arrangements smoothed out the various details and the leader of the parade, Hummel, with his adjutants, did his share as the throng marched in rank and file. This section of Randolph Street looked--to give a European comparison--as though a prince, with his entourage, were approaching. The sidewalks were crowded. The saloons of the vicinity did a thriving business, since the Swabians, true to tradition, partook copiously of the sparkling amber brew.

    The final arrangements were completed shortly after eleven o'clock, and the parade started. The throng marched at a lively pace east along Randolph Street. Lieutenant Baus and a platoon of police formed the vanguard; Hummel followed with the knights, soldiers, and adjutants. The musicians rode on a nicely decorated wagon drawn by four horses. A lively march tune was played.

    3

    Messrs. Meinke, Metzdorf, and Dehne, trumpeters, rode horseback, leading a division of "mercenary soldiers" in seventeenth century costume; then followed Mr. Pohme as herald, escorted by seven knights with shields and spears.

    Next came the first float, representing the founding of the University of Tuebingen. Sitting on a throne, surrounded by four Capuchin monks, August Elser represented Count Eberhardt Der Rauschebart. The four monks were grouped around the ruler (apparently expecting a decision) and other allegorical figures appeared on a lower level. The float was festively decorated with garlands, wreaths, small trees, and flowers; suitable signs called attention to various historical incidents. Then followed a number of young men, in the garb of students, on horseback.

    The second float showed Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa in the Kyffhaeuser.

    David Bayha portrayed the part of Barbarossa sitting by the table, and, though 4the blond beard had not grown through (nor around) that piece of marble furniture, his characterization was excellent. Dwarfs sat in various parts of the rocky cavern, as if listening to the cawing of the ravens. Surmounting the entire group stood Germania, holding a sword, a very attractive figure, splendidly characterized by Miss Adolphine Hesse. The young lady (attired as the allegorical figure is usually presented, with long, flowing hair) looked very attractive, and bore up well, despite the merciless sun.

    After Barbarossa came a large number of crusaders and shield bearers.

    The third allegorical picture, Schiller's "Glocke," was a masterly conception. On one side was shown the molder and his wife (Charles Heiss and Miss Emilie Stiefel), on the other side his daughter, (Miss Amelie Klett) in an attractive costume and her sweetheart (Charles Kellermann) in jerkin, plush pants, and narrow, high boots. Miss Lizzie Hooker and Miss Rosie Klett appeared on the same float, in the "Sunday togs" of women of the time of the Thirty Years' War The molders' helpers, Karl Roepke, W. and Emil Hechinger, and Peter Bergstein, 5also wore very picturesque costumes and proved convincing in their parts.

    The next allegorical presentation showed the four districts of Wuerttemberg. A rock--made of strips of oak bark--was mounted in the center of the float, and on each corner stood a figure representing one of the districts. In addition to the figure of the Neckar district, the Donau (Danube) district, presented by Miss Johanna Bohl, proved very effective. She wore a light-colored narrow garment which gradually widened out at the bottom; a tapering strip of blue on the light background suggested the broadening river.

    Then followed two additional floats; one represented a Swabian wedding, with the bride and groom returning from the church, and the other was a milk wagon, with milkman, wife, and two girls, all in native costume. Then came the rural mail carrier on horseback and a chapel on a steep mound, followed by sixty-four equestrians carrying flags on which were inscribed the names of the sixty-four districts of Wuerttemberg. Next came the wagon of the festival committee and representatives of the press, a large number of carriages, a butchers' wagon, and a farm wagon. 6All the vehicles were ornamented with flowers and garlands.

    We must also mention Franz Demmler, the Swabian "mayor," who appeared in official regalia, riding in a phaeton drawn by two black-and-white-speckled horses.

    All of the costumes were furnished by Mrs. Sophie Hagemann; they were a great credit to her.

    The entire pageant was about one mile in length, and moved somewhat too rapidly through the gayly ornamented streets, since the parade was delayed at the start. In many places bunting was suspended across the streets.

    The route was along Randolph Street, Clark Street, Chicago Avenue, Larrabee Street, Clybourn Avenue, Sedgwick Street, North Avenue, and from there to the grove.

    7

    People gathered at windows, doors, and sidewalks; even the streets were crowded. Shouts of approval were numerous. The bands played popular melodies. At one o'clock the throng reached the grove.

    AT THE GROVE

    As soon as the parade reached the festival grounds, the crowd broke ranks. At first there was only music. The people who were in the parade sought refreshment at the various booths, while the younger element danced. The shooting gallery, merry-go-round, and other amusement devices were in great demand. Old friends met again, and the waiters were quite busy carrying big steins of beer.

    The place was splendidly decorated. The festive pillar, the work of Architect August Bestler, brought universal admiration. Cedar branches and sheaves of grain formed an octagonal base on which was mounted a pillar of vegetables. Potatoes, tomatoes, radishes, carrots, and so forth, formed all kinds of scroll work and figures, while the words "Cannstatt" and "Chicago" appeared especially 8prominent. Four pilasters at the base were surmounted by a vase of grapes, apples, and other fruit. Nearly everybody who came to the festival grounds looked at the pillar and admired it.

    It may be appropriate to mention here that the festivities were complete, even to the proverbial Swabian snag. The committee had prepared a float which was to depict the historic seven Swabians with their lances. Through some mischance, the float remained at the livery on Chicago Avenue and so was not in the pageant. However, the matter will be taken care of, and the seven redoubtable Swabians will make their appearance at the festival today.

    The various bars at the grove showed all kinds of inscriptions of a folklore character. We shall mention just a few: At the wine counter, a canvas showed a rabbit walking upright and carrying a tray with wine, while seven Swabians, more or less timid, took hold of a single lance and prepared to attack the ferocious beast. On the other side of the wall, the seven Swabians are shown grouped about a table drinking, while the rabbit sits on top of the wine 9barrel. To the right appear the following verses:

    "You Swabian, you go ahead,

    You've got high boots on,

    The rabbit can't bite you.

    What a silly chap you are,

    Look once more, it's only

    Valentine who offers you a

    Glass of wine. So throw

    Away your lance and

    Let us dine."

    On the left side appeared this verse:

    "And peaceful, like real Swabians, They rest and enjoy Valentine's good wine....."

    10

    Similar inscriptions were present everywhere; they were too numerous to catalogue them all.

    At four o'clock, Joseph Schoeninger, president of the Swabian club, introduced the principal speaker, Hermann Siegel of Milwaukee.

    SIEGEL'S SPEECH

    ...."I shall not resort to euphonious phrases.....Of late we have heard objections, in the press, to festivals which are of a nationalistic character, festivals which emphasize foreign origins. And while such antipathy is justified in certain instances, because of improper conduct which manifests itself occasionally, I cannot subscribe to the one-sided opinion which condemns these festivals in general. These festivals, in the main, will be German--although Swabians, Prussians, Saxonians....may make the arrangements....

    "The Swabians were the first to arrange these festivals, and other Germans 11followed....As long as these festivals are not on a profit basis, they are fully justified....We do not intend to give a demonstration showing that we are, first of all, Swabians, Bavarians, and so forth, and then Germans; at long last, German-Americans. I would never be affiliated with any group supporting such views.....

    "I despise nothing more than those Americanized Germans who deny their origin, who profess to be ashamed of their great German language, and who adopt the vilest American characteristics. Such degenerate Germans make the worst citizens of this Republic, because they lack character. Their accumulated wealth and prominence do not provide moral fortitude to acquire the better traits of true Americans.....

    "The Cannstatt festival is being celebrated in America's larger cities, and has been for the last several years, and our festival today fully conforms to the high standards prevailing elsewhere. It is said that we Swabians are gruff and stubborn, but regardless of what we may stand accused of, we are a congenial, 12jovial lot....."

    The speaker was frequently interrupted by applause. Then Franz Demmler, secretary of the club, expressed thanks for the large attendance.....

    The singers of the Swabian Club and some members of the Fidelia, who were in the pageant, regaled the assembly with several nice songs during the afternoon.

    Speeches, singing, dancing, drinking, and meeting old friends rounded out a pleasant afternoon. It is estimated that at least twenty thousand people came to the festival.

    The members of the arrangements committee deserve the gratitude of all members as well as of the public in general. It is apparent that no effort was spared in making the festival a great success.

    The net receipts are to be used for a Schiller monument in Lincoln Park.

    13

    THE EVENING FESTIVITIES

    During the evening hours the crowd seemed even livelier than in the afternoon. Chinese lanterns and calcium lights--not to forget the soft light of the moon--served for illumination. Dance tunes were played almost incessantly. Both platforms were crowded, as were the neighborhood lawns.

    Many people wore Swabian costumes. Julius Wolf was dressed as a nobleman of the last century. Professor De Lafayette, magician, entertained the crowd in the afternoon, and won great acclaim.

    The evening fireworks lasted about two hours and were arranged by Professor R. A. O'Shea. Fire wheels, Roman candles, rockets in Union colors, and cannon shots did much to arouse a spirit of gaiety.

    TODAY

    Today will be of interest to children as well as older people. A Punch-and-Judy 14show, sack race, climbing rod, Swabian girls carrying water, and so forth, will be on the program. The seven Swabians who were overlooked yesterday will be present today. A prize is to be given to the two children dressed most nicely in Swabian fashion.

    Today, typical Swabian meals, sauerkraut and dumplings, will be served, as well as wine, beer, and other refreshments. Finally; the festival pillar, built of fruit, the "Pillar of Plenty," will be raided!

    The Cannstatt festival, towards which the Swabians looked with eager anticipation, began yesterday. It started off to be a cloudy day, but it eventually turned out to be very pleasant ...

    German
    II B 1 c 3, II C, III H, V A 1
  • -- September 07, 1879
    About the Cannstatt Festival A Good Start for the Schiller Monument

    To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung: We thank you for the generous support given to our second Cannstatt festival, and hope that you will publish the following item in the local news column of Der Westen:

    "The committee on arrangements hereby thanks all who participated in the Cannstatt festival, and desires to express appreciation to those who decorated houses and streets for the occasion.

    "The proceeds of the festival, about $1,000, are available for a Schiller monument in Lincoln Park.

    "Very respectfully,

    "Franz Demmler, secretary, acting for the committee."

    2

    (Westen editor's note: For one thousand dollars, a nice monument could be erected, such as a large bust on a granite pedestal. But we hear the Schwabenverein has a higher goal in mind; nothing less than a large-sized figure of the great German poet is contemplated.)

    To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung: We thank you for the generous support given to our second Cannstatt festival, and hope that you will publish the following item in ...

    German
    II C, II B 1 c 3
  • Chicago Tribune -- February 09, 1880
    In Memory of John Huss

    In commemoration of John Huss, the great Bohemian, who had been burnt at the stake in the market place of the city of Constance for raising his voice against the corruption of the Popes and their clergy, there is a movement of many thousands of Bohemians. But the movement is not confined to Bohemia.

    As the Hussites of old left the confines of Bohemia and roamed all through the German Empire, so the modern Hussites have wandered far from home and found that freedom for which their brethren are struggling for in Bohemia, by becoming denizens and citizens of the United States. Here in Chicago 50,000 of them have found homes, and are fast acquiring American manners and language and good American dollars and neat homes. They are an industrious, thrifty people, clinging somewhat tenaciously to the customs and traditions of old Bohmeia, but nevertheless entering heart and soul into American citizenship.

    And here on the banks of Lake Michigan they now propose to commemorate in bronze the scene enacted on the banks of the Badensee four centuries ago. They will erect a monument to John Huss if they can get the permission of the West Park Board to place it in Douglas Park. They argue that monuments have been placed in other parks and 2that so far from disfiguring they have improved the appearance of the parks. If the Germans could erect a statue to Schiller, why should not the Bohemians be given place to build a monument to Huss? Douglas Park is near the Bohemian settlement in the city and is used by them more than any other park.

    Although there are not many wealthy men among them they mean to raise the money required for a fine monument by subscription. It is to be no less than $15,000. If possible the monument in Chicago will be a copy of the principal statue, at least of the Prague monument, of which a model is expected to arrive in this city within a few weeks.

    The project for the monument in Chicago was conceived by J. V. Matejka, a Bohemian editor of this city. He spoke to a number of prominent men of his nationality, who constituted themselves a temporary committee and issued invitations to all the Bohemian national societies in Chicago to take part in the movement. The plan was received with much favor. There was considerable excitement among the Bohemians owing to the agitation in the "old country" and their patriotism was aroused by the contemptuous remarks of the men in place and power in Bohemia.

    3

    Their sturdy Protestant spirit, fostered and developed by the atmosphere of the United States, had grown into a strong democratic feeling that rebelled against the presumption of the princes in the fatherland. Hence the various societies responded to the call with alacrity. Delegates were elected who will meet in the near future to discuss the particulars of the project.

    The Bohemian societies in the city are quite numerous and they have all given assurance of support. There are six Bohemian turning or gymnastic societies with a membership of about eight hundred.

    In commemoration of John Huss, the great Bohemian, who had been burnt at the stake in the market place of the city of Constance for raising his voice against the ...

    Bohemian
    II C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 22, 1880
    The Fritz Reuter Monument - Treasurer E. S. Dreyer Resigns.

    The committee under the leadership of its chairman, Geo. B. Tiarks, held its meeting at "Feldkamp's, Quincy No. 9." corner Randolph and LaSalle Streets, last evening. The purpose is the erection of a monument in honor of the Plattdeutschen (low-German dialect) poet Fritz Reuter. The Secretary of the Committee... read the note of Mr. E. S. Dreyer, wherein he stated that he wishes to resign as treasurer, because of frequent spells of illness, and, furthermore, he intends to travel to Europe.

    The assignment for the creation of the monument is to be given to the sculptor Alois Loehr. The artist will not be able to arrive in Chicago before the end of the month and therefore the next meeting has been scheduled for Thursday, March 1st. The Committee is confident that its collectors will turn in their books to the new treasurer by the end of February. Thus far 53 subscription books are in circulation but only twelve have been returned to the Committee. Therefore the entire amount of contributions which have been promised are still an unknown factor. The names of the liberal donors will be published within a few days by the Staats Zeitung; also those who are still in arrears.

    2

    The Committee...requests the German citizens to help defray the cost of the monument...which is to be erected in Lincoln Park.

    The committee under the leadership of its chairman, Geo. B. Tiarks, held its meeting at "Feldkamp's, Quincy No. 9." corner Randolph and LaSalle Streets, last evening. The purpose is the ...

    German
    II C, V A 1, III B 2
  • Chicago Tribune -- July 06, 1880
    Unveiling of Monument for "Herman Roos"

    On January 2, 1880 Herman Roos, editor of the Swedish-American, a representative man in Scandinavian circles, and prominently known as an advocate of the doctrines of Voltaire and Thomas Paine, was accidentally run over by a train on the Michigan Southern Railroad and very seriously injured.

    Every effort was made to save his life, but death ensued shortly afterward. Mr. Roos was a man of finished education, a graduate of Copenhagen University, a terse and forcible writer, and his influence among the Scandinavian free-thinkers of America was wide-spread and generally acknowledged. Since his untimely death his friends have been engaged in raising funds to erect a monument over his grave in Waldheim Cemetery.

    The work was completed some weeks ago, and yesterday a large concourse of Scandinavian citizens formally unveiled the monument.

    2

    The many friends of the dead journalist and writer proceeded by train to Oak Park, and thence to the cemetery by carriages. The arrangements for the impressive ceremony were in charge of Messrs. Magnus Elmblad, F. T. Engstrom, Charles Eklund, Nels Anderson, A. Lindquist, and C. F. Nelson.

    The "Svea Society" of which the deceased was an honored member, were present, carrying their beautiful society flags.

    Arriving at the grave, Capt. O. G. Lange read from manuscript a tribute to the lamented dead, during which the veil was taken from the column, displaying a Scotch granite monument twelve feet high resting upon a pedestal four feet in height.

    The monument is very plain, no attempt having been made at ornamentation.

    The following is inscribed upon the base in the Swedish language:

    3

    "Sacred to the Memory of Moons. Herman Roos of Hjelmsater, Sweden, who, as Editor of the Swedish-American, Fought Nobly for the Mastery of Common Sense and Reason, over Bigotry, Superstition, and Hypocrisy. In Honor of These Pinciples, Liberal-Minded Countrymen and Friends Throughout the United States Raised This Monument".

    Besides Capt. Lange, ex-Consul Sundell and Mr. Marcus Thrane also addressed the people in Swedish. The music for the occasion was supplied by Nitsche's band, and the Svea Singing Society sang several selections over the grave.

    Among the prominent Scandinavian citizens present were the Hon. C.G.Linderburg, P.M.Almini, A.G.Lundburg, M. Salmonsen, Dr. Paoli, Mr. E. Hegstrom, Marcus Thrane, L. P. Nelson, K. Nelson, and others.

    After completing the ceremonies, the friends returned by train to the city.

    On January 2, 1880 Herman Roos, editor of the Swedish-American, a representative man in Scandinavian circles, and prominently known as an advocate of the doctrines of Voltaire and Thomas Paine, ...

    Swedish
    IV, II C