The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- September 09, 1861
    The Chicago Press on the Appointment of Mr. George Schneider as United States Consul at Helsingoer (Editorial)

    The following article is quoted from the Chicago Tribune, September 5:

    "George Schneider, Esquire, editor-in-chief and owner of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, has been appointed United States Consul at Helsingoer (Elsinore), Denmark, and we hear that he will leave for that post very soon. It may be said that for the past twelve years his indefatigable endeavors in the publishing and political fields, during which time he made the Illinois Staats-Zeitung one of the leading journals of the United States and gained for himself an envious reputation in social and political circles, has earned for him the right to the short but pleasant rest which is in prospect for him on his trip to Europe. He takes with him the best wishes of all of his brother editors, who earnestly hope that he will soon return safely to his adopted country and city."

    2

    The Chicago Evening Star has this to say:

    "Captain George Schneider, editor and owner of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, has been appointed United States Consul at Helsingoer, Denmark. Helsingoer was made famous by Shakespeare, who selected the city for the scene of his tragedy "Hamlet" The importance of this place as a commercial or political center is not known to us, but we believe that the post is one of great consequence. We hope so, for nobody in Chicago deserves a good position more than Mr. Schneider. We have known him for few years, and during the greater part of this time we have seen him fight for freedom and against slavery, laboring to spread those principles which found their personification in the Republican party. He has made his newspaper an excellent one, and except on a very few occasions, has used its influence to promote just causes. He is a radical anti-slaver, and in his appointment, as well as in that of Mr. Z. Eastman, Esquire, who is an abolitionist of the old school, we see the proof that the Administration does not intend to deny its obligations to the radical, anti-slavery element."

    The Chicago Post remarks:

    3

    "To our great satisfaction we learn that our fellow citizen Mr. George Schneider, publisher of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, has been appointed to the United States Consulate at Helsingoer, Denmark. The post is a good one. Helsingoer lies on one of the most important trade routes leading to the Baltic Sea. Mr Schneider will do his official duties well; he is a very able man, and, as far as personal relations are concerned, he will soon win the respect and confidence of the people with whom he will be associated for some time.

    "We gladly testify to the high character of Mr. Schneider. He is an able editor and has always conducted himself like a gentleman. Even in the heat of battle and in the excitement created by the rapidly transpiring events and by the violence of party strife, he has always acted with the dignity and decorum of an honorable opponent. For ten years he did editorial work, for ten years he was an industrious partner. During the time he served this city and state he was ten times as successful as some men who had held office, and he reaped a rich harvest from the gratitude of the people. By appointing Mr. Schneider to this post Mr. Lincoln is merely performing a duty towards a political friend.

    4

    The President has selected a competent and honorable gentleman to undertake very responsible and confidential work. We will miss the friendly countenance of our friend as we wend our way through the streets of the city, and his name will no more appear on the list of journalists. But when he tires of his official position, and longs for the excitement which is always present in the life of a journalist, we hope to be able to welcome his return to his city and his profession."

    The Chicago Telegraph, a German evening newspaper which was lately established by Georg Feuchtinger, long a foreman in the printing shop of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, says:

    "President Lincoln has appointed Mr. George Schneider, one of the publishers of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, to the United States Consulate at Helsingoer, Denmark. Mr. Schneider was called to Washington by telegram, for the purpose of receiving special messages.

    "We are happy to know that the editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung has 5received honorable recognition from our Government. His publication was founded thirteen years ago, and since then it has developed from an insignificant beginning to a position of competitive equality with the largest establishments of its kind in the country. Everybody knows that the lives of editors and newspaper publishers are not beds of roses, and therefore we can sincerely congratulate our colleague upon his good fortune."

    The Chicago Evening Journal publishes the news of Mr. Schneider's appointment, but makes no comment, and the Chicago Times does not mention the appointment, very likely because the editors of that paper are still quite unfamiliar with the local publishing business and do not know Mr. Schneider personally.

    The members of the Anglo-American press, whose comments we have reported above, and one of whom (the editor of the Chicago Post), has had a long political feud with the publisher of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, have shown that they are gentlemen in the true sense of the word. We can only regret that among the representatives of the German press there is one mean fop so completely in the 6power of his jealousy and diabolical malice that he is not ashamed to slander a man under whose supervision he worked for many years, and who is just about to leave for Europe on a confidential mission for his adopted country.

    We refer our readers to an article published by Mr. Schlaeger in last Friday's issue of the so-called Chicago Union.

    The following article is quoted from the Chicago Tribune, September 5: "George Schneider, Esquire, editor-in-chief and owner of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, has been appointed United States Consul at Helsingoer (Elsinore), ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- October 07, 1861
    Farewell!

    Mr. R. B. Hoeffgen, founder and part owner of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, will retire from this newspaper today. He is in need of rest and relaxation, for he has worked diligently for many years.

    Mr. Hoeffgen, a pioneer among Chicago's Germans, may also be called a pioneer of German culture in this great western metropolis; for it was he who presented the city with its first German newspaper. Anyone who has any idea of the difficulties connected with the establishment and management of a German newspaper which has gained ground but very slowly can readily estimate the full amount of labor and energy which must be expended and the many obstacles which must be overcome in order to conduct successfully a German publication in the far West, in a place far out on the prairie, in a city so small and insignificant fourteen years ago that it certainly did not deserve the title "city". However, our departing friend was equal 2to the great task, and his perserverance was crowned with success. The modest little paper, which he called into being in a wilderness amid the most trying and discouraging conditions, grew with the city and the German population. It developed into one of the largest German dailies in America, and has attained that influence which every organ of public opinion may acquire if it faithfully endeavors to present the opinion of the majority, and advocates and supports justice and impartiality in all political and social matters.

    We hardly need mention that the number of Mr. Hoeffgen's personal friends, among whom we are happy to be included, is much larger than that of many of the old settlers of the Garden City. His honesty, his sense of justice and goodness, his indefatigable efforts to promote humaneness and freedom, have won for him the respect and good will of all citizens who appreciate these qualities of character. All his friends will regret that he is retiring from public life; but they will also rejoice because his was a successful life and he can now reap the fruits of his labors.

    3

    So we bid farewell to our old and esteemed friend; we wish and hope that he will have the satisfaction of seeing his handiwork continue to grow and serve its purpose: to promote culture, justice, and liberty.

    Mr. R. B. Hoeffgen, founder and part owner of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, will retire from this newspaper today. He is in need of rest and relaxation, for he has worked ...

    German
    IV, II B 2 d 1
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 14, 1862
    [Can't Germans Read?]

    By a single vote the proposal to publish the proceedings of the Constitutional Convention in the German language was rejected.

    Mr. Muehlke, a Chicago delegate, proposed that the minutes of the Convention be published also in the German language, and recommended that the Illinois Staats-Zeitung be used as the medium of publication.

    Mr. Kopfli, Democratic delegate from Highland, supported the efforts of Mr. Muehlke, and the proposal would have been adopted, if several delegates who favored it had not been absent when the vote was taken. Mr. Fuller, also a Chicago delegate supported the proposal.

    It would not have been more than right to give German citizens an opportunity to read the proceedings of the Convention in the German language, for then they would be able to vote more intelligently when the new Constitution is 2submitted to the people for acceptance or rejection. No doubt Mr. Muehlke was very much encouraged when his first endeavors in behalf of a cause which normally would be frustrated by the predjudice of native Americans, were so nearly successful; and it is a great credit to those Democrats who cast aside all party differences and voted in favor of so strong an opposition organ as the Illinois Staats-Zeitung; although they were probably influenced by the fact that this paper has the largest circulation of any German newspaper in the City.

    By a single vote the proposal to publish the proceedings of the Constitutional Convention in the German language was rejected. Mr. Muehlke, a Chicago delegate, proposed that the minutes of ...

    German
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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 06, 1862
    Major General Franz Sigel! (Editorial)

    Since the Tuesday afternoon dispatches did not confirm the news that Franz Sigel had been appointed Major General, we sent the following telegram to our Congressman, Isaac N. Arnold:

    "We published your dispatch about the appointment of Franz Sigel as Major General in an extra edition. The dispatches of the Journal do not confirm the report. Please advise us."

    In answer to the above we received the following telegram from Mr. Arnold:

    "Sigel was appointed Major General and the Senate confirmed the appointment."

    And yesterday we received the following letter which Mr. Arnold wrote on 2Monday:

    "I have just sent you a telegram stating that your favorite, heroic Franz Sigel, is now Major General Sigel. No appointment could give me more pleasure than this one. Sigel certainly deserved it as recognition of his services. Our Germans have also merited this recognition of their patriotic and noble devotion to the cause of the Union. I congratulate you!

    "Yourstruly,

    "Isaac N. Arnold."

    So Sigel is really a Major General; however it required many a hard struggle to obtain this well earned distinction for him. His deeds and those of his fellow Americans of German descent were his best and most effective intercessors. On the other hand, powerful and influential persons rose up against him.

    3

    The nativists, especially the military nativists, seem to have actually conspired against him to prevent his appointment. No ways and means were to low nor too infamous for their purposes, and even a few days before his promotion they circulated unfavorable reports about him in Government circles at Washington. We cite this one for example: In order to deprive him of his good reputation as a European General, they spread the rumor that the General Sigel who led the Bavarian Revolutionary Army is not the Sigel who is now in America, but an uncle of the latter. This is but one of many false rumors which were disseminated. And the tactlessness of some of Sigel's friends, who published confidential private conversations and private letters of the Major General, in which he frankly voiced his opinion of his superiors, even the President, played into the hands of his enemies.

    These obstacles never would have been removed by resolutions of German mass meetings or through the efforts of German deputations. There was only one way to fight these enemies successfully, only one way to enforce Sigel's claims to promotion: by having liberal minded and fair minded congressmen 4exert their influence upon the President.

    The entire course of the Sigel matter shows that the procedure followed by the Illinois Staats-Zeitung was the only correct one. Representatives I.N. Arnold, Washburne, and Lovejoy of Illinois, and Representative Ashley of Ohio very willingly complied with our request that they intercede with the President in Sigel's behalf. Mr. Arnold was in constant correspondence with us in order to obtain the necessary information to refute the charges which were made against Sigel in Washington. These Representatives deserve the eternal gratitude of all German-Americans. The President, too, has earned our thanks for not permitting himself to be misled by nativistic misrepresentations, and for being just to the Germans and to their heroic champion.

    And since it was so difficult to win this triumph of Sigel, it must be considered a great and enduring triumph of Germanism over Nativism. It will create a very favorable impression in Germany; and the Homestead Act and the repeal of the Massachussetts Amendment will prove to the Germans in 5the old country that the great principle of equality which was embodied in the Chicago Platform on demand of the Germans of this city, is a living and vitalizing principle, and that it will be strengthened and expanded by the present War, no matter whether hostilities continue for a long time, or whether they are terminated in a short while.

    Since the Tuesday afternoon dispatches did not confirm the news that Franz Sigel had been appointed Major General, we sent the following telegram to our Congressman, Isaac N. Arnold: "We ...

    German
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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 06, 1863
    The Annulment of General Burnside's Order and its Consequences (Editorial)

    Some people may doubt that General Burnside's order, demanding that the Chicago Times cease publication, is expedient, but no one can deny that it is justified, at least no one who really wants the Rebels suppressed, the Union saved, and its liberty preserved. Had there been a General Burnside eighteen months, or a year ago, and had he commanded at that time that the publication of the Chicago Times be discontinued, there would not have been the least excitement about the matter; on the contrary, the measure would have had the approval of all citizens. In those days the people were not yet divided on the war issue; the northern friends of the Rebels had not yet the courage to place obstacles in the way of the Government, and patriotism was more ardent than it is now. Then the Administration 2believed that it had nothing to fear from the treasonable press and permitted the Rebels to sow the seed of discord among loyal citizens. Today this seed has sprouted and brought forth fruit in the form of opposition to the Government, outrages against its officials and Unionists, and murder and incendiarism. The soldiers in our camps absorbed the poison which the Chicago Times set before them, and desertion and mutiny followed. General Burnside recently sent one of his officers to Illinois and Indiana to trace secret pacts made for the purpose of setting deserters at liberty, etc., and that officer named the Chicago Times as the principal agency for arousing the spirit of insubordination, resistence, and desertion. There-upon General Burnside issued the order to suppress the Times.

    Once the command was given, the Administration was honor bound to support it; that procedure was especially necessary, because the Copperheads threatened to use violence and to retaliate. A government that wishes to guide the ship of state safely through the storm of war or rebellion 3must show power and firmness if it wishes to merit the confidence of its citizens. A weak government, a government that acts according to the precept, "discretion is the better part of valor," cannot lay claim to the confidence of the people and will never be able to maintain itself against an armed enemy.

    The loss of the last election is a mere trifle when compared with the defeat which the loyal citizens of Chicago and the Northwest have suffered through the action of President Lincoln and his local advisers. He has exposed us to the mob rule of the Copperheads. Henceforth, not the Federal Government, but the Copperheads will have power and authority in Chicago, and if they choose to resist the enforcement of the Conscription Act, they know that they need only threaten to use violence in order to set a dozen or more prominent cowards in motion to advise the President to be tolerant.

    The example which has been set for treasonable publications is exceedingly 4dangerous; for they know that they only have to act resolutely when they wish to intimidate the Administration of President Lincoln, and that the one who has the most backbone will be victorious.

    Not only the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, but also the Chicago Tribune and the Evening Journal place a great part of the responsibility for this fiasco at the door of the President's arrogant counselors, and we hope that our German fellow citizens will remember this.

    The opinion of loyal Democrats on this matter is evidenced by the following quotation from the editorial columns of the Chicago Post:

    "Mr. Lincoln has humbled himself, and, astonished at the bold front of his intended victims, he has relented, has revoked his order, and has told the publishers of the paper whom he had commanded to suspend publication because of the paper's disloyal attitude, that they may print their infamous sheet.

    5

    No doubt, the publishers will say that they will print it whether President Lincoln permits it or not, and defend their stand by denying that he has the right to curtail the constitutionally guaranteed freedom of the press, even in time of war."

    By annulling the order of General Burnside the Government has weakened its position and thus far has not rebuked the Copperheads for threatening to use violence. Every true patriot regrets that. The shame inflicted upon the country by the act of the Administration can be partly removed by decisive victories on the battlefield.

    Some people may doubt that General Burnside's order, demanding that the Chicago Times cease publication, is expedient, but no one can deny that it is justified, at least no one ...

    German
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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 05, 1864
    The State Savings Institution (Editorial)

    In yesterday's Evening Journal, the following notice appeared under the above heading:

    "The undersigned merchants and businessmen of Chicago do hereby unite in condemning the course pursued by the Illinois Staats-Zeitung in creating a panic and causing a 'run' on the above-named institution. We have every reason to believe that the bank is sound--that it is able and willing to pay all its obligations on demand--and that it has a large surplus of assets (readily convertible into cash) in excess of all liabilities. Depositors who have any doubts concerning the solvency of the bank, and who have any fears for their money, can verify the sound condition of the bank and its ability to pay by calling upon any merchant or banker in Chicago."

    2

    Since the Illinois Staats-Zeitung is published in the German language, and since none of the signers of the above notice is, to our knowledge, sufficiently conversant with that tongue, we should like to ask, with all due respect, whether the gentlemen who have united in condemning the course of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung have any positive knowledge of the course which they are so prompt in condemning? From the assurance given in the above notice that the bank is sound, we have every reason to believe, indeed we are firmly convinced, that our self-appointed judges were incorrectly led to the opinion that we had attacked the solvency or soundness of the State Savings Institution. Anybody who is able to read the Illinois-Staats-Zeitung can see that such was not the case, and that nobody would regret the inability of this bank to pay its liabilities more than we, inasmuch as all the creditors of said institution are our own countrymen.

    The signers of the above notice are, of course aware, that the Illinois Savings Institution has for the last four years used the advertising columns of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung to recommend its services, and that the Illinois 3Staats-Zeitung often commented very favorably upon the safety of the charter of said financial institution. This advertisement was not changed after August 1, 1863, when the Illinois Savings Institution began to operate under a new charter. In January, 1864, the accounts of the depositors were transferred from the Illinois Savings Institution to the State Savings Institution without any notice whatever to the depositors. In fact, none of the depositors were aware that the Institution has been changed from a savings bank to a discount bank. The advertisement of the Illinois Savings Institution was not withdrawn or altered in our columns, and depositors who could not read English were led, under the circumstances, to believe from the advertisements still appearing in our columns that they had invested in the Illinois Savings Institution, whereas in reality their funds had been transferred to the State Savings Institution.

    We would have justly been considered guilty of gross negligence in the performance of our duties as public journalists if, by withholding notice of this transfer from our readers, we had assisted in persuading our countrymen to 4believe that they still had their money in a savings bank when in reality it was deposited in a discount bank.

    We hope the signers of the above notice have exercised greater care in their investigation of the affairs of the State Savings Institution, before vouching for its solvency and soundness, than in their determination of the course taken by the Illinois Staats-Zeitung before uniting to condemn that course. Would not the gentlemen who have appointed themselves judges of our procedure do better to unite in condemning the course of the managers of the State Savings Institution?

    In yesterday's Evening Journal, the following notice appeared under the above heading: "The undersigned merchants and businessmen of Chicago do hereby unite in condemning the course pursued by the Illinois ...

    German
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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 08, 1866
    Statement

    Chicago, Illinois,

    May 7, 1866.

    After having served faithfully, and, I believe successfully, on the editorial staff of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, for five years, the undersigned hereby gives notice that he has severed his connection with that publication.

    Wilhelm Rapp

    Chicago, Illinois,

    May 8, 1866.

    In Mr. Wilhelm Rapp, whose affiliation with the Illinois Staats-Zeitung was terminated yesterday, as may be seen from the above statement, we have lost a very able associate, and we regret that he is leaving us. He has devoted five 2years of faithful and efficient service to this newspaper, giving his time and talents during a very trying period.

    Beginning today, Dr. Adolph Wiesner, for many years the Baltimore and New York correspondent of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung and formerly editor of the Turnzeitung, will take the place of Wilhelm Rapp in our editorial department.

    Illinois Staats-Zeitung Company.

    Chicago, Illinois, May 7, 1866. After having served faithfully, and, I believe successfully, on the editorial staff of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, for five years, the undersigned hereby gives notice that ...

    German
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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 07, 1867
    The Chicago Arbeiterverein and the Illinois Staats-Zeitung (Editorial)

    The Chicago Arbeiterverein which was controlled for some time by several political intriguers who proved their claim to the title "worker" by nor working, and which was used to carry on a purposeless war against the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, seems to have freed itself from the pernicious influences of those scoundrels. One of them, who gave his occupation as that of a "luncher," and whose financial records are being investigated by a United States Assessor, has been expelled by the organization, and several others are avoiding a similar fate by keeping discreetly in the background. The real workers represented in the Arbeiterverein have declared their independence of those political schemers who used the society to their own advantage and thwarted all endeavors in behalf of the real workers. The latter group sent us the following letter:

    2

    Chicago, Illinois, June 4, 1867.

    To the Honorable Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung,

    Dear Mr. Brentano: In the absence of our corresponding secretary I take great pleasure in informing you that the Chicago Arbeiterverein in its last meeting adopted the following resolution proposed by Mr. Sievers:

    1. That the resolution to withdraw our advertisements from the Illinois Staats-Zeitung and to remove the copies of that publication from our reading room is hereby revoked.

    2. That it is hereby resolved that the Chicago Arbeiterverein renew its subscription for the Illinois Staats-Zeitung and publish the news of the society in that newspaper.

    In conclusion I express my fervent wish that our future relations will be 3strengthened by mutual consideration.

    Very respectfully,

    C. Schaedel, Secretary protem.

    It is evident that all obstacles to future publication of the activities of the Chicago Arbeiterverein have been removed by the revocation of the above-mentioned resolution, for which there was not the least cause; and we are in hearty accord with the desire expressed by the secretary of the organization in the closing sentence of his letter.

    The Chicago Arbeiterverein which was controlled for some time by several political intriguers who proved their claim to the title "worker" by nor working, and which was used to carry ...

    German
    III B 2, II B 2 d 1
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 24, 1867
    Undesirable Insurance

    Yesterday we were visited by Mr. A. Gentzel, who formerly operated a cigar business at 57 West Lake Street; Mr. Gentzel's property at that address was insured for $1000 by the Western Phoenix Insurance Company. The building in which Mr. Gentzel carried on his business was burned to the ground by a fire which occurred six months ago. Since Mr. Gentzel had paid his insurance premiums regularly, he expected that the insurance company would discharge its obligations promptly. When he presented his demand for payment at the office of the company, he was told that he would receive $900 on the 20th of December.

    Because he had previously made several vain attempts to collect the money and had been repeatedly told that the president of the company, who allegedly had sole authority to make disbursements, was absent, he thought it advisable to ask us and several of his friends to witness his next effort to obtain the money due him, and he asked us to note the way in which his demand would be rejected; he was certain that this next effort would be no more successful 2than the previous ones had been.

    Mr. Gentzel took his attorney with him for the purpose of enforcing his just claim; and so he, his attorney, several prominent German citizens, and we, entered the office of the Western Phoenix Insurance Company. The attorney explained to the office attendant, who introduced himself as the vice-president of the company, the purpose of our visit, and received the "regular" reply--that the president was out of town and that nobody else, not even he, had authority to pay claims.

    When several of Mr. Gentzel's German friends pointed out that this same excuse had been frequently advanced, and that the matter was taking a serious aspect, the vice-president withdrew into the inner sanctum of his office and said, "Gentlemen, this is my office, and if you have come here to intimidate me, I shall call a policeman and have him eject you".

    Of course, it was futile to make further remonstrations under such circumstances, 3so we left the office.

    We have information from reliable sources that this is not the first time that the vice-president of the Western Phoenix Insurance Company has advanced the absence of the president of the company as an excuse for avoiding the payment of legally justified claims, and an article published in the Banking And Insurance Chronicle of December 19 strengthens our conviction that the Western Phoenix Insurance Company is always ready to issue policies, but can be persuaded only by special "inducements" to pay losses.

    Our German citizens should consider this angle very carefully when choosing a company in which to insure their property.

    Yesterday we were visited by Mr. A. Gentzel, who formerly operated a cigar business at 57 West Lake Street; Mr. Gentzel's property at that address was insured for $1000 by ...

    German
    I D 1 a, II A 2, II B 2 d 1
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 21, 1871
    [The Armstrade]

    Herr R. Michaelis, editor of "Union" demands a motion in Congress against the arms trade, and a vote by name on it, so that in all future no German would vote for a legislator who agrees with the breach of law committed by Grant's cabinet.

    Dr. Von Holst who"receives the most stormy applause ever granted to an erator, lasting for more than five minutes" declares that the Americans have been deceived by the French who quickly changed their firm name from "l'Empire" to "La Republique." Von Holst also denies any "gross infraction of International Law" to have been committed. However,"the highest right can become the greatest injustice." "We demand that the laws are interpreted according to eternal moral principles." But through the administration Washington has become morally guilty, their actions have resulted in good. Sedan only finished Napoleon, but the French people had to be broken. The sending of arms prevented a bad peace.

    Thereupon resolutions are adopted, imputing to the Government legal skulduggery, moral cowardice etc. accusing it of endangering good relations with the most 2powerful nation of Europe which sided wholeheartedly with the Union during the Civil War. Finally, it is resolved that "we, representing a large part of the population of America" order our representatives Congress to introduce a motion that will prevent further arms sales, and to demand a public vote by name on it.

    Herr R. Michaelis, editor of "Union" demands a motion in Congress against the arms trade, and a vote by name on it, so that in all future no German would ...

    German
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