The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 04, 1864
    General Rosenkranz' Order against Strikes (Editorial)

    Since a condition of war still exists in Missouri, General Rosenkranz has issued the following order: "Everybody is forbidden, directly or indirectly to intimidate, or to hinder from the performance of his duty, any workman who is employed in a Saint Louis factory or shop where articles for use on ships plying Western waters, or in the service of the military, marine, or transport-divisions of the United States. Other workers may not enter such establishments for the purpose of finding out who works in them. Organization, maintenance, and attendance upon meetings, of associations or combines that propose to dictate to the owners of such establishments who shall, and who shall not, work therein, is also prohibited." Thus if necessary, men who work in the aforesaid factories or shops are granted military protection. The proprietors of these places of business are ordered to 2report the names of all those "who have left their work since March 15, 1864 for the purpose of joining such an association or combine, or who have been induced to leave their work through the activity of such an association or combine, or through the efforts of individuals affiliated with such associations or combines." The commanding office is charged with the enforcement of this order, and the city authorities, as well as all loyal citizens, are asked to co-operate.

    We condemn this order, because we consider it both unjust and unnecessary. It is true, of course, that the introduction to the order indicates that the military authorities do not wish to include within the scope of the order the wage question or strikes for the purpose of obtaining more pay, and that these authorities are apparently concerned solely with interference by workers with the operation of the aforementioned businesses. It is also true, of course, that the order pertains to those branches of business that manufacture goods necessary to carry on the war. However, we should like to ask, How many 3factories and shops are not included in this category? Tailors, manufacturers of boots and shoes, machinists, saddlers, blacksmiths, wagonmakers, steelworkers--in short, men in nearly all the principal occupations and trades in Saint Louis are doing work for the Army or Navy. And, no doubt, the order goes far beyond its original object, for it directly deprives workers of their right to join an association, but does not take this right away from manufacturers or dealers. Furthermore, the order imposes a system of military supervision upon workers. It greatly exceeds the limits set by the New York Antistrike Bill, which was withdrawn when the workers who would have been adversely affected by it protested against its passage. The encroachment upon personal freedom and the systematic secret persecution which the order involves are not justifiable under any circumstances.

    And, besides, the order will not attain its purpose, which is to prevent interruption in work that is being done for the Army or Navy. Yes, we venture to say that it will have just the opposite effect; for many workers in Saint Louis will go to other cities where there is also a shortage of labor and 4where higher wages are paid, or where the workers are not hindered by the military or municipal authorities from endeavoring to obtain more pay.

    Let us hope that Colonel Knobelsdorff, who is so sensible and humane in other respects, will have withdrawn his order by this time.

    Since a condition of war still exists in Missouri, General Rosenkranz has issued the following order: "Everybody is forbidden, directly or indirectly to intimidate, or to hinder from the performance ...

    German
    I D 2 a 4, I G, I D 2 a 3, I D 2 a 2
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 28, 1872
    [Coal Yard Strike]

    Last Friday, the workers, who load and unload coal in Robert Law's Coal yards, struck...

    The striking workers were satisfied with their wages, but did not want to tolerate workers not belonging to the Union.

    Mr. Law has now engaged 150 workers who belong to no Union, who work for less than the strikers, namely $3 and $4 a day.

    Those who he employed, heretofore, were all Irish, now Mr. Law is trying it with Germans and Scandinavians exclusively.

    Last Friday, the workers, who load and unload coal in Robert Law's Coal yards, struck... The striking workers were satisfied with their wages, but did not want to tolerate workers ...

    German
    I D 2 a 3, I C, I D 2 a 4
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 19, 1874
    Meeting of Stonecutters

    In answer to a request signed by Fred Schweitzer, John Hecker, John Perz, Fritz Olendorf, Albert Rapp, Gottfried Sendlinger, Martin Frankenberg, Georg Stenge, and Charles Arnold, approximately forty-two German stonecutters met at 2 o'clock yesterday afternoon at 487 South Canal Street to discuss the attitude which they will assume toward their employees during the coming building season. The meeting was very well conducted.

    Mr. Isermann called the meeting to order. Mr. H. F. Riepel was elected chairman, and Mr. Olendorf, secretary.

    The chairman opened the meeting with a few introductory remarks. The reporter of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung (the only newspaper that published a notice of the meeting) was granted permission to be present.

    Mr. Isermann: "Present conditions demand that we stand together. In a few 2months the coming building season will open, and we must now determine what our relations to our employers shall be. Apparently they intend to continue in their old ways, and, unfortunately, there are some workers who do not act in the interest of all workers. The German employees should at least unite more closely to effect an agreement with their employers, and then they should abide by the agreement, no matter what course the English unions may take."

    Mr. Paetz: "The proposed union should take as its object the increase of our sick-benefit fund. It should also protect itself against attacks and schemes of other nationalities. We Germans have only suffered when we have fought to keep the promises which we made to others. We must organize to protect ourselves against other workers."

    Mr. Williams: "I have followed the trade of stonecutting for many years in Chicago, and I have had contact with two German associations. I am opposed to exclusion of other nationalities. All stonecutters, without respect to 3nationality, must organize. Then, and then only, can we 'dictate' to bosses." Mr. Isermann: "I do not agree with Mr. Williams. All nationalities may join our present association and how has it used our money? The high wages which we received last year were a result of economic conditions and were not brought about by the activity of our association. Up to the present time our union has raised six thousand dollars and has squandered the money. We Germans contributed two thousand dollars of that amount, and had we administered the fund, we would still have the money and could purchase a building where we could have our meetings and our social activities. I do not object to working handin-hand with our English co-workers; but I do demand that the money which is paid by Germans be administered by Germans."

    Johann Meyer: "I know that during the past eighteen or twenty years the German members of our association have been slighted by the English members. However, the fault lies with the Germans who did not attend the meetings although their membership is numerically stronger than the English membership. Had they done their duty, the former Treasurer would not have been able to 4abscond or squander the money of the Union."

    Chairman: "I know from observation that the Germans could completely control the affairs of our organization if they would act as a unit. The principal offices were entrusted to the Germans for five years. It was not until 1869 that participation in the business matters of the union by the Germans began to decline. It is true, they alone are to blame, because they failed to assert their influence. However, if we Germans again organize an independent association, we will have to take active interest in its success, if it is to be of any benefit to us. I am opposed to any rash procedure and advise that we give this matter very careful thought before we take action, for there are unreliable men among the Germans also."

    Mr. Stephan: "I protest against the statement recently made by German stone-cutters who are working on the new post-office--that they are the only respectable representatives of the craft. I think that much dishonesty is being practiced in connection with the erection of this Government building, 5and that we ought to demand a rigid investigation."

    Mr. Isermann: "I would like to call your attention to the way the cabinetmakers and masons administer the affairs of their associations. They have special sections for Germans, and we ought to make a similar arrangement. The dishonesty prevailing among employers who are building the new post-office is one of the reasons why this meeting was called. They must cease discriminating against the German element. We are full-pledged citizens of this country and pay taxes, and therefore we have just as much, if not more right to work than the Canadians who were enemies of the Union during the Civil War and who sheltered Rebels."

    Mr. Loss: "I have worked at the Federal Building for twenty-two days, and I know that the stonecutters have elected a committee to investigate the alleged dishonesty."

    Mr. Schweitzer: "I believe that if those stonecutters employed at the Federal Building who are not citizens of the United States would be dismissed, the 6number of employes would be decreased by eighty-five per cent."

    During the course of the debate many very uncomplimentary things were said about Mr. Selius, a stonecutter employed at the Federal Building, who stated that Germans would rather sit at the bar and drink beer than work.

    Mr. Isermann recommended that a committee be appointed to draft a program for a future meeting. This recommendation was accepted. The following men were chosen to serve as members of this committee: Hanno Isermann, Friedrich Schweitzer, Johann Meyer, John Williams, Adam Stephan, H. F. Riepel.

    Adjournment followed.

    In answer to a request signed by Fred Schweitzer, John Hecker, John Perz, Fritz Olendorf, Albert Rapp, Gottfried Sendlinger, Martin Frankenberg, Georg Stenge, and Charles Arnold, approximately forty-two German stonecutters ...

    German
    I D 2 a 3, III A
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 14, 1875
    Labor Mass Meeting

    A mass meeting was held yesterday afternoon at the Bohemian Turner Hall, on West Taylor Street near Canal Street. The smallness of the hall made it difficult to accommodate the huge crowd. Mr. Jeffers was the chairman and Messrs. McAuliffe and Schlueter functioned as secretaries. The agenda was: "The position of the coal miners in Pennsylvania and the striking coal handlers and wheelers, as well as the brick and lumberyard workers in Chicago". [Translator's note: The Union's resolution, appearing toward the end of the article, shows that "the striking coal handlers, or shovelers, and wheelers," refers to workers in Chicago.]

    The proceedings were of a highly exciting nature. The speeches were given in English, German, and Bohemian.

    Mr. Simmen, as first speaker, explained the purpose of the meeting. He 2spoke in English, launching into a mighty tirade against capitalism and then drifting into a discussion of politics. He closed his speech with the following words:

    "The ballot box in America has become a tool by which a band of thieves endeavors to enrich itself. In such a dishonest game, where conniving crooks have stacked the cards beforehand, the workers cannot participate. The universal, equal franchise, that holy institution, the ballot, so coveted by many nations today, has degenerated into a farce, to the dismay and disgust of the honest citizenry. Yes, this is the pass to which we have come in this country. And who dishonored and prostituted the ballot in this manner? We, the workers? Indeed we did not! Let those who created these Augean stables clean them. Let those who so defiled our sacred heritage re-create the ballot box. We have other matters to consider. You have to think of bread for yourselves and your families, and you will never find it in the voting booth.

    3

    "Are you familiar with Ferdinand Lassalle's speech of May 19, 1863, at Frankfort am Main?

    "'If the ruling class threatens to suffocate the labor movement....we must....face a....proletarian revolution within a few decades and the terrors of the June uprising will be....repeated. It must not--shall not be!'

    "Lassalle belonged to the higher economic strata, and as arbiter between labor and capital earned only calumny and hatred from his equals, while his love and devotion for the cause of the workers caused his death.....The safety valves he tried to open were kept closed and the present machine of state must eventually explode!

    "Don't our local powers see the misery which afflicts our people here? Can they not perceive that the split between capital and labor is constantly widening? And what are they doing about it? Greater injury is being 4inflicted; capital tramples on labor remorselessly, constantly widening the gaping rift until--I cannot speak of it!

    "Yes, they know it well enough, are fully aware of it, but they desire it.

    "Someone once said (I cannot recall the name): 'Labor is a sort of vermin which must be exterminated from time to time.'

    "Obviously, our capitalists act according to this principle. Now they let you suffer the pangs of hunger, and later when, driven by spotted fever, you find it necessary to fight for bread, then--you will note--what starvation has not accomplished will be achieved with bullets.

    "But look how they are already making preparations for the coming anticommunist agitation; perceive how they train their uniformed servants. And you, you sleep and are unconcerned!"

    5

    Then Mr. Simmen spoke of the Labor party organ, the Vorbote (Harbinger), which, according to Mr. Simmen, represents the only reasonable point of view; and he exhorted the assembly to support it.

    The next speaker was McAuliffe, who harangued the crowd in his usual somewhat monotonous manner. He advised them to use force against capitalism and thus earned hearty applause. In his speech he made indiscriminate reference to the city fathers, Mayor Colvin, Beecher, the Y.M.C.A., etc.; referred to the stuffing of the ballot box and diverse election frauds, castigating all in a characteristic manner. The failure of even a single coal shoveler to appear aroused McAuliffe's displeasure in particular; after all, the meeting was called chiefly for their benefit.

    Winnen spoke with moderation. He admonished the workers to be staunchly united and asked for support of the Vorbote.

    6

    The most provocative and violent expressions were indulged in by Mr. Pflugrad, who spoke in German. He was adequately rewarded, since his speech was repeatedly interrupted by applause.

    The following resolution was then read in German, English, and Bohemian and unanimously accepted by the assembly.

    "Whereas, The coal miners of Pennsylvania, the coal shovelers, wheelers, and laborers in the various woodyards in Chicago have been compelled by arrogant capitalism's unwarranted wage cuts to suspend working operations, and

    "Whereas, The interests of all workers are identical throughout the world; therefore be it

    "Resolved, That the striking coal miners in Pennsylvania, the coal shovelers 7and wheelers and the laborers in the various woodyards in Chicago are assured of the sympathy of all workers assembled here today, at West Taylor Street, and that the aforesaid laborers will be given moral and material support in the fight against capitalism, the subjugator of all workers; and be it further

    "Resolved, That the unification of all workers of America into a single labor party is a vital necessity fully recognized by us, and that we shall bend our efforts toward the attainment of that goal without delay."

    In order to give due emphasis to these resolutions, a collection was started forthwith in behalf of the coal miners of Pennsylvania.

    A committee of four was nominated for this purpose and when these gentlemen became aware that the word "collection" caused a rapid exodus they deemed it expedient to post themselves at the exit and thereby succeeded in garnering $35.50.

    8

    The money will be sent to the General Council of the International Workingmen's Association in New York, with the request that the fund be forwarded to the miners.

    The meeting was then adjourned.

    A mass meeting was held yesterday afternoon at the Bohemian Turner Hall, on West Taylor Street near Canal Street. The smallness of the hall made it difficult to accommodate the ...

    German
    I D 2 a 4, I E, II D 10, I D 1 a, I D 2 a 3, I D 2 a 2
  • Svornost -- June 25, 1878
    Local News

    The strike at Cooper's was ended after nine days. Hereafter, they are to receive 40 cents instead of 25 cents for making lard barrels.

    It would be well for all Bohemian coopers to join the union.

    The strike at Cooper's was ended after nine days. Hereafter, they are to receive 40 cents instead of 25 cents for making lard barrels. It would be well for all ...

    Bohemian
    I D 2 a 3, III A, I D 2 a 4
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 12, 1878
    Woman Labor

    Among the remedies for all ailments of human society, which in the socialist apothecary's shop, occupy as prominent a place as Spir. Frumenti, Spir. Vin. Gall, or Spir. Junip. in the average American Drug Store, is the abolition of woman labor in the factories. This demand comes, as a matter of fact, immediately after the eight hour working day.

    How much reason for this exists in America, we are not able to determine. But, if conditions as we have them before our eyes in the West, prevail over the whole country, then the employment of married women in factories is so extremely rare that it hardly plays an appreciable role. It always has been America's fame and pride that here the married women, even of the poorest laboring class, devotes herself exclusively to her household and is not forced, as in England, Germany and Austria, through work in field or factories, to prejudice her duties as wife and mother.

    But different from the case of the married women, is that of the girls, Of them 2thousands and thousands stampede the factories, naturally those where the work is easy. But if it is this girl labor, which the socialistic world physicians are trying to abolish, they will have to fight it out above all with the girls, themselves. Because they have no inclination to regard themselves as "miserable white slaves," or as female proletarians, needing deliverance.

    As housemaide they could have a much more healthful and much more profitable occupation, but they reject this with disdain. Hence, while since the great crash, all other wages went down in proportion to the slowing up of the economic process, the wages of housemaids not only remained at their former level, but in many cases still continued to rise.

    Among all people in this country who earn their livelihood through work, nobody is so "independent", so much the master, yes, quite often the tyrant of his employers, as is the housemaid.

    If the socialists with their passion against industrial women-labor could 3induce those hundred thousands of girls who prefer "factory slavery" to housework, to acknowledge the "true female profession," that means by assistance in the household, to perfect themselves in their art, they would be doing a great favor to hundreds of thousands of "employers" (housewives).

    But, if by any chance, they should declare domestic service as degrading, and then still would insist on abolishing woman factory labor, then the effect of all their endeavors (whatever their intention) would be nothing else but the promotion of prostitution.

    Among the remedies for all ailments of human society, which in the socialist apothecary's shop, occupy as prominent a place as Spir. Frumenti, Spir. Vin. Gall, or Spir. Junip. in ...

    German
    I K, I E, I H, III H, I D 2 a 3
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 14, 1879
    The "Big Surprise" (Editorial)

    After July Fourth a day's work will be eight hours. That is the resolution of the "punks" who call themselves labor leaders. We wouldn't say anything about it, if these would-be dictators could at least prove that they actually worked for eight hours.

    To work eight hours out of twenty-four is not objectionable; the question is, "Who pays the piper?" One does not receive the same wage for eight hours as for ten; or, do the gentlemen believe the wage will be the same, or will even be increased?

    But, regardless of whether wages will increase or whether one works fewer hours, the price of necessities will rise. And what have the workers gained by that? Do the workers believe that the citizens can be 2bamboozled by the labor agitators, and that the consumers will willingly pay higher prices?

    we would like to know how these dictators intend to enforce their plan. If they repeat their acts of two years ago, they may find a fly in the ointment.

    Yesterday's Volksstimme Des Westens makes the following statement:

    "As our readers probably know, a movement was started to obtain a shortening of the working day; it is to be eight hours after July fourth.

    "Obviously, eight hours at present; then, later this will be reduced to six hours and--finally--no work at all."

    After July Fourth a day's work will be eight hours. That is the resolution of the "punks" who call themselves labor leaders. We wouldn't say anything about it, if these ...

    German
    I D 2 a 3, I D 2 a 2
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 29, 1879
    Labor Unions (Editorial)

    The American people are generally sympathetic toward strikes whenever higher wages are the goal, and even the employers bear no particular resentment when they must pay more. We are liberal here, much more so than the European proponents of free trade, and so we recognize the dictum that every worker may demand as much as he thinks he can obtain. If the worker overestimates his worth, that is, insists on more than an employer can afford to pay, the demands are simply denied; but if the latter thinks that the higher wage scale can be met and that a reasonable profit can still be made, then the higher rates are paid. In either case there is no animosity between them. Workers know that, when circumstances permit, employers will treat them fairly.

    However, the matter is quite different if workers form unions, not for the purpose of increasing their wages, but to prevent others, who are not members, 2from earning a livelihood. That was what the butchers and other employees tried to accomplish at the stock yards during the past few weeks. There were no complaints about insufficient wages or unfair treatment. The men simply demanded that the management discharge a number of honest, capable men, because they did not belong to the union. In other words: the union workers wanted the authority to decide who should or should not work. This was somewhat similar to the reason for the ancient tailor's strike, so aptly described by Kopisch:

    "O King, do not let the seamstresses ply their trade, they interfere with our living. King, we beseech you to hear our plea:"

    Such conduct, calculated to enable a certain union to ban anyone who did not belong to their association, would never be countenanced by the American people. In religious matters we have a right to choose the means of our own salvation, and the same principle applies to trades. Discrimination because of nonunionism cannot be tolerated. The conduct of the butchers at the yards is quite at variance with the Socialistic doctrine of the brotherhood of man, and presents 3the same aspects as the Christian creed about the divine origin of man. This religion, notwithstanding its existence for eighteen centuries, found it perfectly compatible to slaughter millions of nonbelievers as well as an equal number of dissenting Christians. Men at first segregated themselves and became Christians. They later created new distinctions by forming sects. In the same manner our international brotherhood of workers shrinks to a national unit and then to a local union which is just as ruthless in its treatment of nonconformists as a religious sect is in its conduct toward heretics and backsliders. The brutal instincts of mankind remain unchanged throughout the ages even if various high-sounding modernized appellations are resorted to during different periods to hide the primeval, beastly behavior.

    Labor unions may exact their demands in some cases and under certain conditions, but in the long run they will be as unsuccessful in this land, where the belief in personal liberty is so deeply ingrained in the people, as it would be difficult to form a hierarchy in Pomerania where the inhabitants are definitely in favor of a kingdom.

    4

    Unions, regardless of whether they embrace master craftsmen or merely laborers, and a state religion, are but remnants of medieval views and conditions, akin to slavery, and do not fit into a nation or social order which is based on personal liberty, as in the United States.

    The American people are generally sympathetic toward strikes whenever higher wages are the goal, and even the employers bear no particular resentment when they must pay more. We are liberal ...

    German
    I D 2 a 4, I D 2 a 3, I D 2 a 2
  • Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- July 16, 1880
    [To the Socialist Workmen's Union]

    To the members of the German Section of the Socialist Workmen's Union in Chicago! According to a decision of the local executive Committee, the general meeting of the head section, as we have already announced at various occasions in this paper, will be held on Sunday, July 17, at 8 P.M. at 54 West Lake St.

    Though the present organizer, Mr. P. T. Morgan has considered it beneath his dignity to communicate this fact officially to the German speaking Socialists of Chicago, the meeting notwithstanding will take place. Also all resolutions taken will have full validity whether the Germans take part or not. The organizer and his friends and the English section favorable to a compromise with the green backs, think it advantageous to their plans if the German Socialists known to be true to their principles remain absent from tomorrow's meeting.

    For this reason alone it is the duty of every German member to be at his place 2punctually to-morrow night to take a part in the important discussions of the general meeting of the main section.

    The memorandum shows: 1. Selection of officers (which is very necessary) 2. Reconsideration of the resolution which condemns the "Arbeiter Zeitung", the Vorbote and the Nye Tid and will exclude the members, Peter Peterson and Paul Grottkau from the union.

    By voting on the resolutions of the compromisers it will be shown if the Socialists will cooperate with the Greenbackers or not.

    Members: For years in Chicago no such important party meeting has taken place like that of to-morrow. Therefore all men be at your place at 8 o'clock P.M. precisely. To-morrow it will be demonstrated if within the Socialist party free speech and Socialist principles shall be repressed by the shifty American politicans.

    To-morrow it will be seen if the English section shall have the right to bring the German and the Scandinavian party press to the point where they 3brought, the previous English newspaper The Socialist (founded with German capital)

    It is the duty of every right thinking member to stand by his party paper which has always stood for the honor and the principle of the party and has protected all members, which in the interest of Socialism has taken up the fight with the compromisers.

    To do your duty to the party is only possible by coming to the meeting to-morrow and to protest against the action of the enemy of the party Press and against the joinging of the aforementioned party. Germans, show that you will not remain behind our Scandinavian and French brothers. Your honor and your interest are at stake.

    To the members of the German Section of the Socialist Workmen's Union in Chicago! According to a decision of the local executive Committee, the general meeting of the head section, ...

    German
    I E, I D 2 a 3, I F 1
  • Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- April 29, 1881
    Immigration and the Unions

    The workingmen undoubtedly feel already the results of the immense immigration. We, of this newspaper are not against immigration, therefore would not engage in combating such, but the question, what will happen, as the result of an over supply of labor, which of course, is a great factor, in decreasing wages, is before us. At the present, most of the immigrants come from Germany, and a large number of those are industrial workers, who have to look for employment, in larger cities only. Several thousand of those workers have come to Chicago, during the last three weeks, some with, and some without their families. It is natural, that all of these people, try first of all, to secure work. The fact is that Chicago has an oversupply of workingmen, which means, that not all of our resident workingmen can find work; what shall be the fate of the newly arrived immigrants, unless they set the price for their services much lower, than what the present wage is? As they are not acquainted with our working methods, there is no question but, that lower wages will be the final result.

    2

    This is also an explanation, for the enthusiasm, with which the capitalistic press greets the immigrants.

    Labor has to be interested in one and the only thing, not to permit that, their standard of life shall be lowered, and still more, to work and insist for a higher standard of life...To suppose, that immigration is responsible for the decrease in wages, is not accurate. This is the case only, when the workingmen, especially the immigrants, do not join any organizations.

    If labor is well organized, which means also, a higher standard of living, then immigration could not hurt them, for, the more people, the higher the need, and the higher the need, the more work is required. This, in connection with being a member of Union Organizations, immigration can not have any bad effects on our labor. But it is of utmost importance, that the immigrants do not lose time, and join the Union Organizations, which is of great advantage to every one. But, the organizations have to live up, to what they are supposed to be.

    Of course, a great regulator in questions of this kind, is the shortening of working hours, which could be obtained only, through labor organizations, and to create such, is the work of existing Unions. Such a procedure would protect our resident workingmen as well as the immigrants.

    The workingmen undoubtedly feel already the results of the immense immigration. We, of this newspaper are not against immigration, therefore would not engage in combating such, but the question, what ...

    German
    III G, I D 2 c, I D 2 a 2, I D 2 a 3