The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 22, 1873
    The Lazzarones from Chicago

    The poor boys and girls who have suddenly been transplanted from their sunny homeland "far down South" into our rough climate, and have to secure through begging and singing a sum sufficient to save them from punishment on their return home, have become recently an object of public attention.

    A reporter from the Staats Zeitung went yesterday to interview the Italian Consul, Mr. Cella, an educated and friendly gentleman. Here is what Mr. Cella had to say: "In my opinion most of the reports concerning the Italian musician street children are exaggerated. My compatriots and I feel deeply the degradation of the life of these children. It is true that these children must bring home a certain sum every evening to escape 2punishment; it is also true that this roaming about causes the moral ruin of these children; but it is not true that there are here from 400 to 500 children, who depend on their "padrone" and belong to him. The total number of Italian inhabitants here does not exceed 4,000. The number of children musicians, according to my estimate, runs from 125 to 150, and most of them are under the supervision, not of a padrone, but of their parents.

    "To my mind," concluded Mr. Cella, "the only way to stop this practice is to have a city ordinance passed forbidding begging by playing music." Mr. Cella's plan seems very sensible to us. But we do not consider it a mitigating circumstance even if the "slaveholders" are not strangers but the parents of the children. We hope that the Italians will put an end to taking advantage of these children.

    C. Hoffmann

    The poor boys and girls who have suddenly been transplanted from their sunny homeland "far down South" into our rough climate, and have to secure through begging and singing a ...

    Italian
    I B 3 c, I H, I B 3 b
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 18, 1874
    Young American.

    The concept connected with the name young American is not a very pleasant one. The term young America connotes youth which has outgrown its parents and which resents parental authority as an infringement upon its independence. Young America begins to blossom at the age of ten, to loaf at the age of thirteen and to become obnoxious at the age of fifteen. That is in regard to the boys. Young America among the girls is not any better. At the age of twelve she has a "beau" and at fifteen the miss starts her moonlight walks and her love affairs. Young America is bad, but not half as bad as "young German America".

    It cannot be denied that in many German homes the children grow up without any supervision and that boys and girls become loafers of the worst type. What a correspondent recently said, that here boys loaf in the saloons till past midnight is only half of the truth. He, who wishes to go on North Avenue on a Sunday afternoon, can see there clusters of boys at the street corners, who make the most indecent remarks concerning the passers by, who on evenings run around with girls just as young as they and who being work shy would not recoil from crimes. For this we have the word of the oldest and most experience policemen, who assert that no Irish street boy is as bad as a German boy.

    The concept connected with the name young American is not a very pleasant one. The term young America connotes youth which has outgrown its parents and which resents parental authority ...

    German
    I B 3 b, III G, III A, II E 3, I B 3 c
  • Svenska Tribunen -- December 06, 1882
    Who Ought to Emigrate?

    EDITORIAL: This question has been the object of discussion both in America and in Sweden, where the newspapers have been very outspoken in the matter. We in America have had very little to say: we have defended emigration generally and taken a nationalistic point of view whenever an American has-been critised concerning the matter.

    The Swedish Tribune has upheld this point of view to the best of its ability and defended the cause of emigration against its enemies in the old country. However, the best judges of the whole matter are those who are familiar with life in both Sweden and America.

    On the other hand, if we should state our opinion regarding: "Who ought to emigrate," it would be thus:

    America is a splendid land, but that does not mean that everybody ought to come here; not even all poor people, who through hard work make their 2living in this world, either as mechanics or farmers." When the question of emigration comes up, we ought to view it from three angles: Age, profession and prospects. We believe in general, that a person who is middle-aged should not come here, unless he finds it entirely impossible to make a living in his native country.

    Furthermore, it is our opinion, that the Swedish man who owes and cultivates enough fertile land to earn his living, even if it causes sweat and hard work, ought not to leave it to seek a better living here. The same is true of the industrial worker. Finally, nobody who has a good living in his own country ought to leave a place where he is firmly and deeply routed because he thinks he can accumulate more wealth here than in Sweden; for there peace is more valuable than so much wealth. Easily won wealth is not always worth its weight in gold. It is better to feel completely at home on a small plot than to feel like a stranger and to be homesick and worried on a 160 acre farm in the American West. There is more joy in living on the soil of your own little farm than achieving great wealth and owning a luxurious home in America, where one feels like a stranger.

    3

    It is a fact that most middle-aged immigrants never really feel at home here. Is it not then better that they stay where they are, if they don't suffer real need or have grown sons and daughters in America upon whom they can depend.

    But young men,who will,and can work and can grasp the new ideas of life in the New World, have nothing to lose and everything to gain in coming to America. Nevertheless this class Sweden advises to keep within her own portals. No other country can offer the strong young farmer or mechanic, who has nothing but his working ability such splendid opportunities as America. A Swedish farm hand can never gain as much as one acre good soil with his work but he can own his own farm in a few years in America.

    There are very few hired mechanics in Sweden who can build their own little home and make it comfortable; but in America every skilful and regular worker can save his wages in a. short time, live under his own roof; in short, America is 4a splendid land for young and strong men and women, who cannot secure a livelihood very easily in their native country because it is an excellent and open field where their own straight, virtue and merit takes the first prize.

    EDITORIAL: This question has been the object of discussion both in America and in Sweden, where the newspapers have been very outspoken in the matter. We in America have had ...

    Swedish
    III G, III H, I E, I B 3 c
  • Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- February 13, 1883
    The Northside Socialists.

    The weekly meeting of the northside Socialists yesterday was well attended at which comrade Lange presided. Comrade Brassholz gave the weekly report with an ensuing debate. This was followed by comrade Schwab's announced speech on the theme "Free Love". He gave a picture of the marriages of today which are the result of industrial conditions. He said this was the cause for murders committed on unborn children as well as on the ones, having been brought into the world. Modern marriages are based on nothing but misery. Under our present system the wife is subordinate to her husband but under the Socialist system she would be his equal. The material interest which plays the principal part in marriages of today would be disregarded. Marriage would not mean slavery to women any more.

    People would live in palaces, comparatively equipped with all the latest comforts and, machines to do the heavy work. Children would be reared in educational institutions. Only then, marriage could be noble and only then affection could be considered. Such unions would eventually prove to be of longer duration than modern marriages are. But in a case of incompatibility, the union could be dissolved.

    The weekly meeting of the northside Socialists yesterday was well attended at which comrade Lange presided. Comrade Brassholz gave the weekly report with an ensuing debate. This was followed by ...

    German
    I E, I B 3 c, I B 3 b, I B 3 a, II B 2 g
  • Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- April 28, 1888
    Suffrage

    Raster writes that it is not necessary to take the menacing nagging of some fanatic women seriously. Does he mean his article does not have to be taken seriously? His main reason is that women do not want the right to vote.

    It is hard for us to say that a nominal amount of women do not want suffrage but we will even concede that most of them do not care about their rights to vote, This is because of our having given them a wrong education and of having surrounded them for centuries with prejudices which dulled them to their own interests.

    The attainment of suffrage is in the interest of woman as the development of the political and economic conditions interest and touch her often far deeper than the man. Notice the rise of prices and fall of wages because of the tariff.

    Besides the interest any woman has in a reasonable molding of political and economic conditions she possesses an incontestable right for co-operation on legislation. She fulfills the same allegiance to the government as does the man and equal duties should have equal rights.

    Do not take exception to the fact that women are not subject to military service 2since in several countries, men are also not subjected. Besides for a woman it is as great a sacrifice to send her husband, sweetheart, son, or brother to war while she remains at home in constant fear for the life of her loved one.

    Not only has the woman the right to participate in public matters but she also has a pressing interest in it. And if this right has not been acknowledged by the legislature of most countries then it is for the reason that so far men have made laws in their own interest and to the disadvantage of women.

    There would have never been such important laws about divorce and subsistence for children born out of wedlock or about adultery on the part of women in contrast to men, if women had participated in legislation.

    The reason that women as yet do not have much interest in public affairs, prefering gossip and newspapers to economic and political questions, lies in the fact that they had no right to participate in these questions. If they possessed the right they would soon learn how to make use of it to the fullest extent. But it is disgraceful and humiliating that women should declare it not proper to show any interest in politics, that this is against feminism, that men will look after those matters, etc.

    We feel sorry for a slave who does not feel his chains, but more pitiable is one 3who boasts about his chains. And to this number of unfortunate ones belong a large number of our women.

    Raster writes that it is not necessary to take the menacing nagging of some fanatic women seriously. Does he mean his article does not have to be taken seriously? His ...

    German
    I K, I E, I H, I G, I B 3 c, I B 3 b
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 11, 1888
    Anti-Foreign Tendency in United States

    For several years a tendency to hate foreigners has been noticeable in the United States. The fanatical clergy of the majority of American sects, in particularly the Methodists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, and Baptists, have taken advantage of these conditions not only to enforce the antiquated blue-laws, but, also to render them more severe.

    This anti-foreign tendency has been strong enough to influence many Americans, who otherwise, might have been liberal and progressive. The enforcement of antiquated Sunday-laws is first of all an attack against the German element, because of its custom of going out on Sundays with families to enjoy the out-doors, to listen to good music while drinking beer in a beer-garden...

    Of late the fanatical clergymen have succeeded with their almost limitless influence over women, to brand as unfashionable the visit to "devilish" places, such as beer-gardens, etc. The question is, why should foreigners 2be permitted to celebrate Sunday in a different manner than has been customary for Americans for generations? In the country-towns and villages the clergy have likewise used their influence over woman, and have organized them as their most effective allies. In some places every girl and woman must join this organization, if they wish to be considered decent.

    The agitations for the blue-laws and for prohibition, are not the only result of this anti-foreign tendency, prevalent for several years. Many things point to the fact that a crusade is being prepared against all foreigners similar to the movement in 1854. That particular crusade was the result of the large number of immigrants from Ireland during the previous decade and of the influence of corrupt politicians who had gained control over elections and the ballot-box. It was also pointed against Germans of the revolutionary period (1848), whose viewpoints were misunderstood 3by most Americans. A petition of that storm in all probability will be occasioned by the continuous intermingling of the Irish-English problem in the political life of the United States. This is being done by the Irish politicians with increasing effrontery. The Americans are tired of listening to the Irish publicly asserting that they vote only for those men who take a most definite stand against England in Irish affairs, and not for those who might be the best men for American affairs. The Americans are tired of having their relationship to England continuously interfered with by demagogues, who speculate for Irish votes. One can not blame the Americans from being really disgusted with the demands of the Irish to appoint such judges to the Supreme Court only, as are favorable toward the Irish question.

    Another cause of this anti-foreign tendency is to be found in the activity of recently immigrated anarchists and socialists. The American considers the red flag, the banner of the Anarchists as well as socialists and shows a continuous trend against his institutions.

    There is no doubt that the importation of half-civilized workers from Italy, Poland and other countries by the American industries contributed its share in 4These half-slaves were imported for the purpose of squeezing wages to a lower lever. It is not strange that the American workers bitterly resented it. This attitude is spreading more and more. Almost daily appear in newspapers, demands by workers to restrict immigration from Europe, similar to that from China. This restriction would not only effect the half-civilized masses of Europe, but all nations. If the liberal New York Times remarks that it is still an open question, whether restriction of immigration is an advantage to this country or not, but that naturalization could and should be restricted and that this is a matter for congress, then the danger is very imminent.

    However, this storm may blow over like many others, without doing much damage.

    For several years a tendency to hate foreigners has been noticeable in the United States. The fanatical clergy of the majority of American sects, in particularly the Methodists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, ...

    German
    I B 2, I B 3 c, III C, I G, I C
  • Chicagoer Arbeiter Zeitung -- September 26, 1888
    Woman's Vocation. By Johanna Greie.

    In the hands of the woman rests, for the bigger part, the task of raising the future generation, and of making this generation understand true human virtues.

    Then why is it that we women are kept eternally in a condition of bondage, when in our hands rest the good and evil of future generations? Why should the only class that produces mankind, be stripped of its human rights?

    These are questions that come up involuntarily when one realizes how numerous are the enemies of a reasonable emancipation of women.

    The progressive class-conscious workers especially should realize the necessity of giving more consideration than has been done so far to womankind as educators and formers of the future generation.

    How can a mother be in a position to teach her children reasonable understanding 2of our world and life when her own mind is crammed with antiquated screwy ideas and prejudices.

    If a woman wants to give her children a good education aimed at a practical life, she must be in a position where she herself is able to judge happenings and events in practical life, and she must be acquainted and well versed with those. She can and will only then be able to teach her children rational thinking and acting, after she has learned them first herself.

    Mothers must be given entirely different positions in society if the education of children is to be a real solid one in conformity with actual conditions. There must not be any rules of exception for women, or the degeneracy of coming generations will infallibly be the result.

    It is indeed unspeakably sad to have to admit that our children must combat always anew the errors and mistakes produced by the same faulty education as we had in youth, in order to reach a clear, rational view and that this fight is going on under much more disgusting and pressing conditions now.

    Is it not far more our holiest duty to help and try to make this battle easier 3for our children? Should we not direct our undivided attention to the early acquisition of consciousness of genuine human dignity on the part of our children, to which acquisition every single human being as a part of the universe has the same right.

    If we want to reach this goal we have first to bring to life this consciousness. The interest of all women must be aroused for present day questions and demands of imminent importance to all workers.

    This understanding will come just as it did with men.

    The mother, being acknowledged to have the greatest influence in most cases on the mental development of her children, will then be in a position to form her children into real human beings who will become loyal, spirited followers of the suppressed and enslaved proletariat.

    Is not this aim worth while - to throw away old ideas of rights and laws, opinions and habits?

    Is it not high time to help women in their efforts to become emancipated, by advice and deeds, instead of working against them, and to use head and hand for 4energetic co-operation in order to realize the demands of a rational emancipation of women which is in harmony with the principles of justice and humanity!

    Just cast a glance at present day married life. I will not go into details with regard to the married life of the upper ten thousand, as I presume that the way those marriages are contracted and the growing demoralization in marital fashions are well known to everybody.

    The same stands for marriages within the so-called bourgoise or middle class.

    There is no concern whether the future bride is physically well or whether her character guarantees a happy married life in the future. No, the first question is: Is there money in her family, and how much?

    You will hardly find more than three or four marriages in a hundred that are found to be at least a bit bearable. There cannot be any talk of happiness, as found in a union based on free mutual harmony and love in which the two individuals supplement each other.

    And married life within the working class? Seldom, very seldom do we meet 5a couple of human beings who are of equal mentality and feeling.

    Defective education and the steady grinding fight for existence, for daily bread, hinder the formation of a harmonious, really happy life.

    When the earnings of the husband are not sufficient to procure the barest necessities and wife and children must go to work for support of the family - then what is life of such a married life?

    It is now easily understandable that as a consequence of these pressing worries for existence disharmony and dissatisfaction appear.

    And how does all this affect the minds of the children who a re witnesses of unpleasant scenes, resulting from this disharmony?

    Or let's assume that the earnings of the husband are sufficient to enable him to live a halfway decent and care-free life. The wife, then, is in a position to give herself fully to the education of the children and to make a comfortable home for her husband.

    6

    But he is also interested in liberal progressive ideas. He goes occasionally to meetings and tries to discuss afterwards with his wife what he heard and saw. But she shows no understanding, no interest in such serious questions and perhaps even differs with her husband and agrees with the opinions of reactionary tendencies, as, by the way, most females do.

    The husband stands firm in his conviction, the wife the same in hers; one word leads to another and the matrimonial disrupture is accomplished.

    The wife begins to hate the causes, the meetings, organizations, etc., out of which come these ideas and discussions which in her opinion estrange her husband from children and herself.

    What a different picture is presented to our eyes when husband and wife are mutually interested and have understanding between themselves.

    A little patience and indulgence on the part of the man, and graciousness and reasonable discernment on the part of the woman, and it cannot be otherwise than that the woman will grow to respect, honor and love her husband's convictions.

    7

    She will become interested in the ideas of our present time and will understand them, and will perhaps become a fearless fighter for truth and right.

    The man, on the other hand, will now be able to have discussions with his wife of a more serious nature, which will gain in interest as the mutual exchange of ideas and opinions furnishes the necessary stimulus.

    He will feel more comfortable in his home from then on, the spare time left him after the day's work will become a time of real recreation because he knows that his wife is of the same feeling and thinking as he.

    The wife must be the best friend, the most loyal comrade to her husband.

    Then this marriage will show a mental harmony which is necessary for happiness.

    The wife will, furthermore, in correct judgement of the situation, raise her children to be energetic brave men.

    No sneaks, flatterers and egoists, excelling in servility, slavery and bigotry, will grow up, but an absolutely true, proud and brave generation will bloom 8forthwith!

    Mothers, take interest in all those serious questions concerning the good and evil of mankind. Learn to realize that you have to make use of your energies in the interest of humanity.

    Do not be afraid of obstacles and interceptions in your way but fight your way bravely through trash of silly prejudices of past days.

    Demand your human rights and fight for them. Your slogan shall be:

    "It is for the future of our children," and you, men, do not remain any longer in inactivity and stubbornness in regard to woman's emancipation, but try to have your wives and daughters spend a few hours for the advancement of a just and rational woman's emancipation.

    You should be proud when your wife learns to think instead of remaining thoughtless all her life and unacquainted with high idealistic aims of humanity.

    It is not the purpose to set women against men but to but to bring them to the point of a realization that is necessary for the whole nation.

    9

    Don't let us forget that all we are doing should be done in the interest of suppressed and suffering mankind.

    Therefore we demand liberation of our women from those unworthy chains with which custom and laws have bound them.

    Let us help to raise women to what they were predestined: "The educator and true mother of her children, the loyal companion and respected comrade of her husband."

    In the hands of the woman rests, for the bigger part, the task of raising the future generation, and of making this generation understand true human virtues. Then why is ...

    German
    I K, I B 3 c, I B 3 b, I E, I H
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 28, 1890
    The Germans Are the Most Frugal

    An official of one of the local savings banks submitted some interesting statistical figures, several days ago, which are herewith appended. Savings banks have been founded for the purpose of giving the poorer classes of the population an opportunity to obtain a safe depository for their funds. Of all the nationalities which comprise our regular customers, the Germans are represented by the largest number. Young Germans, who have only a small income, know how to save and bring these small sums consistently to our banks. Aside from this, they excel other nationalities by the fact, that almost all who have business relations with us, are able to read and write. There are German servant girls here, who often save $2,000 and more from their meager wages; they accomplish this in a few years.

    2

    The Germans also make the largest deposits. A young German brings not less than $20 or $25 to the bank but if he is in business, then his deposits are $200 at the least and they are very often much larger. Next to the Germans, I would consider the descendants of the Irish, hence, the Irish-Americans, as very frugal.....The average age, when men form the saving habit, is the 25th year, but especially amongst the Germans, this inclination very often manifests itself when they are much younger.

    An official of one of the local savings banks submitted some interesting statistical figures, several days ago, which are herewith appended. Savings banks have been founded for the purpose of ...

    German
    V A 2, I C, I B 3 c
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 08, 1892
    Polish Welfare Association Holds Important Meeting

    Fifty-five Poles joined the ranks of the Polish Welfare Association yesterday [during the latter's meeting] at the Polish Hall, Bradley street near Noble. A large crowd had gathered at this meeting to hear the proposals of the Welfare Committee. The new members volunteered their help after the committee explained the conditions prevailing among the Polish poor of Chicago.

    The Lord Christ said: You shall always have the poor among you. These words have come to pass over and over again everywhere. In hamlets and cities, the poor are always found. However, the number of needy families is always greater in large metropolitan areas, and our beloved city of Chicago is not an exception to the rule.

    Kind-hearted people cannot remain indifferent to the hardships of their brothers; therefore, they join forces to assist the poverty-stricken fight the dark, lean days. The Poles in this city have not stood back, but have 2organized their own forces to solve this problem. A committee was chosen to draw up plans, meetings were held, and the problems were presented to the people. This activity brought out the fact that, through collective cooperation by voluntary donations of money, goods, and services, and through the spreading of cheer and hope, much can be accomplished to wrest the people from the clutches of uncertainty. Mothers, children, and widows, the sick, and the aged will be spared the shame of begging in the streets.

    Yesterday's meeting showed a gratifying response. The enlistment of fifty-five members is only a beginning, just an impetus for others to join.

    Publication of the activities of this organization will bring those unable to attend this or the previous meeting in contact with the crying need of our less fortunate people. This appeal for help, this effort to quiet the uncertainty of the poor will soften the hearts of our prosperous element. The ranks of the generous will swell from a hundred to a thousand, possibly into thousands. Having no multimillionaires or millionaires in our files, 3we do not expect any large sums of money to fill the empty coffers of this welfare organization. But our people are rich in Christian love, tenderness, and hospitality. They are fond of the words of Christ: whatever you have done to the unfortunate brothers in their need, you have done unto me.

    What we need now is to have all the kind-hearted gather at the next meeting, to be held this coming Sunday at 4 P. M., so that they may join the ranks of those who have offered to help this cause.

    The help of the businessmen, property owners, and our prominent citizens will be valuable to our cause. The dollar that they may contribute to the fund for the poor is not so important as their vote and opinion. On February 14, the meeting will finish a discussion on the constitution [of the society], and a vote will be taken concerning the adoption of certain amendments. The suggestions of our prominent citizens, therefore, will be of great help in this respect.

    4

    This meeting is not being held for the sole purpose of obtaining money. A matter of greater importance, the continuation of this work and the materialization of plans to put this association on a sound foundation is the main issue. The money contributed will serve a two-fold purpose to the donor: it will be a sacrifice of money to help save the needy, and a sacrifice to God, Who places this upon the altar of love for the poor.

    Let us all join this noble cause. Remember the words of Jesus: Come, blessed children of my Father, and share the kingdom set aside for ye since the dawn of time.

    Please bear in mind that the pockets of the indolent, false beggars, parasites, and traveling hoboes will not be bulging with these donations. Only those in urgent need will get assistance. In order to get this help, the recipients must be residents of this city.

    5

    A committee is needed to warn the people against misleading advertisements in which the claim is made that Chicago is a Mecca for those in need of work. Chicago, like any other city, is facing an unemployment crisis. People of long standing in this city and familiar with the English language, who besides being skilled tradesmen are intimate with influential people, have difficulty in getting work. The many beggars and unemployed that fill the streets are a good example [of the crisis now prevailing in Chicago].

    It is hoped that the Poles living in the Northwest Side will set a memorable example by joining this cause and offering their aid without being asked. In a short while, as the number of good-hearted people be increased on the rolls of the welfare association, the poor will be salvaged from their penurious state. The donations will be recognized by God as a token of good will to all men. The honor of our Polish people in this rapidly growing city will be saved. Their cooperation will long be remembered and the Poles will become a fine example of immigrants.

    6

    There is no charge to attend the meeting next Sunday. To become members, those desiring to help the poor will contribute a dollar to this charitable organization. Members will have their name published in the paper. At this meeting, to be held in the new Polish Hall, a board of directors will be elected.

    Fifty-five Poles joined the ranks of the Polish Welfare Association yesterday [during the latter's meeting] at the Polish Hall, Bradley street near Noble. A large crowd had gathered at this ...

    Polish
    II D 10, I H, III G, III B 2, I B 3 c
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 30, 1892
    The Polish Hospital (Editorial)

    We have received the following letter with the request that it be printed in our editorial section:

    An Appeal from the Polish Medical Practitioners of Chicago to the Poles

    "The Society of Polish Doctors practicing medicine in Chicago held the second meeting of a drive to interest the Poles of this city in a hospital of their own.

    "Although it cannot be denied that there are in Chicago many hospitals whose facilities are offered to the public at reasonable prices, the fact is that our people hesitate to go to them for medical care, and very often the doctors' recommendations of hospitalization are disregarded. The things 2that scare our people away from these hospitals cannot be discussed at present for lack of space.

    The necessity for a Polish hospital requires no profound study or explanation. If it pleases the healthy Pole to spend his idle time in a polish saloon or purchase his groceries in a Polish store, why shouldn't it be more pleasant for a sick one to be cared by a Polish physician? What could be better than to have a Polish patient confined in a Polish hospital where he is attended by Polish nuns?

    "Every group in Chicago, including the Jewish and the Negro, has its own hospital, but the Poles, who number a little over 100,000, do not have one.

    "Brother citizens, help us make this possible for our people by giving us your support and financial assistance, and we will be able to build a beautiful Polish Hospital in Chicago.

    3

    "As it has been decided to build this hospital out of contributions and to have Polish nuns in charge, collectors will be sent out to canvass the homes for signatures pledging financial support to this project, each person contacted stipulating the amount he or she is willing to contribute. As soon as enough names are obtained, a general meeting will be held at which the plans for the hospital will be discussed. The persons attending this meeting will elect directors and officers so as to execute the original plans agreed upon at the meeting of March 25." (Signed.) Dr. B. Stryzowski, secretary; Dr. M. Kossakowski, Dr. E. Czerniewski, Dr. K. Rewkowski, Dr. J. Train, Dr. L. Ostrowski."

    It goes without saying that a Polish hospital would afford many conveniences to our people in Chicago and vicinity; not only it is badly needed, but it is a shame to all Poles not to have their own hospital, especially when smaller groups have them. This appeal is just a step in the right direction, 4as by itself alone it cannot materialize.

    This plan of the Polish physicians shows a noble effort that deserves due credit and support, but we are afraid that it is not practical, as it is almost impossible to get enough funds to build a hospital by means of popular contributions. Generally speaking the Poles are not paupers and the erection and upkeep of a hospital would be possible if enough support could be found. As it is, it will be a difficult task to find such support, for only few Poles would contribute even for the beneficial project. Small donations, of course, will not supply the necessary funds.

    The funds would have to be large enough to make the building possible on a cash basis; otherwise small contributions would have to flow continually, thus increasing the overhead. Besides, if mortgage notes can not be met, the entire plan would be doomed.

    5

    If other groups have hospitlas, it is because they are better established in the city and have rich philanthropists to contribute large sums of money. Many times these philanthropists' contributions are so great that they are enough not only for the project itself but for the creation of a reserve fund for its expansion. We do not have very rich individuals in our colony. The best we can do is to make one philanthropist out of every few thousand Poles willing to share the expense of the hospital. Those who have tried to raise funds by popular contributions know the difficulties encountered, and that is why we say that the present plan of the medical group will meet with grave difficulties.

    We believe, however, that there is a good possibility along another road. Practically every Pole with a regular income belongs to some kind of society, and as there are many Polish societies in Chicago, it would be possible for most of them to agree upon a certain sum of money to be offered towards the hospital plan. This initial donation, plus a stipulated sum to be contributed annually, would place the project on a solid foundation. There should be no difficulties, for a hospital proposition so meritorious as this one cannot but gather the willing support of the 6members of many organizations. Through this plan the money would come from organizations that can be depended on. It is our opinion that this procedure would bring better results.

    We make this statement from past experience, and the type of plan we suggest shows at once whether or not the essential funds can be raised. With such information, it can be decided definitely whether the present plan can be worked out or not.

    We say "present plan" because we feel that the task of raising funds to carry it out would meet with greater obstacles than ever. This, of course, should not discourage its promoters to the point of scrapping it entirely.

    Today the Poles face many problems, and those who live among us are more or less familiar with them. For one thing we are continually making donations to the Holy Family Orphanage, and a welfare society has been recently formed that is asking all of us for support. Besides, contributions are being made 7right along for the Greek Catholics facing famine on Russian soil, not to mention the Monument Association, which has been receiving our support and will continue to get it for sometime, for the cost of presenting entertainments is high. To make the drain still worse, a Lithuanian Church is being built with the cooperation of many of our people. Money given towards the support of all these projects will never earn anything for the donors; it is an outright contribution, not an investment of capital.

    There is a plan followed by business enterprises, in which funds are raised through the sale of shares, the shareholders receiving returns out of their investments. Today we have two enterprises of this kind, but they have received very little publicity from our press. In addition there are a few building and loan associations that pay interest on every dollar invested.

    In view of the present setup, we contend that the hospital plan proposed by the Polish doctors has little possibility of materialization. We do 8not wish to discourage the originators of this admirable idea, but present conditions require that the plan be abandoned at least temporarily, that is, until conditions clear up.

    We wish to point out that when yesterday's editorial, "The Monument Project," appeared, the plans of the medical group were not known to us.

    We have received the following letter with the request that it be printed in our editorial section: An Appeal from the Polish Medical Practitioners of Chicago to the Poles "The ...

    Polish
    II D 3, I C, III A, I B 3 c