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Svenska Tribunen -- November 30, 1881Rev. Jacob Bredberg Dead.
The Rev. Jacob Bredberg, one of America's oldest Swedish clergymen died peacefully in Chicago, Thursday, November 24th. He had been pastor of St. Ausgarius Swedish Episcopal Church here for many years. The church is also called "Jenny Linds' Church." The first pastor was Gustav Unonius, who founded this the oldest church in Chicago, and Bredberg succeeded him.
Jacob Bredberg was born in Alingsas, Sweden, May 1, 1808. He was ordained priest in 1832, after completing his studies. He served as pastor for twenty years in his native land. He emigrated to Chicago in 1853 where he was affiliated with the Methodist Episcopal Church. Pastor Bredberg was clergyman of this church from 1853 to 1863 when he was received into the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. He was appointed rector of St. Ausgarius Swedish Episcopal Church in Sedgwick St., remaining there till 1877, when he resigned.
Pastor Bredberg was very highly educated and translated the ritual of the Protestant Episcopal Church from English into Swedish. He also made translations2
from the English, French and Bohmish language.
The hymnals now in use by the Swedish Methodist Church are the work of Bredberg. He married in 1840,Charlotta Caroline Bergstrom. He is survived by his widow, two sons and one daughter.
He has been confined to his bed since 1877, when he had a stroke of paralysis. Death was, therefore, a God send.
The funeral was held last Saturday. The ritual of the Episcopal Church was used. The Rt. Rev. Doctor W.E.McLaren, Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Chicago officiated assisted by several clergymen of the church.
Pastor Bredberg's successor, the Rev. J. Hedman read one of his original poems. Burial was at Graceland cemetery.
The Rev. Jacob Bredberg, one of America's oldest Swedish clergymen died peacefully in Chicago, Thursday, November 24th. He had been pastor of St. Ausgarius Swedish Episcopal Church here for many ...
IV, I A 2 c, II A 3 b
Zgoda -- January 26, 1887Slander
There are many Americans who give our forefathers credit for their splendid support of the Catholic religion and their undying love for their native land.
Not long ago something was said in regard to the above mentioned which caused hard feelings and misunderstanding among Polish people; we feel that it should be overlooked.
American citizens attending the Polish National Alliance convention began collecting donations to support and maintain the academy and convent of the Ursulan Sisters. Donations were given good-heartedly.
During a church mission in a small town near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a Polish Catholic priest, Father Koluszewski of Cleveland, ascended the pulpit and denounced sternly the donations given to support the "n Home."2
"Who gave them permission," said the Reverend Father to the congregation, "to take care of the collections for the Ursulans? Do not believe them; they are liars, these Ursulans; they are a suspicious group of ladies. In the old country the devil sent women to do his bidding where he himself had failed."
I will not say anything that you can hold against me but I will add this - that the reason for the sudden anger of Reverend Father Koluszewski against the Ursulans is that the Polish National Alliance of America is taking care of the donations for the Ursulans and is being fully supported by its 3,000 members and by different societies and Catholic institutions.
Reverend Father Koluszewski is himself working against the Polish National Alliance; he cannot understand how an organization as big as the P. N. A. can undertake so great a responsibility and still have so many Roman Catholic priests striving for an opportunity to join it.
Reverend Koluszewski's speech from the pulpit only caused the people to 3leave in great anger; it caused ill feeling among the P. N. A. members because they were willing to contribute to the support of poor Ursulan Sisters' Convent.
Another priest said: "As a priest, I am humiliated at the sudden outburst of Reverend Father Koluszerski; as a Pole, I cannot find words to apoligize for his behavior. I know that from our native country the poorest class of people crossed the ocean in search of a country where they could be taken care of in their old age, as for example, the Home of the Ursulan Sisters. This institution is also striving to save our children from the shame put upon their souls because of the lack of education. They are working to teach our Polish children the success and pleasures of life received from having a good education and from the teachings of the Catholic religion.
It also shows in old records that the head of this institution, Superior Sister Morawska, donated her farm and all her money in her home town of Poland for the building of this home, Ursulan Sisters. This shows that any propaganda or slander said against these "Sisters" is only used as an obstruction against the Polish people in their effort to advance and their 4undying love for the Catholic religion.
Almighty God will punish the trouble-maker who spoke so rudely about the Ursulan Sisters and their undying love for the Catholic religion.
Dr. Rev. Father Kanonik.
There are many Americans who give our forefathers credit for their splendid support of the Catholic religion and their undying love for their native land. Not long ago something was ...
III C, I A 2 a, II D 5, III B 2, I K, III B 4, I A 2 c
Secondary listingsPolish // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Elementary, Higher (High School and College) (I A 2 a) ?
Polish // Contributions and Activities > Benevolent and Protective Institutions > Homes for the Aged (II D 5) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Nationalistic Societies and Influences > Activities of Nationalistic Societies (III B 2) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Position of Women and Feminism (I K) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Nationalistic Societies and Influences > Conventions and Conferences (III B 4) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Contributions (I A 2 c) ?
L'italia -- March 28, 1891Benefit for the Italian School, 505 S. Clark Street
A concert is being organized for the benefit of the Italian School. This concert will take place Monday night, April 2, at Central Music Hall. You are all invited to attend.
Tickets are $1.00.
A concert is being organized for the benefit of the Italian School. This concert will take place Monday night, April 2, at Central Music Hall. You are all invited to ...
II B 1 a, I A 2 c
Secondary listingsItalian // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Contributions (I A 2 c) ?
Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 19, 1892Difference of Opinion in the Polish Press (Editorial)
The Nowe Zycie (New Life) newspaper, which had left the controversial rank of journalistic publications has recently entered the polemic field once again. This paper was adverse to many of the issues confronting the Polish people and because of this it was necessary for the publishers to reorganize the editorial staff. Reorganization brought only momentary peace. This antagonistic attitude is very painful. Painful, because such should exist among our own people, or such that call themselves Poles, who think and write in this direction. This stand is not only non-religious but also atheistical. And this is the stand that the New Life has adopted. Now it is no longer twisting facts; it has shed its cloak of shame and very plainly prints falsehoods.2
In Mr. Tamillo's articles, which are unnecessary, a statement is made that the Constitution of the United States permits one to believe or not to believe in God. We have never mentioned the Constitution in this respect. At any rate the United States' Constitution does not allow a particular religion to dominate not does it favor the setting up of any existing faith, for the proponents would not permit such thought to seep into its construction. Our mention was only about the laws of the various states. Here, one will invariably find in these laws or criminal codes, the right to impose sentence on those who deny the divine right of God. There is also found in some State Constitutions the privilege of denying the right of a person to hold public office if he does not believe in God. The opening of every United States Congress is an outstanding example in this direction.3
Whenever Congress or the State Legislature opens its sessions, a prayer is offered to God for assistance.
In the opening paragraph of the article in the New Life, a statement is made again which tries to prove that a reconciliation between the Polish National Alliance and the Polish Roman Catholic Union is impossible. This is a strange statement and we doubt whether the organization of the Alliance is going to be thankful to the New Life for this because it is of such a bearish nature. It starts out with the tyranny of Father V. Barzynski and concludes with the absurd statement "without the authorization of anyone else". Father Barzynski proposes this settlement of differences and exchange of the olive branch.
Further in the article, the right of these two groups to come to peaceful 4terms is questioned. It is asserted that "the Alliance is the flesh of our nationalism" and that "the other is religious." Because, as it is alleged, the Roman Catholic Union is endeavoring to rebuild the former holiness of the Roman Catholic church ....Therefore, all national activity arranged by societies connected with the latter, the schools that are being built by the members, all the contributions that have been made are steps toward the rebuilding of the old order of the Church of Rome.
Or perhaps - a favorable phrase of this paper - all the work of this organization is being done for the here purpose of pulling the wool over the people's eyes and "that which it does not do is actually their aim and policy."5
"The Alliance is making an effort to establish Polish culture here on par with that of other nationalities, while the Union is trying to keep the people filled with superstitious beliefs and ignorance, and through ignorance in servitude." This is how the New Life is trying to intimidate the Polish Roman Catholic Union. "It is exerting a power to keep religious beliefs instilled in the people."
It is apparent that the New Life is trying to get rid of religious beliefs and create a non-religious condition, leading to atheism, and followed by anarchistic tyranny and nihilism!
According to the Nowa Reforma (New Reform), the Dziennik Chicagoski sins 6in its sententious remarks on certain issues. How the Dziennik Chicagoski desires that this were unnecessary! But is it likely to be silent if there is continual misunderstanding within the ranks? Can there be a way to harmony and unity if this confusion is going to be more entangled by the smaller papers whose venom constantly drips upon the fire of the happiness of the people? Can this paper, which is not entirely colorless, for it has certain qualities and truths to bring out in order to attain this peace, keep silent while some other newspaper tries to smear these truths with mud? Would not the read of admitting the erroneousness of these controversies lead to smoother pavements?
The Nowe Zycie (New Life) newspaper, which had left the controversial rank of journalistic publications has recently entered the polemic field once again. This paper was adverse to many of ...
II B 2 d 1, I J, I C, III C, I A 2 c
Secondary listingsPolish // Attitudes > Interpretation of American History (I J) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Own and Other National or Language Groups (I C) ?
Polish // Assimilation > National Churches and Sects (III C) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Contributions (I A 2 c) ?
Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 26, 1892The School Question (Editorial)
The school question in the United States, which is of especial and vital importance to us, and which has been made a political football by a number of parties, has been discussed many times by exhaustive articles in the Dziennik Chicagoski. Even the brochure of Father Thomas Bouquillon, who is taking great interest in this question at the present time in Washington, has been given full consideration, including the part played by Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul.
This question is so vital that the European press has devoted considerable space to it. Every important periodical has given the school problem consideration, especially the Catholic papers. We are including the following article which was published in Warsaw in a recent issue of the 2Przegladu Powszechnego (Universal Review) and was written by Father John Badeni:
"In the United States the school question is being handled in an interesting manner by a number of Catholic groups. This struggle for education is only possible on American soil. Two weeks before the annual conference of American Archbishops at St. Louis the pamphlet of Father Thomas Bouquillon, professor of moral theology in a Catholic University in Washington, made its appearance under the title of 'Education: To Whom Does It Belong?' Who should should and control education? 'The State, the author states, particularly a minor one, either Christian or non-Christian.' In conclusion, as if frightened by his own thesis, the author submits the following proviso: 'I realize that such a theory will meet many difficulties in practical 3application, but the spreading of these difficulties is not my problem; it is that of the people created by God over the State and the Church. Several comments have been made about Bouquillon's pamphlet in a few Catholic papers and periodicals. Bishop Chatard also mentioned it in an article. The matter would have been completely forgotten if the brochure had not reflected an attitude of Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul. At the Archbishops' conference in St. Louis, Archbishop Ireland came to the aid of the principles set forth by Bouquillon, and when he could not find one supporter, he sought the help of the press to support his ideas. It was after this that a bitter battle was fought pro and con in many journals that contained interviews, editorials, and feature articles. It would be too involved to delve into the details of this fight, but it should be 4sufficient to say that in the St. Paul diocese some of Archbishop Ireland's adherents left the country, who would never have been prompted to leave under different circumstances.
"Several facts, gathered by an American correspondent for Rome's publication La Civilta Cattolica, will answer to a better extent theories that are popular in free America relative to the compulsion of public ownership of all schools. During the time that Archbishop Ireland entered into the picture, the United States Government was compelled to hear charges against 500 public school teachers who were accused of many disgraceful crimes. In the year 1890, over 737,000 children were attending parochial schools, among whom were 567,000 Catholic children. Besides this, 753,000 attended private schools. There are 637 girls' schools and educational centers 5operated by Catholic orders. The Jesuits' alone operate 27 educational institutions with an attendance of 6,538 students, with an average annual increase of 500. At the Catholic University in Washington 260 students are taking a course in philosophy, 255 in law, and 100 in medicine. What reason would the Catholics have', concludes the correspondent of the Roman newspaper, 'to establish and support with generous contributions all these institutions and schools? What special reason would the countless religious families have, namely Lutheran, Presbyterian, etc., who often send their daughters moreso than their sons, to Catholic schools regardless of expenses, if the public schools would cater to all of their desires and guarantee a good, virtuous education'?"
The school question in the United States, which is of especial and vital importance to us, and which has been made a political football by a number of parties, has ...
I A 2 a, III C, I A 1 a, I A 2 c
Secondary listingsPolish // Assimilation > National Churches and Sects (III C) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Education > Secular > Elementary, Higher (High School and College) (I A 1 a) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Contributions (I A 2 c) ?
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 18, 1892German Theological Seminary.
Six young students of the German Theological Seminary went through their examinations recently. The German Theological Seminary is located at Ashland Avenue and Augusta Street, and is under the direction of Rev. J. D. Severinghaus. The directors of the seminary held two conferences yesterday, in which they consulted about a new constitution for their institution.
The directors have made an appeal to the friends of the seminary for financial support. It is pointed out that this institution trained and educated fifty young men for the ministry since its foundation in 1885; and that it is entirely dependent upon voluntary contribution for its maintenance. The expenses of the institution are estimated as follows: salary and rent for the professors $1,750. board and lodging for ten students $800; heat and light $250; miscellaneous expenses $200. This is a total of $3,000, for the training of twenty-one students. The synod to which this church belongs has appropriated $5,000, for the payment of debts of the seminary.
Six young students of the German Theological Seminary went through their examinations recently. The German Theological Seminary is located at Ashland Avenue and Augusta Street, and is under the direction ...
I A 2 a, IV, III C, I A 2 c
Secondary listingsGerman // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
German // Assimilation > National Churches and Sects (III C) ?
German // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Contributions (I A 2 c) ?
Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 27, 1892Altgeld's Masterful Interpretation of the Parochial School Question
Altgeld has expressed his sentiments about that torrid election question which now holds sway in Illinois. His remarks at the time of his nomination and subsequent speeches have now been amplified as well as perfected by the addition of necessary detail. We quote, without omission, and have conscientiously translated it into German. In its direct, compelling logic and understandable, progressive attitude, it represents a veritable arsenal of efficient weapons with which the "Know-nothingism" and the Republican Fiferism can be combatted.
"Like the Democrats, I am in favor of compulsory school attendance. Likewise, I desire that every child shall have a certain, definite education and that schooling shall be at state expense, if it is not otherwise provided for.
The public schools of the state shall be under state supervision, and no sectarian religious beliefs shall be taught there, so that no particular creeds may be implante into the easily susceptible minds of school children.
The state-schools have been created, to take care of all those children, whose 2parents or guardians refrain from sending them to private schools.
There was a period during the history of the world, when no common public schools existed. Whoever wanted to learn something had to hire an individual teacher or pay for it in an exclusive school. But in the course of time, the well directed, amply state financial public schools, particularly the elementary and grammar classes, have supplanted the private institutions.
But the parochial school, with its church connection, survived. When such a school was founded, the church provided worldly and religious instruction, both from the same instructor. The parochial schools of the various denominations are a part of their respective churches, just as the Sunday School is a division of the English-American Protestant church. We have no right to interfere. The principle on which our public school system has been built, does not contain any paragraph, which authorizes the state to compel people to accept this system, if they do not desire it and are providing instruction for their children elsewhere. The public school is here to cope with the problem of insufficient schools, but not to abolish parental control and choice in regard to their offspring's education.
Like the Democrats, as aforesaid, I am for compulsory school attendance. It cannot be tolerated that a person shall grow up in ignorance but the state has no right 3whatever to meddle with parents who obtain an education for their progeny.
The state shall regard the curriculum of a parochial school as sufficient and legal, even if it has no supervision over such institutions. The state is no less concerned in the child's welfare than the parents.
In educational matters, as in other affairs which affect children, parents may err occasionally, but their intentions are good. No one endowed with intelligence will therefore insist, that the state has a right to prescribe to parents the methods they shall use to raise their children or to maintain discipline.
Supervision over parochial schools is not a state right, because the state does not contribute anything towards them. Only if something ocours there which comes in conflict with the criminal laws may the state intervene. If it becomes evident that such schools teach subjects which are detrimental to the state and the commonweal, or that the scholars are maltreated, then the state would have the right to take steps in order to abolish such conditions, but only then. Even the most inveterate enemies of the parochial schools have never brought such accusations. They admit that from an educational stand point they are good.4
The state does not have the right to inspect parochial schools in order to ascertain if everything proceeds properly. Based on the same right or rather illegality, it should be possible for the state to enter the sanctity of the home, just to be assured that no wrong is committed therein. The state must act on the presumption that where no complaint has been made no misdemeanor exists. Parochial schools must not be inspected by the state when there is no evidence of some infraction. If some unlawful act has been perpetrated in such a school, and someone knows about it, then he should register his complaint. The same is true in regard to maltreatment of minors by their parents or guardians. If certain people, mostly church adherents, take recourse to the parochial, instead of state schools, then they save money for the state. Let as consider this case, the state deliberately drags children who do not belong to a certain congregation into a private school and demands they should be tutored in a certain manner, in short, treats them as if they were in a public school. Thereby the state would become a partner of a parochial school. But, if the state goes to such extremes, then the parochial school which has never asked for a state subvention, would have the right to demand financial assistance, at least to defray the cost of instruction in those branches over which the state exacted control.
Such payments would not be permissable, since the constitution prohibits recognition 5of any church in state affairs.
If the state of Illinois would investigate the parochial schools and then fasten the proclamation onto the portals: "Inspected by the State of Illinois and accepted as a school" then the state would recognize the power that lurks behind the school, namely, the church. Inspection of a parochial school by the state is a preliminary step towards recognition of the church by the state. If the state were to pay money towards the maintainance of such a school, then our courts would declare it as unconstitutional. But, as I have shown, it is contrary to the spirit of the constitution to inspect any church-schools.
In this parochial school question, we hear much about the teaching of foreign languages. In the entire state of Illinois, there is not a single such school, where English is not being taught; all children there obtain an English education. The gibberish, that the parochial schools might bring the English language into oblivion, is silly, and no one considers or believes it seriously. For these very reasons it is entirely uncalled for, that a definite, compulsory, language teaching program should be enforced among parochial schools.6
Among the Germans of this country, we find the reasonable desire, that their children should be able to read and write their parental language. If it were the absolute intention of the state to prevent children from learning the well entrenched German or any other language besides English, then state officials would have to penetrate the innermost family circles where English is often omitted in order to induce children to learn this tongue by imitation, whereby they acquire it from their very infancy.
The addiction to the German language at home, and its use during teaching hours in the various courses of the parochial schools is resorted to, since teachers and parents know, that this is the only method whereby the student can obtain a thorough knowledge of his mother tongue, aside from the English. But hide or hair, its not a state affair."
If Altgeld's ideas will bring victory on Nov. 8th, when the Illinois ballot tells the outcome, and we can expect that he emerges victorious, then the first months of the next year will give us a repetition of what transpired in Wisconsin a year ago, Under Gov. Altgeld's influence the new legal administration of Illinois will abolish the Edwards law; his instigation will help in creating a new school-law, which containone of the objectional features of the Edwards mandate and it will give the parochia private, and state schools equality and justice.
Altgeld has expressed his sentiments about that torrid election question which now holds sway in Illinois. His remarks at the time of his nomination and subsequent speeches have now been ...
I A 2 a, IV, I A 2 c, I A 1 c, I A 1 a
Secondary listingsGerman // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
German // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Contributions (I A 2 c) ?
German // Attitudes > Education > Secular > Taxation for Public Schools (I A 1 c) ?
German // Attitudes > Education > Secular > Elementary, Higher (High School and College) (I A 1 a) ?
Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 13, 1893Madame Modrzejewksi's Appearance for the Benefit of St. Mary of Nazareth [High School]
The date of the promised appearance of our great actress Madame Helen Modrzejewski, for the benefit of St. Mary of Nazareth High School, has been definitely set. She will make her appearance on Sunday, February 22, at the Chicago Opera House, Washington at Clark Street. Madame Modrzejewski's troupe will present the historical drama "Mary Stuart," by Schiller.
It is expected that the Poles will repay Madame Modrzejewski properly for her noble intentions by attending the performance in great numbers to fete a great actress and praiseworthy philanthropist.
Tickets for the play may be purchased at St. Mary's starting Monday.
The date of the promised appearance of our great actress Madame Helen Modrzejewski, for the benefit of St. Mary of Nazareth High School, has been definitely set. She will make ...
I A 2 c, III C, II A 3 d 1
Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 23, 1893Madame Modrzejewski's Performance
Yesterday's performance of our talented actress Madame Helen Modrzejewski at the Chicago Opera House proved unusually brilliant. Madame Modrzejewski deserves the honor and esteem which was expressed in the generous applause of the many Poles present at the performance--she deserves it as an artist and as a philanthropist.
We have previously described in detail Madame Modrzejewski's brilliant interpretation of the title role in "Mary Stuart"; it would be superfluous to repeat these praises. Let it suffice to add that this time our great artist surpassed herself, if such a thing is possible. The emotions of pain, enthusiasm, and satiety which the wonderful performance of our "queen" awakened, were reproduced in the hearts of the audience, giving them the utmost artistic satisfaction.2
The theater was filled. Everywhere Polish faces were to be seen, and between the acts one could hear the Polish language. Although there was a considerable number of outsiders present, none greeted our noble artist with such genuine enthusiasm as we, the Poles. May that applause, which came from our hearts, be her thanks. Madame Modrzejewski's donation is a large one. Our actress not only offered her own services and the services of her troupe, but herself paid the costs of the production as well.
The Holy Family of Nazareth Academy will receive the entire proceeds of the evening--a little less than a thousand dollars. The result was fortunate beyond all expectations, for which we again praise and honor our noble artist.
Yesterday's performance of our talented actress Madame Helen Modrzejewski at the Chicago Opera House proved unusually brilliant. Madame Modrzejewski deserves the honor and esteem which was expressed in the generous ...
I A 2 c, II A 3 d 1
Secondary listingsPolish // Contributions and Activities > Vocational > Aesthetic > Drama (II A 3 d 1) ?
Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 05, 1893Polish National Alliance Convention First Day's Session
The [Tenth] Convention of the Polish National Alliance opened on Monday [September 4]. At nine o'clock in the morning, all delegates reported to the central headquarters for their badges. Later, at ten o'clock, they attended Mass at Holy Trinity Church. Mass was said by the Reverend Czyzewski, who was assisted by the Reverend Wojtalewicz, of Hammond, and Reverend Pawlowski, of Chicago. The Reverend Casimir Sztuczko, pastor of Holy Trinity parish, preached the sermon. He called upon the delegates to devote themselves to the work for Poland and not to seek personal fame, saying that he who seeks fame, works for himself, not for Poland. He spoke of the sad plight of our nation, that unfortunate motherland which, oppressed, asks our aid. "We can give it that aid", he said, "if we remain Poles, if we band together in the name of God." He adjured the delegates to keep in mind 2throughout the discussion the general welfare of both the organization and Poland. "The fate of the Alliance," he went on, "rests in the hands of the delegates; their efforts, the results of the Convention, will be watched by sympathizers and enemies alike. The latter suspect the Alliance of anti-Catholic tendencies. The delegates gathered at the Tenth Convention ought to prove that they are not enemies of the Church." Finally, Father Sztuczko pointed out that the Polish youth in America had already begun to lose its national characteristics, that it was ashamed to use the Polish language. "The youth no longer has the Polish spirit, it does not understand our high ideals. For this reason, we must bend our efforts toward teaching our youth to remain Polish," he said.
After the church services were over, the delegates formed into ranks and marched to Pulaski Hall, Eighteenth Street and Ashland Avenue. Since the march started at about twelve o'clock and the sun was very hot, the delegates arrived at the hall very tired.3
After the delegates had taken a short rest, F. Smietanka, in behalf of the management, welcomed them to Pulaski Hall. He expressed his joy at the fact that this Convention could meet in a Polish hall. He then turned the hall over to the disposition of the delegates and the censor. Upon the censor's request, Mr. Smietanka addressed the Convention. His speech was frequently interruped by vigorous applause.
Following this address, the Convention was called to order by W. Przybyszewski, the censor, who said that he would speak to the gathering at another time. He proceeded immediately to the appointment of a Credentials Committee, naming to it L. Szopinski, Dr. L. Sadowski, Alexander Leszczynski, L.S. Dewoyno, and C. Zychlinski. Following the appointment of the Credentials Committee, the Convention was adjourned until the following day at nine o'clock in the morning.
Mr. Mallek, president of the Singers' Society, invited the delegates to attend the [Polish Singers' Alliance] concert to be held in the evening in the same hall.4
The evening concert, played to a full hall, was very successful. Among the vocalists who distinguished themselves were Mrs. Bansiewicz, of Milwaukee, and Miss Dabrowski, of Racine.
Second Day's Morning Session
The second day's morning session of the Polish National Alliance was called to order at nine o'clock this morning [september 5, 1893] by Censor Przybyszewski.
L. Szopinski read a report of the Credentials Committee to the effect that the secretary-general had flatly refused to allow the Committee the use of group-membership records, without which credentials could not be checked. As a result, the Committee was forced to question the credentials of all delegates present. This report gave rise to a storm of disapproval. It was claimed by the opposition that A. Leszczynski, of Sand Beach, as a representative of a group (H. Sienkiewicz Society, Buffalo) which had been in the Alliance for less than six 5months, had no right to be a delegate. A stormy discussion followed, in which Secretary-General Mallek and Delegates Roland, Dr. Gryca, Gryglasiewicz, and others participated. As a result, the censor removed Leszczynski from the Credentials Committee and appointed Dr. Ilowiecki, of Detroit, in his stead. The secretary-general was directed to supply the Committee with the necessary records.
Some time after ten o'clock, the meeting was adjourned so that the Credentials Committee might do its work.
Dziennik Chicagoski, Sept. 6, 1893.
Election of President and Secretary
The whole morning of the second day's session was spent in the verification of credentials, which, as reported yesterday, were all questioned by the Credentials 6Committee after the secretary-general had refused to submit membership records. After a long and stormy debate, Secretary-General Mallek was finally persuaded to surrender the necessary records.
The Credentials Committee's report was completed at 12:30 in the afternoon and read to the Convention by C. Zychlinski, secretary of the Committee.
The following were qualified delegates from Chicago: Stanislaus Lauferski (Polish Group), F. Sowadzki and C. Zychlinski (Polish Industrial Association), W. Bardonski and S. Makielski (Harmony), S. Terczewski (Polish Tailors' Union), J. Bobowski (Polish Group II), B. Korpolewski (Holy Trinity Singing Society), A. Groenwald (Industrial Youth Society), F. Jablonski (St. Joseph's Society of Holy Trinity parish), T. Golniewicz and A. Lisztewnik (Kosciusko Society), F. Smietanka and L. Czeslawski (King John Sobieski Society), O. Ekowski (Polonia Society), W. Templin (King John Sobieski Society of South Chicago), A. Jaroslawski (Third Division, Polish Krakus Society), S. Baranski (J. I. Kraszewski 7Society), M. A. Wleklinski and T. Nowacki (Batory Society), M. Moszczynski (August Gillers Society I), J. Slowikowski and J. Rudzinski (Eagle and Chase Society), L. Mroz and M. Magdziarz (King Miecislaus Society), W. Poszwinski and M. Ball (Star Society), S. Rokosz (Pole in Exile Society), L. Tuchoeki (Jan Kochanowski Society I), L. Roland (Adam Mickiewicz Society I) K. Machek and J. F. Smulski (Zana Society), E. Pawelkiewicz (Unity Society), J. Blaszka and T. Wikaryasz (King Casimir the Great Society). Delegates from the following cities were also present: Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Brooklyn, New York, Milwaukee, La Salle (Illinois), Duluth, South Bend, Philadelphia, and others. [Itemized list of delegates from these cities omitted by translator.]
After the report of the Credentials Committee had been accepted, election of Convention officers was next in the order of business. Delegates S. Lewandowski, of Cleveland, W. Bardonski, of Chicago, Lipinski and former Censor Gryglaszewski, of Philadelphia, were nominated for president. On the first ballot, Lewandowski received most votes. Gryglaszewski withdrew in favor of 8Lewandowski and moved that the latter be elected by acclamation. The motion was carried.
Delegate S. Lauferski nominated Gryglaszewski for chairman of the Convention and proposed that he also be elected by acclamation. A number of delegates protested. Twenty-one delegates responded to the demand that those opposed rise. (Shouts of "Traitors!) Among those protesting, we noticed Bardonski, Jakinski, [L.] Szopinski, Roland, and Rudzinski, of Chicago.....
Delegates Kosak, of Cincinnati, and [F] Jablonski, of Chicago, were nominated for secretary. There were no other candidates.
The newly elected president of the Convention took his place on the platform amidst thunderous applause. He thanked the Convention for the unexpected honor conferred upon him. Following this short address, the chairman of the Convention, 9Gryglaszewski, addressed the delegates.
He spoke of his own great services to the Alliance during his eight years as censor, emphasizing the patriotism with which he had worked for the Polish cause. He spoke also of his plans for the future, namely, that the Alliance build factories and shops so that Poles will not have to work for Germans. He touched upon the patriotic sermon of Father Sztuczko, who approved of the Alliance's tendencies. In conclusion, he read a toast written in verse by Simon Modrzewski. The verse cries out for enlightenment of the common people; enlightenment is the common people's only salvation from ignorance and slavery. The result of this enlightenment is to be a struggle against the Roman Catholic Church.
The verse also complained against the American extradition treaty with Russia.....Since it was already two o'clock in the afternoon, a one-hour recess was declared.10
Second Day's Afternoon Session
The afternoon session opened with a proposal by Chairman Gryglaszewski that the manager of the hall be summoned to remove the floral decorations from the platform, seemingly disturbing to him. The flowers had been sent by E. Z. Brodowski upon request of the Committee on Decorations.
The president settled this matter by--formally opening the session. First in the order of business was the appointment of a Committee to Recheck Credentials.
The Committee retired immediately, its report to be ready the following morning.
After a short, tactful address by the president, Censor Przybyszewski took 11the floor. He spoke with sorrow of the quarrels and scandals which had occurred within the Alliance during the past two years. He talked at length about the well-known case of T. Stan, and the rough treatment this gentleman had received at the hands of the secretary-general. The censor said that he was convinced that the accusations made by Stan were justifiable and that the Alliance's accounts were handled incapably. He said that it was because of the tactlessness of the editor of Zgoda, that a violent newspaper controversy had ensued. Everyone who disagreed with Zgoda was referred to by that paper as a rogue and a traitor. The speaker touched upon the Morgenstern scandal and said that there was little hope of the Alliance's winning its case against his guarantors. Some agreement might have been reached with Morgenstern's guarantors had it not been for Satalecki's obstinacy. He spoke of such legal shortcomings as the lack of bond for officers and the lack of a proper charter, even though he himself, as censor, had recommended the procurement of a charter. He concluded his address with various recommendations to the constitution.12
Following him, Vice-censor Helinski, President F. A. Satalecki, and Vice-president Slominski spoke. Secretary-General Mallek's reading of a written report was followed by a speech by Majewski, the treasurer. Satalecki, in his speech, advised that all scandalous matters be laid aside. Slominski's words were directed mostly against T. Stan. Mallek and Majewski spoke with equal sharpness though comparatively calmly; the former spoke of singing and music, to which he devotes his time, while Majewski attacked the censor and the newspapers Echo and Polonia, of Cleveland. Mallek spoke also of the national fund, and Delegate Pulkowski took up the museum and library question.
Following these speeches, an Auditing Committee was appointed. This Committee consisted of L. Wild, Dowiatt, Poszwinski, Kupfer Schmidt, and Jakinski. The committee to audit Zgoda's accounts consisted of Olszewski, of Detroit, Twarowski, of Nanticoke, and Dewoyno, of Cleveland. Delegates Schreiber, Heurteux, and Czerwinski comprised a committee to attend to Convention correspondence. The meeting was then adjourned until nine o'clock the following morning. Dr. Dunikowski will speak at the next session, and doubtless, other committees will be appointed.13
Among the letters read at yesterday's session was one that stated that "all religious fanatics should be hanged!" The assembly protested against the reading of such letters.
Third Day's Morning Session
The third day's morning session was called to order by President Lewandowski. Censor Przybyszewski submitted a written report to be included in the minutes. The long discussion which ensued over the acceptance of this report was finally terminated after adoption of a proposal by W. Bardonski that written reports of officers should be accepted.
The report of the Committee to Recheck Credentials followed. The Committee reached the following decisions: (1) The credentials of delegate T. Stan are in order despite his expulsion from the Alliance by the secretary-general. The secretary-general's act is unconstitutional in that it violates Article I, 14paragraph one, of the constitution, providing for self-rule of individual groups. Delegate Stan's group still regards him a member. (2) The objections to the credentials of Delegates Blaszka and Mitacki are unfounded. (3) J. Pulkowski cannot be a delegate since he has not been a member of the Alliance for the past two months, having left one group without signing up with another.
W. Bardonski made a motion that the report be accepted as it stands. A long and bitter debate ensued over the Stan case. Delegates Terczewski and Lisztewnik spoke against the acceptance of Stan as a delegate, while Delegates Magdziarz, Smietanka, Roland, and Czarnecki defended him. Delegate Poszwinski argued that the secretary-general had no right to expel members from the Alliance. Such a right would give him despotic power. Lipinski, chairman of the Committee [to Recheck Credentials] declared that since Stan was a member in good standing with his own group, he therefore had the right to sit as a delegate; that if there were any accusations against him, impeachment proceedings should be instituted. At this point, the discussion became so stormy 15that President Lewandowski had to rap for order and request that the delegates refrain from shouting.
As we leave the hall (11:30 A. M.), the discussion continues. Final results in this case will be reported in tomorrow's issue.
Dziennik Chicagoski, Sept. 7, 1893.
Third Day's Afternoon Session
Delegate Lipinski, chairman of the Committee to Recheck Credentials took the floor three times during the discussion of the Stan case. He said that he had no idea of what had passed between Stan and the secretary-general, but that he was convinced that Stan's credentials were valid and that he ought to be permitted a seat in the Convention. He advised impeachment proceedings to 16clear up the matter.
Delegate Lisztewnik insisted that Stan had created so much dissension within the Alliance that he did not deserve a seat. (Cries of "Throw him out!") Pandemonium reigned in the hall; the crowds in the galleries stamped their feet and hissed. After order was again restored, the president administered a sharp rebuke to the offending delegates.
It was finally decided that, with the exception of Pulkowski's, all credentials be accepted, that is, to accept Stan also as a delegate, but to suspend him immediately until he clears himself of the charges made against him (the secretary-general has not as yet made any formal accusations before the Convention).
Since the hour was already late, the Convention was adjourned until three o'clock 17in the afternoon.
Dr. Dunikowski's Speech
After carrying a motion that the hall be cleared of all who were not delegates, the assembly proceeded to name a committee to report the Convention's proceedings to the American press. Mr. J. F. Smulski, Casimir Zychlinski, and Thaddeus Wild were named to this committee.
The Committee on Petitions and Correspondence reported. The chairman turned over the petitions and letters to the secretary, asking him to read them. In one letter, Group 188 of Chicago protested the questioning of the credentials of one of their delegates, Blaszka. Since the matter had already been attended to, the protest was tabled. A petition from Group 160 of Philadelphia made a motion that the one-cent assessment be abolished. The petition suggested also that Zgoda, the Alliance's official organ, devote less of its columns to 18polemics and more to enlightenment. The petition was referred to the Constitutional Committee (not yet appointed).
A plea for financial aid and moral support from the Polish Day Financial Committee was read. A long discussion began concerning the amount of money the Convention ought to appropriate for the Polish Day cause. Dr. Statkiewicz, of La Salle, made a motion that three hundred dollars be assigned for this purpose. C. Zychlinski, of Chicago, argued for five hundred dollars. On the other hand, S. Lauferski, also of Chicago, insisted that no more than a hundred dollars be appropriated. Delegate Smietanka spoke of the importance of Polish Day and asked that the Alliance be generous.
At the request of the chairman, further discussion of this question was postponed.
A letter from the Central Committee in charge of Polish-American participation 19in the Kosciusko Exposition at Lwow [Poland] was read. Secretary Kosak's reading of the letter was so inarticulate that--the chairman took it from him and read it himself. Numerous voices demanded that this correspondence be rejected.
Without attending to the Lwow Exposition question, the Convention returned to the Polish Day question on a motion by W. Bardonski. Delegate Satalecki spoke in favor of supporting the project, saying that it concerned not only Chicago Poles, but Poles throughout America. Delegate Kosak reminded the gathering that even the Negroes had had their "Day," and that it would be a disgrace if the Poles remained in the background. Dr. Statkiewicz withdrew his motion. Delegate Chrzanowski proposed that one-hundred-fifty dollars be given to the Polish Day Financial Committee, and that two-hundred-fifty dollars be used to represent the Alliance in the celebration. The motion was seconded. On a motion by L. Szopinski, debate on the subject was closed and Chrzanowski's proposition was put to a vote. The proposition was carried. Thus, a total of four hundred dollars was appropriated for the Polish Day celebration.20
Participation in the Lwow Exposition was next in the order of business. Some delegates, among whom was the chairman himself, were dissatisfied with the [Central] Committee. Some asked for a plan of the Exposition; others advised that the matter be attended to by the Central Administration [of the Alliance]. On Delegate Bardonski's suggestion, Dr. Dunikowski took the floor. He was introduced by the chairman amidst thunderous applause. In his lengthy address, Dr. Dunikowski touched upon many important matters. He wished the Convention success and expressed his pleasure at being able to attend it. He spoke of improving relationships between Poland and American Polonia.... It was for this purpose that he had been sent to America by a group of patriots, behind whom stood all the people of Poland. He spoke next of the Alliance's constitution, terming it worthwhile and idealistic, but he suggested that the Alliance adhere more closely to its principles. It had pained him to hear words against our churches expressed by the highest officer [of the Convention]. "What will happen to our people", he said, "if we deprive them of the church? And our youth?" The speaker said that he knew a certain Pole who enjoyed enormous 21popularity. His wife was Polish; yet his children spoke not a word of the Polish language. The speaker also said that he knew certain Poles, members of the Alliance, who should better forget their Polish origin. "Such members ought to withdraw from the Alliance", he said, "for they disgrace its name." (Thunderous applause.)
Touching upon the labor problem, he advised that we should organize legally and that we should avoid internationalist radicals.....(Great applause.) He had been grieved on reading the demand for government supervision of our schools in the last issue of Zgoda. "We do not need the government in this case"; he said, "we ourselves can best take care of our schools; We ourselves can best improve them." (Applause.) Dr. Dunikowski concluded his beautiful address with a description of the Lwow Exposition [of 1894.]
Delegate Rudzinski spoke eloquently in favor of the Lwow Exposition, saying that it was a Polish exposition and all Poles should participate. Gryglaszewski, 22Satalecki, and Poszwinski also spoke on this question. Delegate Machek, a member of Zana Society [Chicago], severely criticized Dr. Dunikowski. A violent commotion arose in the hall and in the galleries, during which a large number of delegates left the hall. The speaker's discourse was interrupted while the chairman rapped for order. The chair allowed Machek to continue.
The speaker said that Dr. Dunikowski wore his cloak on both shoulders, that he consorted with Poles from the other camp. (General laughter.) He concluded by saying that the former delegate of the Polish magnates had promised much, but had accomplished little.
Another delegate asked if Dr. Dunikowski had produced his credentials as a delegate. Gryglaszewski and Satalecki answered that Dr. Dunikowski's credentials were perfectly in order; as a matter of fact, his name alone gave him the right to speak at the Convention. The chairman then gave the floor to Dr. Dunikowski who, in a few words, answered all the charges that had been made 23against him. He said that he did not come to this country especially to visit the Polish National Alliance but to visit the Poles in general, that the work he was engaged in could not be done in one day, and that the future would show whether he would accomplish anything. (Thunderous applause.) The president of the Convention proposed that the delegates do honor to Dr. Dunikowski by rising. With the exception of five dissenters, everyone arose.
Several delegates then spoke on the importance of Polish-American participation in the Lwow Exposition. Delegate Poszwinski [Chicago] donated twenty-five dollars to the cause. Following this, on a motion by Delegate Terczewski [Chicago], a resolution appropriating five hundred dollars toward the cost of erecting a Polish-American pavilion at the Lwow Exposition, was passed.
Further correspondence included an invitation to a play to be given by the Alexander Fredro Dramatic Society on September 10. Delegates will be admitted 24free. The invitation was accepted.
Delegate Stefanowicz made a motion that the constitution be read to the Convention, so that necessary amendments might be made. The motion was carried and the session adjourned.
Fourth Day's Morning Session
The fourth day's morning session was opened by President Lewandowski. Following the reading and acceptance of the minutes, letters and telegrams were read. One letter proposed the candidacy of A. Brzostowski, Warsaw author, for editor of Zgoda.
Following the reading of correspondence, the chairman announced the results of collections taken up for the benefit of the Polish-American exhibit at the Lwow 25Kosciusko Exposition of 1894. The total sum collected was $65.65.
The president then named a committee to examine the charges against Group 212 ( White Eagle Society of Detroit, part of the congregation of the apostate Kolasinski). This committee consisted of M. Welzant, of Baltimore, W. Mroz and F. Lella, of Minneapolis, and J. F. Smulski and A. Zdzieblowski, of Chicago.
Revision of the constitution was next in the order of business. The constitution was read to the assembly by J. J. Chrzanowski. Paragraphs one, two, and three of Article I were passed without change. Paragraph four provides for the office of censor. A number of delegates demanded that this office be abolished. Among these were L. Szopinski, Roland, Sowadzki, Bardonski, and Zychlinski. Others, as delegate Kosak, objected to the title of censor, asking that it should be replaced by some other title more in keeping with the spirit of the Poles. Delegate Terczewski spoke for retention of the office, but asked that the duties connected with it be more strictly defined. Delegates 26Grabarkiewicz, Lipinski, and others spoke for unconditional retention of the office. Turmoil reigned again until the chairman restored order. The question was put to a vote by a roll call. About eighty delegates voted for retention of the office of censor; a little over forty voted for its abolition. Thus, the office will remain.
Delegate Chranowski read paragraph five of Article I, dealing with the charter. Delegate Terczewski demanded that the Central Administration explain the matter of the charter, for many delegates maintained that the Polish National Alliance did not have a proper charter. Delegate Lipinski asked that this document be read to the assembly. Delegate Czarnecki demanded an explanation of the matter by the Central Administration and the censor. The censor explained that he had taken out a charter for the Alliance in the State of Michigan. President Satalecki's explanation of the Central Administration's position in the matter was quite interesting.
The president revealed that although the Alliance existed and operated under 27the name of "Polish National Alliance", its charter, taken out many years ago, was granted to it under its original name of "Polish Benevolent Association". "It is this irregularity", said the president, "that has complicated the case against Morgenstern's guarantors, which case, as a result, will probably be lost." At any rate, such is Satalecki's opinion. The matter was muddled further when, on May 6, 1892, a commission engaged in framing a new constitution took out a charter for the "Polish National Alliance." The members of this commission were F. Bieszke, T. Wild, J. Slowikowski, S. Terczewski, M. Drzemala, A. Blaszczynski, J. Blociszewski, Pikulski, and Dowiatt. When we left the hall (11:15 A. M.), a stormy discussion was in progress. Details will appear in tommorow's issue.
Dziennik Chicagoski, Sept. 8, 1893.
Continuing the discussion of the charter question, T. Wild, acting as spokes-man for the [1892 constitutional] commission, explained why it had taken out 28the charter. In a solemn voice, he asserted that certain enemies of the Alliance, members of a [Polish Roman Catholic] Union society, had intentions of stealing the Alliance's valuable name by incorporating their society as the "Polish National Alliance". Delegate Wild forgot to mention the name of this insidious society. Delegate Beczkiewicz asked why the commission had not informed the Central Administration of the danger that threatened; why it had not sought the Central Administration's advice. The reply was evasive.
The chairman read a telegram from Mr. McDowell, president of the Liberty Bell committee, placing the bell at the Alliance's disposal during the Polish Day celebration. Delegate Szopinski made a motion that the president appoint a committee of three to thank Mr. McDowell personally. It was finally decided to send him a telegram of thanks.
Delegate Szopinski then moved that the new administration be instructed to 29attend to the charter immediately. He further asked the Central Administration if taking out a new charter would in any way affect the case against Morgenstern's guarantors. Chairman Gryglaszewski, so well informed on all subjects, answered for the Administration. He said that a new charter could not be taken out until the Morgenstern case was settled, that the old  charter would have to be cancelled. With this, debate on the charter question was closed. Article I of the constitution was thus accepted without change.
An enlivened discussion arose over Article II. Delegate Chrzanowski read a beautifully written article on the aims and purposes of the Alliance and moved that it be incorporated in the constitution. The motion was not carried. Delegate Bobrowski moved that the words "establishing necessary institutions" be changed to "supporting....." Delegate Szopinski suggested "establishing and supporting....." Delegate Kuflewski moved that "institutions" be qualified by the word "Polish". Delegate Helinski moved that establishment of libraries and promotion of lectures be included among the aims and purposes 30of the Alliance. All of the amendments to the original motion were accepted.
Then followed a motion by Delegate Rydlewicz that a provision be adopted requiring all Alliance members to send their children to Polish schools. (Great commotion; cries of, "Unnecessary! Religious fanatics!") When order was finally restored, Delegate Rydlewicz regained the floor and shouted: "You have given proof of your patriotism, gentlemen!"
Vice-president Slominski informed the assembly that an Alliance school had already been established in Holy Trinity parish, and that this school would produce capable citizens. "The pastor of this parish [Reverend C. Sztuczko], who is in sympathy with the Alliance, will help establish Alliance schools in other communities," he said, adding that the Alliance hopes to build a high school next year. With whose money? No one knows.
Upon further reading of the constitution, a number of voices protested against 31the article on drunkenness. The majority, however, voted to retain it. With this, the session was adjourned until two o'clock in the afternoon.
Fourth Day's Afternoon and Evening Sessions
At the opening of the afternoon session, the president of the Convention announced that from this session on the names of all absent delegates would be published in Zgoda, so that the groups might know how their delegates attended to business. The roll was called and a record made of the absentees.
An evening session, which adjourned at 10 P. M., was also held.32
Fifth Day's Morning, Afternoon, and Evening Sessions
After the roll call, reading of the constitution continued. During the course of the morning session, the secretary-general's salary was raised to twelve hundred dollars a year, and the treasurer's to two hundred dollars a year.
At the afternoon session, it was decided that death benefit payments be as follows: for the death of a member, six hundred dollars; for the death of the wife of a member, three hundred dollars. The one-cent assessment was abolished. A motion for the purchase of a printing press was carried. The evening session appropriated four thousand dollars for the complete outfitting of a printing shop. The Central Administration was instructed to make use of these funds within the course of one year. It was also decided that Zgoda [official organ of the Polish National Alliance] be prohibited from devoting more than one column of each issue to announcements of meetings. A motion was passed barring scandalous articles, and another motion, instructing the editors of Zgoda to print news of Congressional activities, was also passed.33
Three hundred dollars was appropriated for the Alliance school in Holy Trinity parish [Chicago].
Sixth and Last Day's Sessions
The Auditing Committee presented a report to the effect that the accounts of the Alliance had been very incapably handled and that receipts for many expenditures were missing. The morning session was consumed in the debates that followed.
Dziennik Chicagoski, Sept. 11, 1893.
In a vote by ballot, Cleveland, Ohio, was decided upon as the location of the next Convention. The afternoon session occupied itself principally with the election of officers. The administration, in accordance with a motion previously passed, will consist of the censor, vice-censor, and the board of directors (Central Administration), which will include the president, two vice-presidents, the treasurer, and an auditing commission of three. The secretary-general will 34no longer be a member of the Central Administration. His duties will be limited to bookkeeping, and he may not have more than one hundred dollars in cash on hand at any time. He may not pay out any money without the consent of the auditing commission. Helinski, of Duluth, was elected censor; Lewandowski, of Cleveland, vice-censor; Satalecki, of Detroit, president; S. Slominski and W. Bardonski, of Chicago, vice-presidents; M. Majewski, treasurer; K. Mallek, of Milwaukee, secretary; and J. F. Smulski, K. Smietanka, and A. Groenwald, all of Chicago, members of the auditing commission. F. Jablonski, of Chicago, was elected editor of Zgoda by a large majority of votes.
At the evening session, J. J. Chrzanowski was elected treasurer of Zgoda at a salary of three hundred dollars a year. S. Nicki was elected librarian, and one thousand dollars was appropriated for the upkeep of the library (including librarian's salary) during the next two years.
The Central Administration was instructed to take care of any remaining business.35
After a short speech by the newly elected censor, the Convention adjourned. The time was already midnight.
The [Tenth] Convention of the Polish National Alliance opened on Monday [September 4]. At nine o'clock in the morning, all delegates reported to the central headquarters for their badges. Later, ...
III B 4, IV, I E, I C, III C, III H, III A, I B 1, II D 1, III B 2, I A 2 c, I A 2 a, II B 2 a, II B 1 a, II B 2 d 1, I D 2 a 2, II B 1 c 3
Secondary listingsPolish // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Social Organization (I E) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Own and Other National or Language Groups (I C) ?
Polish // Assimilation > National Churches and Sects (III C) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Relations with Homeland (III H) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Segregation (III A) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Mores > Temperance (I B 1) ?
Polish // Contributions and Activities > Benevolent and Protective Institutions > Benevolent Societies (II D 1) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Nationalistic Societies and Influences > Activities of Nationalistic Societies (III B 2) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Contributions (I A 2 c) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Elementary, Higher (High School and College) (I A 2 a) ?
Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Intellectual > Libraries (II B 2 a) ?
Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Aesthetic > Music (II B 1 a) ?
Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Intellectual > Publications > Newspapers (II B 2 d 1) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Economic Organization > Unions > Craft (I D 2 a 2) ?
Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Aesthetic > Theatrical > Festivals, Pageants, Fairs and Expositions (II B 1 c 3) ?
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