The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 21, 1872
    The Evangelical Community in Chicago. By Rev. M. Stamm.

    Late in the summer of 1836, a considerable number of German families, mostly Alsatians, moved from the town of Warren, Pa., to the state of Illinois, and settled in four different groups, partly in the city of Chicago, at Dutchmans Point, and at Wheeling, Cook County; also at Naperville, and at Sharon on the Rock River. As they were in these vast prairies without any pastoral care, they addressed together several petitions to the Western Conference of the Evangelical Community, whose activities at this time extended to Ohio, to send them a preacher. In the first days of July, 1837, a member of the Conference, Rev. F. Boos, undertook the long and hazardous journey on horseback, arriving in Chicago, after endless hardships, on July 23rd. He was the first Protestant minister to proclaim God's word in the German language to the Germans of Chicago, 2Dutchmans Point, Wheeling, and Naperville. In these places he organized the first German Protestant communities in the Northwest, and made them elect so-called class leaders who would preside over their meetings till they could get their own ministers. This done, Rev. Boos immediately returned to his district in Ohio, which had an extent of 300 to 400 miles.

    For eight months these communities were without a preacher. Then the Western Conference took up activities in Illinois and sent Rev. M. Hauert. Mr. Hauert reached Chicago on September 3rd, 1838, and travelled, as the second German Protestant minister, to most of the German settlements in Illinois. His salary for a whole year then amounted to only $74.32. At the Conference he could report a total of 78 members in Illinois.

    3

    The first German Protestant church in all the Northwest states was built by the community in Wheeling of squared logs. Wheeling became the center of all church activities of this Protestant community. From 1840 on, every Sunday a German sermon was given in Chicago. In this year the Rev. J. Hoffert and Rev. D. Kern preached; in 1841 Rev. H. Stroh, and again D. Kern; in 1842 the Rev. Dr. Wahl and Rev. A. Plank. Wahl who, a few years later, left the church on account of his insufficient salary, became the first permanent German minister in Chicago. His community was given two excellent lots by the "Canal Camp ", corner of Wabash and Monroe, on which they built the first German-Protestant church in Chicago. Rev. G. Augenstein succeeded as minister in 1844.

    In 1854 the community sold its property for $6,000 and split into two parts, each receiving $3,000. One part built with this a church, first on S. Clark Street, sold it, and built in 1856 on the corner of Third Ave. and Polk Street, for $8,000, one of the best German churches of brick, which it still owns.

    4

    The Illinois Staats Zeitung gave a detailed account of its dedication. This community was again divided in 1864, on the initiative of the Illinois Conference, and on a far part of it, Rev. J. G. Escher built a pleasant mission chapel, on the corner of 12th and Union streets.

    The other half of the old Wabash Avenue community built a church, corner of N. Wells street and Chicago Avenue. Internal difficulties led to a division in 1869. One part built one of our best city churches under the leadership of Rev. J. Schafle on Second and Noble streets. The main part of the Wells Street community built in 1869 our biggest and finest church at Sedgwick and Wisconsin streets, under the active guidance of Rev. J. Miller. The third and smallest part of the old Wells Street community built a magnificent hall on N. Wells Street community built a magnificent hall on N. Wells Street with three beautiful shops; separated completely from the Evangelical community, and elected the Rev. J. P. Kramer 5its temporary minister. In the great fire this hall and the church on Wisconsin Street were destroyed. The Wisconsin Street community will rebuild early in the summer. The independent community has already built during the winter, under the supervision of the Rev. Augenstein. At the dedication they declared themselves willing to return to the Evangelical community..........

    To sum up: The Evangelical community now has five communities with 550 members, five churches and four parsonages, and 3,000 volumes in its libraries. Out of the five small communities of 1836 have grown in 36 years, six conferences with about 725 permanent ministers, 30,000 church members, 400 Sunday schools, and a flourishing college at Naperville. This church also possesses the oldest and largest German church paper in the U. S., with 20,000 subscribers distributed over most of the Western States. A similar spiritual propagation no church or organization in the whole United States can boast.

    Late in the summer of 1836, a considerable number of German families, mostly Alsatians, moved from the town of Warren, Pa., to the state of Illinois, and settled in four ...

    German
    III C, II F, III H, III G, III A, V A 1, I A 2 b, II B 2 d 1, III F
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- November 18, 1876
    Pastor Joseph Hartmann's Jubilee

    Today, November 18th, Rev. Joseph Hartmann has been pastor of the First German Evangelical Parish of Chicago - St. Paul's Church - for 25 years. Rev. Hartmann was born Sept. 18, 1824, at Bornheim in Bavaria. He received his education in the Gymnasium of Speyer and that of Zweibrucken. He also attended the universities of Bonn and Uztreeht, where he studied philosophy and theology.

    In 1849 he came to America and in the same year he passed his examination before the German Evangelical Synod of North America in Cleveland, Ohio. His first parish was at West Turin in Lewis County, in the state of New York. From there he came to Chicago. His activities here were most successful. Besides his increasingly flourishing parish, he started 2several new German Evangelical parishes. He is also the creator of many Anglo-German parochial schools and thus deserves fullest recognition for the preservation of the German language and German customs in Chicago and in the Northwest.

    His activities as synodal president and as preacher were equally successful. He is also the founder of our German orphanage. After the fire of 1871, it was his driving power which was mainly responsible for the rebuilding of his church and school and of the orphanage.

    Pastor Hartmann has, here in Chicago, baptized 11,562 children, confirmed 2,810 children, married 4,677 couples and given the Last Supper to 37,500 people.

    3

    During the Civil War he strongly advocated the Union and fought with great ability in the "Hausfreund" published by him in the interests of the preservation of the Union and the Abolition of Slavery.

    On account of what he has done for the Germans and the Republic, Rev. Hartmann has become highly respected and beloved. The church celebration in his honor will take place Sunday in the midst of his parish. But all the Germans from Chicago wish to extend to this highly deserving man their most sincere congratulations!

    Today, November 18th, Rev. Joseph Hartmann has been pastor of the First German Evangelical Parish of Chicago - St. Paul's Church - for 25 years. Rev. Hartmann was born Sept. ...

    German
    IV, III A, II A 1, III C, II D 4, I A 2 b
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 20, 1879
    The Poles in Chicago

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about twenty-five thousand. The first Polish pioneers arrived in Chicago as early as 1852; they lived in various sections of the city, virtually strangers, since there was no specific Polish settlement in the city at that time. As most of them were of the Roman Catholic faith, they became affiliated with the German Catholic churches, although a desire prevailed to build a Polish church. In 1869 a club was finally organized to raise funds. Within a short span of time several thousand dollars had been gathered and the erection of a church commenced in earnest. The site was at Noble and Bradley Streets. When the fact became known, hundreds of Polish families from all parts of America and particularly from the Kaschubei in Germany flocked to Chicago. The Kaschubes are of Polish origin. Their language shows much borrowing from the German. These people live in the vicinity of Danzig, Berend, and Neustadt in Upper 2Silesia, Prussia, and represent a low cultural level, due to the Prussian school edict whereby all Polish children must study the various school subjects in German, a language which is strange to them. The Kaschubes are fervent Catholics, frugal and economical. Many of them have ten thousand to thirty thousand dollars.

    The first wooden church, later converted into an elementary school, was dedicated in 1869; Reverend Jaskowski was the first Polish priest.

    It is generally conceded that most of the foreign people founding a new home on these shores lose all sense of discretion in so far as the word liberty is concerned, due to a rapid change from monarchical to democratic surroundings involving the abolition of class consciousness. Therefore, the new arrivals practiced no self-restraint; self-interest ran rampant, and this fault also manifested itself occasionally among the Poles. A Polish priest sits on a volcano, as it were; every member of the parish intends to rule, and gives 3advice to the priest on how to conduct himself within and beyond the confines of the church. Anonymous letters are a daily occurrence; the Lord have mercy on [a minister] who transgresses and lacks energy--that man is lost. Many of the sixty-five Polish communities of this land could give their own interesting versions of certain peculiar incidents, but in so far as these internal affairs are concerned, I shall enshroud them in secrecy.

    The people had conscientious scruples, because they could not order masses to be read for their deceased relatives. Money for masses poured into the church coffers in copious quantities and the impecunious priest became affluent. [Translator's note: This is a literal translation. Possibly the apparent meaninglessness is due to the omission of something from the Staats-Zeitung.] But this egotistical ambition [of the minister] to amass wealth had its repercussions and created enemies. Besides, he had the misfortune of being encumbered with a charming and beautiful "cousin," who today would be called ciotka (aunt).

    4

    Dissatisfaction [in the parish] became rampant; finally a horde armed with cudgels visited the unsuspecting priest and returned with broken weapons. The maltreated disseminator of the gospel fled at that very hour, and a Polish settlement in Minnesota provided a sanctuary.

    His successor was the Reverend Bakanowski, an erudite gentlemen well versed in Polish, German, French, Italian, Latin and English. Besides being endowed with a sympathetic sonorous voice, he was endowed with exceptional talents in rhetoric, and his general conduct inspired friendship. To all these mental attributes must be added, unfortunately, bodily perfection. Like Alcibiades, he was the most beautiful specimen of his race. Attendance at his sermons was large; all nationalities congregated at his distant church on Sundays, to listen and admire the "Beautiful Polish priest". Naturally, the fair sex was most numerous. Invitations galore were sent to him, requesting his presence here and there for the purpose of holding religious meetings and consoling beauteous ladies in their parlors. Would it be reasonable to 5condemn the pious man for yielding to his desire to save souls and accepting such offers? Of course not. Among the mass of Polish penitents was a charming, intelligent, lovely lady, wife of a local physician. Above all, it became increasingly important to save her soul. And while religious solace was given here, the sick, and children in need of baptism, waited vainly at home. The doctor's residence was in another part of the city. The oft occurring absence of the priest aroused antagonism. The burden of his duties in the parish induced the priest to obtain an assistant. This brings to the scene the Reverend Wolowski, a suspicious, conniving man, who had lost one arm during the Polish Insurrection against Russia in 1863, according to his version. Scandalmongers assert, however, that Wolowski, caretaker of the war chest of his regimental division, made a trip to somewhat remote regions, supposedly to protect the precious property from Russian marauders; but the Polish patriots protested against the pretext, and as punishment cut off the pernicious arm. With the officiating of this gentleman the halcyon days of Aranjuez came to a sinister end. Envious of his colleague's success, the 6assistant sent a voluminous denunciation directly to Rome.

    Reverend Bakanowski was called to the Holy City to defend himself and did not return. Like Niobe, the not fully converted beauties pined away from secret sorrow, remembering only the past exhilarating moments while hiding from human scrutiny the grief that engulfed them. But vengeance was in the offing for the insolent schemer who so rudely curtailed clandestine bliss. His attempt to found a Polish school--a measure calculated to bolster his waning popularity--proved unavailing. He was doomed, in so far as Chicago was concerned.

    The following priest, Reverend Zwiardowski, shortly after taking the reins of the parish, dismissed the sinister chap. The school was not to be abandoned, however.

    As dissension arose at the time among the then functioning teachers and the 7priest, and as there existed an absolute dearth of other suitable pedagogues, Reverend Zwiardowski decided to let nuns manage the school. The sisters were mostly Germans and expressed German nationalism in no uncertain terms; it brought a remonstrance. The dissenters found a leader in Mr. Dynsewics, editor of the liberal Polish paper, Gazetta Polska, a publication in existence for the last ten years. Their slogan or, may we say, "the war whoop," was the terse sentence: "In Germany Bismarck Germanizes us, and here a Polish priest!"

    The people were so incensed, that the priest, whose health was none too good, considered it advisable to leave his field of activity. The vacancy thus created provided a berth soon after, in 1874, for the Reverend Vincent Barzynski, who still functions in his ecclesiastical capacity. Few leaders faced greater difficulties. There were more than fifteen thousand people of Polish extraction in Chicago at that time, representing every part of the former great nation (in the period of a bygone century--1667 to 1772--this 8former kingdom represented an area of 21,334 geographical square miles), and everyone was imbued with the ruling complex, insistent on telling the minister what to do.

    Father Vincent was thirty years old at that time; he came from a highly respected family living in the Russian part of Poland. He attended the best schools in his native land and continued his studies in Rome. He is very eloquent--capable of exacting admiration from his adversaries through his powers of persuasion. He is intelligent, pious, but not a hypocrite, and has an excellent reputation. He is fully aware of the traits of his countrymen and his plans take cognizance of them. In many respects his conduct reminds one of Octavius Augustus: If various efforts meet with indifferent success, then he threatens to leave the parish, whereupon every request is promptly granted, and upon urgent entreaties from the congregation he condescends to stay for a while. Various business matters incident to such a large congregation he has placed in the hands of several committees; but, 9basically, he is the sole leader. "Roma Locuta Est, Causa Finita Est," he tells an occasional opponent who cannot be reconciled to the priestly views. He is on a par with Gregory VII, a man of tremendous will power who would rather perish than relinquish a plan designed to elevate the community spiritually and materially. But, Facta Loquuntur.

    Under his capable leadership the Polish school attained increased attendance; six hundred children are at present enrolled and given instruction in their native language by Polish nuns. Music, which in former years induced Polish youths to leave the path of rectitude and seek dance halls, taverns, and other libertine diversions, is now mute.

    Since the small church proved inadequate for the large congregation, an additional house of worship was built: The Church of the Holy Trinity, near Milwaukee Avenue. The Poles, living in the immediate vicinity, virtually surrounded the structure with stores, mostly saloons, and this contingent 10later asked the bishop that their connection with the old church be severed and a priest of their own choice be installed. The antipathy of certain Poles toward Father Vincent is attributable to the fact that he hails from Russian Poland and belongs to the Order of the Resurrectionists. Almost the entire Polish Liberal Party, here and abroad, maintain that the priests of this Fraternity show insufficient patriotism, and that their interests are only centered on Catholicism. While this assumption may be partly justified, it is entirely inappropriate in so far as Father Barzynski is concerned. His sermons express fervent patriotism, and the well-edited, ultramontane Polish paper, Gazetta Polska Katolicka, which is published under his direction, always defends Polish interests. Moreover, the numerous changes he inaugurated and, above all, the founding of a Polish high school, give conclusive evidence of the priest's patriotic sentiments.

    Bishop Farley did not accede to the wishes of the Poles desiring an independent church, as Father Vincent and his assistants proved sufficient.

    11

    Increasing dissatisfaction became apparent, resulting in an eventual rift and at long last two parties, steeped in bitter animosity. Church meetings developed into a replica of the Polish Congress, and a threat was made to apostatize. Time and time again Father Vincent advocated reconciliation but to no avail; he was even insulted and, on one occasion, arrested at the behest of some depraved creature.

    When all efforts in behalf of peace proved fruitless, the Reverend Father carried the "sanctissimum" to the mother church and left his church to the dissatisfied element. Thus the house of worship remained forsaken for almost a year, when a Polish priest, Mielcuszny, appeared. Many Polish people knew him when he lived in the Grand Duchy of Posen, (Germany). He had been active in New York, but was compelled to resign. Cardinal Closkey objected to the priest's wordly activities, because the latter fitted out a saloon, combined with a dance hall, in the basement of the church; this proved a lively place after church services. Mielcuszny, an accomplished dancer, 12usually opened the festivities.

    This priest proved most welcome to the recreants and, contrary to the bishop's wishes, was installed. Intense enmity now involved the two factions, but this is not the place to adjudge theological principles. Suffice it to say, therefore, that according to church canons the installation of priests is one of the ecclesiastical duties delegated to bishops, and this community, in the strict sense of the creed, is not Catholical. After the disgruntled element had affiliated itself with the long-closed church, now given a new lease on life under the leadership of the Polish priest from New York, the parochial domain of Reverend Barzynski again enjoyed the blessings of peace. As the available space provided by the church proved inadequate, a new church was built. Thus far eighty thousand dollars have been spent on construction, and an additional thirty thousand dollars will be required to complete the edifice.

    The not overly large mortgage is being paid by voluntary contributions and 13pew rentals, which amounts to approximately eight thousand dollars per year.

    The paintings for the church have been entrusted to a talented Polish artist, Zabinski, who came directly from Rome (Italy). His studio is at the parish house. A visit will prove very interesting. Several splendid sketches and the full-size, partly completed painting, "The Death of Stanislaus Kostka," give eloquent proof that a genius conceived them.

    For some time Father Vincent considered founding a Polish high school, and to realize that goal he spent large sums of money; however, serious difficulties were encountered. Indifferent success did not deter him, however. Repeatedly he admonished his congregation, and spoke in stentorian tones about public indifference. Finally, the community decided to build a higher institution of learning, and to defray the cost. The school was opened this year, January 2, [1879], and two eminent instructors were secured.

    14

    Professor Stein, thirty years old, passed his examinations with flying colors at the gymnasium in Thorn, on the River Weichsel, and the seminary in Posen. To complete his studies he traveled throughout the greater part of Europe. [In the interim] he taught in Posen and Bromberg at public schools, and academies for young ladies. In America he taught successfully in New York and Detroit. Here, he will give instructions in the German and Polish languages, as well as mathematics.

    Professor Wenslow studied at the Jesuit College here; later he studied philosophy.

    The institution [the Polish high school] accepts students regardless of religion or nationality. At present forty-three students are enrolled; the evening school register shows seventy-two have matriculated. The future of the school is assured, as attendance increases daily.

    The community now entertains the highest regard for its spiritual leader; it 15feels convinced that no personal ambition or selfish interest motivated his action; he was concerned only in the true welfare of his countrymen. Since the storm subsided and outstanding success crowned the priest's efforts, it is expected that the majority of the estranged members will return to the mother church soon.

    This brief sketch does not pretend to give all the details which, after all, would be superfluous. I have merely stated facts, because Chicago has many Polish families, and a large number subscribe to this paper. Perhaps I may have an opportunity at some future time to give an account of the Polish community of the South Side, its church, the Polish press, clubs, and, possibly, some interesting details of prominent Polish people who live in our city.

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about ...

    Polish
    III C, IV, I C, III A, I A 2 b, I A 2 a, II B 2 d 1
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 27, 1879
    German in the Public Schools (Editorial)

    We received a letter from Mr. Keith, member of the school board, wherein the gentleman took exception to our remarks published in the Thursday, December 25, issue of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung. We accused Mr. Keith of having broken his word. He said that he had merely promised the editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung that he would not join in the attacks which were then being made against, the teaching of German in the public schools, and that he had fulfilled that pledge, but that he had never made a declaration that he would maintain that attitude throughout his tenure of office. He was not prejudiced against the Germans or their language, but it was his conviction that teaching the German language in the public schools was of no educational value. If people wished to reproach him for his act, then he would have to accept their censure, but he objected to anyone's saying 2that he disregarded his promises, because such a statement was not founded on fact.

    Well enough. We do not intend to be unfair and therefore we gave his views. Whether his explanations will convince others we leave to our readers. We wish to add, however, that according to Mr. Keith's opinion the reduction in the appropriation for salaries of special teachers is by no means an indication that German instruction will be dispensed with. The appropriation affects only the salaries of the "superintendents" of the special branches, German, music, and drawing, for whom no money will be available after July 1, 1880, but the status of the teachers remains unchanged.

    According to this explanation, only the salaries of the afore-mentioned three superintendents of the special branches would cease after July 1.

    3

    If a definite issue were to be made of the question whether German instruction should be continued or eliminated, the school board's decision would be entirely different from its vote on Stone's motion, three days ago. At least two members (possibly even Keith, as a third, but he did not definitely say this) who voted for Stone's motion would then vote for the retention of German in our schools.

    Let us hope so, and if it does happen, then we will be indebted to the energetic intervention of the German press.

    We also received a communication from another source, wherein the sender endeavored to show that the Germans themselves showed little concern about the teaching of their native language, and proof was offered by quoting statistics of the constantly diminishing attendance at German classes due to parental choice.

    4

    These figures are misleading, because the large number of children who study German at home, in parochial or private schools, or who are far advanced beyond their age group in the public schools and therefore do not study the language there, are not listed. One will readily perceive the importance of German instruction if he considers those children of Germans who have no opportunity to learn the language at home or at a private institution. One can admit, however, that the pedagogic value of maintaining the German language in the school curriculum is less important than the moral value as long as it is taught in the present unsatisfactory manner. Above all, our citizens of German origin will become staunch advocates of the public schools, whereas otherwise our schools might meet with considerable and justified criticism based on sensible teaching methods.

    Those Americans who at heart are opposed to German instruction are the very ones who should favor the teaching of German in the public schools, because 5thousands of children who now attend private or parochial schools would then go to our public schools. Many far-seeing Germans have recognized this fact and opposed strenously the teaching of German in public schools, because the children became Americanized thereby. What inconsequential German is taught in the public schools is entirely disproportionate to the English-American influence prevailing there; however, the majority of the German-speaking people in Chicago are not aware of this fact.

    Another factor which is of moral significance: German instruction steadily reduces the animosity which exists between German-American and English-American children. Those of our readers who have been here for twenty years or more have had experience along this line. A quarter of a century ago the middle and lower classes of our native population had the same attitude toward the Germans as Californians have toward the Chinese today. The Germans--and above all, their language--were ridiculed, and 6it was not unusual for American rowdies to tell Germans not to speak their native tongue in public or while riding on a train. Whenever Germans spoke their native language, Americans scoffed or grinned, so that many Germans, fearing mob violence, resorted to English jargon.

    After the German language was introduced into the schools of our larger cities, matters improved considerably. The new generation does not ridicule people anymore when they talk a foreign language, because it is taught in schools now and therefore commands respect. Fluency in another language is now regarded as an accomplishment, and most of the friction is now a thing of the past. And what applies to the children also applies in a large measure to the parents. The continuation of German instruction in our schools gives assurances of ever-growing mutual esteem between the English-Americans and German-Americans, and helps in fostering friendly relations.

    On the other hand, if we discontinue the teaching of German in the public 7schools we revert to former days, and old grudges will be renewed.

    If the American Republicans, the Irish, and the Kentucky Democrats [Translator's note: This refers to Mayor Harrison, a Democrat from Kentucky, and his followers--hence, Kentucky Democrats], wish to combine to bring about this undesirable condition, then they must expect to be treated as bitter enemies by the Germans.

    We received a letter from Mr. Keith, member of the school board, wherein the gentleman took exception to our remarks published in the Thursday, December 25, issue of the Illinois ...

    German
    I A 1 b, III A, I B 3 b, I A 2 b, II B 2 f
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- December 31, 1879
    German in the Public Schools (Letter to the editor)

    To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung:

    I would like to submit two phases about German instruction in our schools.

    1) The first point involves the recent statement made in your paper by Mr. Delany, a member of the school board. He declared in your paper, as well as in other publications, that he would never favor abolition of German language instruction and was opposed only to the employment of three special teachers, or so-called superintendents for German, singing, and drawing. I do not intend to argue particularly with Mr. Delany, as he only recently became affiliated with the school board and therefore has not been in a position to become fully conversant with all the details.

    I admit, it is not the duty of the superintendent of German instruction 2personally to teach the children. It is his duty, however, to supervise instruction and to guide the younger teachers, since we do not have a normal school anymore and our young personnel lacks experience. Furthermore, the superintendent must examine the pupils at least every two months; he prepares the material, adapting it to the various schools, and yet must arrange it in such a manner that pupils who are transferred to another district school can readily continue their studies; he must also appraise the relative value of instruction material, prepare the monthly and annual reports, and find suitable substitutes whenever a teacher is sick. He also examines the applicants who wish to become teachers and, after accepting them, supervises their activities and gives advice when the occasion arises.

    Briefly, he bears the same responsibility to his teaching staff as the principal of a school does to the English teachers, with one additional disadvantage: The superintendent of the special branches must visit every school regardless 3of inclement weather, whereas the principal of a school need not leave the building. To dismiss the superintendent would be equivalent to discharging the principal of every school and leaving matters to the discretion of the school teachers, most of whom are young. All who might favor the abolishment of the superintendents, should consider that this would be the entering wedge whereby German instruction would soon disintegrate. It is a fact, that every attack on German language instruction during the last years was preceded by attempts to abolish the superintendency. If that position is shelved, the rest will follow-quickly.

    2) We believe that it is timely to give official figures about German instruction. In the month of November, 1879 for instance, according to the report submitted to the school board by Superintendent Doty, we find that 35,454 pupils attended the four lower grades and 8,801 pupils were in the upper four grades. Total attendance was 44,255.

    German instruction is limited to four grades in eighteen of our schools. These eighteen schools have 5,737 pupils of the grammar classification. We 4append a list so that facts may be easily visualized:

    Name of School Number of Grammar Pupils Children Studying Grammar
    Franklin 552 272
    Kinzie 312 111
    North Clark Street 156 70
    Lincoln 287 93
    Newberry 198 119
    Ogden 398 133
    Calumet 157 125
    Cottage Grove 267 57
    Haven 267 64
    Moseley 485 147
    Brown 690 125
    Carpenter 189 40
    Dore 333 171
    King 277 106
    5
    Scannon 240 76
    Skinner 423 49
    Washington 273 26
    Wells 233 61
    5,737 1,845

    We have another restriction: A resolution of the school board provided that German shall not be taught in any grade unless at least twenty pupils apply. In most of the schools, particularly in the eighth grade, there are usually less than twenty pupils in all. As a result of that resolution passed by the school board another 921 pupils were deprived of an opportunity to learn German, so that only 4,816 pupils have a chance to study German--not 50,000, as our opponents declare! And of these 4,816, only 1,845 take German instruction!

    This is an accurate report! And now we ask if this is not a favorable indication (?) considering the difficulties confronting the teachers who labor while

    6

    a veritable sword of Damocles is suspended over their heads. It is really surprising that the Germans have not asked to have the language study included in every school. The parents of 150 children who attend the Pickard School (and this also applies to the Foster School), asked the school board to include German instruction but to no avail! As a result, the Pickard School has practically no attendance, while the neighboring parochial and private schools, which teach German, are crowded--and in these institutions there is no free tuition!

    In regard to the value of language instruction, your valued paper has treated the subject so thoroughly, and in such a masterly manner, that no more can be added. I was only concerned in disproving the aforesaid two assertions.

    Respectfully,

    Veritas

    To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung: I would like to submit two phases about German instruction in our schools. 1) The first point involves the recent statement made in ...

    German
    I A 1 b, I A 2 b
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- September 25, 1886
    Reopening

    The German Evangelical Church St. Paul, corner La Salle Avenue and Ohio Street, will resume its church services on Sunday, September 26, after six weeks spent in repairs, painting and interior decoration. All this work was done masterfully by a decorator, Emmel, and gave the church a new and refreshing appearance. A special divine service will be observed Monday evening, on which occasion the new teacher of the St. Paul's German-English congregational School, C. A. Weiss, will be introduced.

    Mr. Weiss already has been principal of the school two weeks and had proved his abilities as principal and teacher.

    The German Evangelical Church St. Paul, corner La Salle Avenue and Ohio Street, will resume its church services on Sunday, September 26, after six weeks spent in repairs, painting and ...

    German
    III C, I A 2 b
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 19, 1887
    The German Language Jeopardized.

    Even the most radical German unbeliever has to agree that the German language and its use in this country depends much on the support it receives from German churches. The unbelieving element of the German-American is in the minority; the majority is devoted to its churches. The steadily growing number of German Churches gives evidence enough of the religious belief of German people. The burden and responsibility of the upkeep of these places of worship rests on the shoulders of church members. The state has no obligations toward the church whatsoever. Millions of German-Americans will continue the use of the German language, as long as the churches to which they belong will not discard the mother tongue. Therefore it seems, that special effort should be made by these churches to preserve our German language through the example they can set. In regard to the German Protestant Churches, we should not feel concerned about the German language being extinguished in this country. The two largest German-American religious associations of the Protestants, namely, the United Evangelical Church and the Lutheran Evangelical Church, were far sighted enough to erect schools and seminaries, preparing even young men born in this country to become ministers fitted for the pulpit of German Churches. But according to the opinion 2of a German-Catholic theologist, the German-Catholic Church does not build seminaries, neither is it especially interested in the perpetuation of the German tongue in this country. This scholar's warning is: "We are approaching very quickly the time when we shall become aware of the fact, that German speaking Catholic priests are becoming more scarce as time goes on. The German Catholic Churches in America received their principal support from priests who were raised and educated in Germany. Due to better political conditions in their native land, many of these priests are leaving our shores to return to Germany. For instance, the Order of the Franciscan Fathers has now been permitted to return to its homeland, from which it had been banished some time ago. This Order has supplied the German Catholic Church in the United States with many priests and churchmen." It is to be hoped, that the German Catholics of America will not disregard the warning of this scholar, and will fortify against that danger by erecting German Catholic colleges, at which a good German education should be afforded our youth. Action is required and, the sooner the better.

    Even the most radical German unbeliever has to agree that the German language and its use in this country depends much on the support it receives from German churches. The ...

    German
    III C, III H, III A, I A 2 a, I A 2 b
  • Zgoda -- November 14, 1888
    The Affairs of Polish Schools

    It is difficult to give you the actual statistics of Polish schools in the United States. The census taken here of Polish children attending parochial schools is about 17,000.

    In these Polish schools over thirty secular priests teach, the rest of the teachers being nuns.

    We find a shortage of higher schools for our Polish children. Our young Polish children, wanting to obtain a higher education, must seek it in English or German institutions where often they forget their native tongue, and a Pole who can't speak Polish is useless to his Fatherland. And not only to his country, but, as the case may be, to the church and the Catholic religion.

    We must hope that by working and economizing, our poor immigration of today shall yet stand on an equal footing with other nationalities. The English, Irish, and Germans did not bring any capital here with them to America, but 2today there is a colossal American fortune in their hands. Let us try just now, to preserve our present capital, religion, nationality, and Polish virtues.

    It is difficult to give you the actual statistics of Polish schools in the United States. The census taken here of Polish children attending parochial schools is about 17,000. In ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, III C, III A, I A 2 b
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 28, 1889
    Josephinum - a New Educational Institution of the Northwest Side

    The "Sisters of Christian Charity" is a religious society, which was founded at Paderborn, Westphalia, Germany about forty years ago....Nothing in the field of charity is excluded from their activities, but from the beginning they have primarily concentrated their efforts along educational lines and have obtained their best successes in the training and educating of youth. About 900 sisters belong to this society today and their activities are extended to Germany, Belgium, Denmark, North and South America. More than half of them are in the United States and of these the majority who joined the society here come from this country.

    The provincial mother house of this religious order is located at Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania. Forty-four branch houses are subordinated to this central seat. These branches are almost without exception parochial schools belonging to German-Catholic churches and since so many of the churches are located in the West, the management of this society considered it its duty to establish a new home here.

    The Sisters of Christian Charity have, since their establishment in the 2United States, aimed at more efficient and fitting educational methods, but one peculiarity is their persistence in clinging to the German spirit and the German tongue. However, they also recognize the necessity of the English language for the German-American youth and in all schools under their leadership, English takes its proper place. Nevertheless, they know how to impart to their students a great skill in German and even a preference for it, in the more talented, which is usually not the case of the courses in German in our German-English private schools. It is therefore necessary for the sisters to maintain among themselves essential German traits. Conditions have been in their favor in this respect. During a number of years it became impossible for the order in Germany to receive new members, due to economic struggles, and the consequence was, that many of these young women from the higher social circles came to America to find admittance at Wilkesbarre. These young women transmitted German traits, disposition, thought, emotion, and the German language in its purity, to the young Americans who likewise attended a teaching course......

    We have to congratulate, indeed, the Northwest Side and, in a broader sense, all Germans in Chicago and vicinity, because of the founding of this new 3institution. Besides the excellent culture of mind and heart being maintained here, it will prove itself as an invigorating and preserving force of German culture and customs to all who come in contact with it.

    The sisters plan to have a boarding school and a day school in the new building. Besides, they will make it possible for those students who live too far away, to have their lunch at the institution.

    The Josephinum consists of one main building which extends 345 feet on Oakley avenue. At the north and south ends, 120 feet-long wings are joined to the main building. The chapel is being erected at the hub of the building, and the heating system at the north boundary line of the estate.

    The "Sisters of Christian Charity" is a religious society, which was founded at Paderborn, Westphalia, Germany about forty years ago....Nothing in the field of charity is excluded from their activities, ...

    German
    III C, III A, I A 2 b, V A 1
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 07, 1890
    The Agitation against the German Schools.

    Thus far the new compulsory school law of Illinois, does not appear to affect Chicago very much, because its enforcement here is well taken care of, being entrusted to competent officials. Outside of the Chicago district, that is in Illinois, many transgressions are perpetrated in rural districts by the bucolic school boards and the obliging courts. These are not based on the fact that they are parochial schools, but that they are German schools. The school committee of German Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Illinois has correlated all the various forms of agitation. This compilation was entrusted to its Secretary J. I. Groose.

    2

    Many of these instances we have mentioned ourselves, also the fact that none of the schools of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church, the Evangelical Unitarian, etc., and also of the Roman Catholic Church, are free from this impertinent interference by the county school boards. These persecutions are also disgraceful restrictions of religion and the freedom of conscience.

    By suppressing these German schools, the religious instruction which is given in them, is either likewise abolished or profoundly curtailed. Since these vexations affect both, the German, and also the religious sentiments of the maligned, it is but logical that a subsequent resistance will assert itself in a very decided and forceful manner. A very efficient organization against these propagandists has been created by the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Illinois, as has been previously alluded to.

    3

    It has formed a committee for the purpose of either abolishing the Compulsory School Law, or cleansing it of all objectionable features. Furthermore, advice and assistance shall be given to all the harassed communities as well as legal representation before the courts. The president of this committee is Rev. Hoelter of Chicago, assisted by Rev. Grosse of Addison and Rev. Schuessler of Joliet, and also the laymen, Eduards, Melcher, W. Tatge, the latter is an attorney at law.

    What weight the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Illinois can throw into the scales of justice, may be deduced from these well authenticated figures: It controls 226 schools with 18,463 scholars. There are 192 clergymen, 114,693 church-members, 68,436 communicants, and, at least, 15,435 voters.

    4

    These are, hark ye well! only the Evangelical-Lutheran voters. It would be desirable to ascertain the voting strength of the other German-Protestant churches. One would be confronted with mighty figures. But how will these numbers be increased if we add the many German-Catholic voters:

    Thus far the new compulsory school law of Illinois, does not appear to affect Chicago very much, because its enforcement here is well taken care of, being entrusted to competent ...

    German
    I A 2 a, III C, I A 1 a, I A 2 b